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ftoritTt Of 







c/^ Semi-Monthly Journal of 

Literary Criticism, Discussion, and Information 


January i to June 16, 1898 






Adequate, Pboblbm of the 216 

A1.LEN, Grant, as an Anthropologist Frederick Starr 45 

American Chancellor of Law, An . F. H. Hodder 376 

American E^story, Materials of Edwin E. Sparks 350 

Arms and the Book 371 

Arnold, Thomas and Matthew William Morton Payne .... 113 

Abt of War, Chapters in the Wallace de Oroot Rice .... 379 

Audubon's Stort Re-Told Sara A. Hubbard 70 

Bible Dictionary, A Scientific Shailer Mathews 363 

Bible, In the Realm of the Ira M. Price 380 

Bible Students, A Monumental Work for .... Shailer Mathews 76 

Biography, A New Theory of 281 

Books and the Custom House 135 

Bookseller, Plight of the 173 

Burns Platonic Friendship, A 316 

California, Hittell's History of B. A. Hinsdale 292 

Church Historian, Theologian, and Teacher . . . Harry W. Seed 44 

CoMKDY Charles Leonard Moore .... 311 

Constitutional Questions, North and South . . . John J, Halsey 258 

Cruicism, French Genius in Olen L. Svnggett 136 

CRinciBM, Some Ideas on Charles Leonard Moore .... 66 

Daudet, Alphonse 5 

Dbyklopment of a Very Modern Literature . . . Edward E. HcUe^ Jr. .... 375 

Education of Women in England EUen C. Hinsdale 103 

Education, Recent Books on Hiram M. Stanley 117 

Egypt, An English Statesman in Percy Favor Bicknell .... 260 

Energy and Art 35 

Exchange and Trade, Problems of M. B. Hammond 377 

Fiction, Recent Wm. Morton Payne 11 y 184, 293, 354 

France: The Study of a Nation 222 

George, Henry, and his Final Work Oliver T. Morton 226 

Gladstone, William Ewart 343 

Grant and Lee as National Heroes John J. Halsey 11 

Greece, Monuments and Antiquities of Pavl Shorey 318 

HAWAns Queen, The Story of Charles A, Kofoid 228 

Industrial Democracy, and Other Studies . . . . C jS. Henderson 263 

Irish Nationalist, Memoirs of an 288 

Jesus, The Feminine Interpretation of Shatter Mathews 17 

Laboring Man, Hope of the Balph C. H. Catterall .... 74 

** Lewis Carroll" 65 

Lieutenant-General, Memoirs of a Francis W. Shepardson .... 352 

LmsRARY Form, The Greatest Charles Leonard Moore .... 283 

Marriage Customs in Many Lands Merton X. Miller 181 

Mexico through Friendly Eyes Frederick Starr 322 

Mind-Lore, Modern Phases of Joseph Jastrow 145 

Modern-Language Men in Council 37 

Modern Spain, A Popular History of Charles H. Cooper 144 

Morris, William, Last Romances of ...*.. Louis J, Block 320 

Navy and Naval Policy of the United States 41 

New England Primer, The Wallace de Groot Bice .... 139 

Non-Religion in the Future Wallace de Groot Bice .... 290 

Philosophy or Religion ? John Bascom 46 

Philosophy, Recent Studies in Hiram M. Stanley 20 

P&YsiciANs, Great, Lives of Henry M. Lyman 231 

', In Regard to Charles Leonard Moore .... 217 




Bmtoii, Riehard. Memorial Day 49 

Buy, J. B. Gibbon's Decline and Fall ... 383 
Bjme, Mrs. W. Pitt. Sodal Hours with Celebrities 360 
Caina, W. B. American Literatoie, 1815-1833 385 
Callahan, J. M. Neutralitj of American Lakes . 300 
Carijle's Works, « Centenary " edition . . 66, 235 
CaniSi F^nl. Buddhism and Christian Critics . 262 

Gsnis, Faol. Chinese Philosophy 301 

CsiUe, Agnes and Egerton. Pride of Jennioo . 356 

Century Magaxine, Vol LIV 26 

Cbambers, Henry £. West Florida 385 

Chsmben, Robert W. Lorraine 80 

Chsmbers, R. W. The Mystery of Choice . . 81 
Cbanning, Edward. Students' History of the United 

States 300 

Ckipin, Alice A. Wonder Tales from Wagner . 301 
Chapman, F. M. Bird-Life, edition in colors . . 25 
CWles, F. L. How to Read a Pebble .... 26 
Cheiey, John Yance. Out of the Silence ... 50 
CbQd Memorial Volume of Harvard Studies . . 153 

Ckoreh, W. C. Ulysses S. Grant 11 

Ckorshill, Winston. The Celebrity 355 

Chrke, H. Butler. The Cid 103 

Oirke, James Freeman. Nineteenth Century 

Questions 56 

Clemens, S. L. Following the Equator .... 186 
Gierke, Agnes M., Fowler, A., and Gore, J. E. 

Astronomy 235 

Cleveland, Grover. Self-Made Man in American 

Lif e . 26 

Clinton, H. L. Celebrated Trials 161 

Cloogfa, B. A. Memoir of Anne Jemima Clough 110 
Clowea, W. L. The Royal Navy, Vol. II. . . .382 
Cobb, Sanford H. Story of the Palatines ... 232 
Colezidge, M. E. King with Two Faces ... 79 
Cook, A. 8. Biblical Quotations in Old English 

Prose Writers 267 

Conbertin, Baron de. Development of France 

under Third Republic 329 

Coalevain, Pierre de. American Nobility . . . 186 
Contts, William. Works of Horace .... 269 
"Craddock, Charles Egbert.** The Juggler . . 79 
Craigie, Mrs. Tales of John Oliyer Hobbes . . 269 
Craigie, Mrs. The School for Saints .... 77 
Crei^ton, Bishop. History of the Papacy, new ed. 26 

Crockett, S. R. Lochinvar 79 

Crockett, W. D. Harmony of Samuel, Kings, and 

Chronicles 381 

Crosier, J. B. Intellectual Development, Vol. I. 21 
Curtis, C. C. Text-Book of General Botany . . 123 
Curtis, George William. Ars Recte Vivendi . . 122 

Darmester, Ars^ne. The Talmud 85 

IVAurerilly, B. Dandyism and George Brummell 52 
Davis, R. H. Year from Reporter's Note-Book . 188 
Dawson, Sir WiUiam. Relics of Primeval Life . 300 
Deane, Fannie P. Nicknames and Pseudonyms . 26 
Dickens's Works, « Gadshill " edition 235, 268, 333 
Dole, Charles F. The Coming People .... 19 

Douglas, R. L. Fenton's Bandello 300 

Douglas, Sir George. Poems of a Country Gen- 
tleman 326 

Douglas, Sir George. The Blackwood Group . 266 
Dowden, Edward. French Literature .... 23 

Downer, A. C. Odes of Keats 56 

Doyle, A. Conan. A Desert Drama 356 

Driver, S. R. Introduction to Old Testament 

Literature, 6th edition 381 

Drummond, Henry. The Ideal Life . • . . 261 

Duffy, Sir Charles Gavan. My Life in Two Hem- 
ispheres 288 

Dumas, Little, Brown, & Co.'s edition of . 125, 200 
Durham, J. S. To Teach the Negro History . 301 
Dilsel, F. Der Dramatische Monolog .... 153 
Eliot, Charles W. American Contributions to 

Civilization 82 

Ellis, E. S. History of our Country .... 361 
Emerson, E. W. Correspondence of Stirling and 

Emerson 151 

Escott, T. H. S. Social Transformations of the 

Victorian Age 264 

Evans, E. P. Evolutional Ethics and Animal 

Psychology 329 

Fairbanks, iGihur. First Philosophers of Greece 385 

Farrar, F. W. Men I Have Known 24 

Femald, J. W. Students' Standard Dictionary . 126 

Findlay, J. J. Arnold of Rugby 113 

Fisher, Mary. Group of French Critics ... 24 
Fisher, S. G. Men, Women, and Manners in Colo- 
nial Times 26 

Flske, John. Old Virginia and her Neighbors 73 
Fitch, Sir Joshua. Thomas and Matthew Arnold 114 
FitzG^erald, Adair. Stories of Famous Songs . . 84 
Fletcher, W. L, and Poole, F. 0. Third Supple- 
ment to Poole's Index 25 

Ford, P. L. The New England Primer ... 139 

Fox, John, Jr. The Kentuckians 80 

Fradenburgh, J. N. Light from Egypt . . . 380 

Frazer, J. G. Pausanias's Greece 318 

Fuller, Hulbert. Vivian of Virginia .... 295 
Gardiner, S. R. What Gunpowder Plot Was . . 153 
Gramett, Richard. Poetry of Coleridge . . . 301 
Garrison, W. P. Parables for School and Home 126 
Gates, Lewis E. Selections from Arnold's Prose 115 
Greikie, Sir Archibald. Ancient Volcanoes of 

Great Britain 13 

George, A. J. Shorter Poems of Milton . . . 385 
George, Henry. Progress and Poverty, new ed. 87 
George, Henry. Science of Political Economy . 226 
Gibbs, Mary and Ellen. Bible References of Ruskin 235 

Gillman, Henry. Hassan, a Fellah 356 

Gladden, Washington. Seven Puzzling Bible Books 381 
Gladden, Washington. Social Facts and Forces . 19 
Godkin, E. L. Unforeseen Tendencies of Democracy 330 
Gomme, G. L. Library of Historical Novels . . 26 
Grood Reading, third annual volume ..... 56 
Groode, George B. The Smithsonian Institution . 107 
Gordon, H. Laing. Sir James Simpson . . . 231 
Gordy, W. F. School History of the U. S. . . 125 
Gosse, Edmund. Modem English Literature . . 151 
Gottbeil, R. Jewish History and Literature . . 26 

Graham, J. M. Son of the Czar 294 

Grand, Sarah. The Beth Book 78 

Griffis, W. E. Romance of Discovery .... 25 

Griffiths, Arthur. Wellington 357 

Griswold, W. M. Novels of 1897 268 

Gross, Charles. Bibliography of British Municipal 

History 153 

Guthrie, W. N. Poet Prophets 119 

Guyau, M. Non-Religion of the Future . . . 290 
Halperine-Kaminsky, M. E. Tourgu^iiieff and 

his French Circle 360 

Hamerton, P. G. The Quest of Happiness . . 382 
Hamilton, Lord E. Outlaws of the Marches . . 79 
Hannay, David. The Later Renaissance . . . 298 
Hapgood, Norman. Literary Statesmen ... 84 
Harbottle, T. B. Classical Quotations .... 153 

67 393 A A 30 



BiBoD, W. B<ibtttMiL Expositor's Greek Testa- 

VoLL 76 

Selections from Washingtoiiy 

fAwnlii, and BtyBiit 26 

Isria^ Iftt. The Drones Most Die .... 184 
<rOQMi^ J. F. X. Fseto about Bookworms . . 385 
Ohaip Jnlns £. Norwegian Grammar .... 152 

On^ Ghailes. The Peqaot War 300 

On^ JsoDMS. BitMhUan Theology 261 

Oievto^ F^aiik. Applied Physiology .... 332 

l^st, StoplMiL Ambrose Fto^ 268 

Rfst, SftepheiL John Honter 231 

IU^f<e» F. T. Golden Treasury of Modem 

Ea^li Poetry . 53 

r, Frederiek. Groing to War in Greece . . 187 

, H. 8. Introduction to American Literature 151 

ICary £. Wild Flowers of California . 268 
W. A. Picturesque Sicily 187 

BftTid, and Groome, F. H. Chambers's 

Dictionary 360 

H. G. Freshman Composition . . . 125 
W. S. Early Long Island Wills . . 192 

% Geoirges. Literary Movement in France 375 
hny, BUSS. Little Masterpieces of Lincoln . . 361 
ItosBUB, H. C. Inductive Studies in Browning . 87 
nslps» Elisabeth Stuart Story of Jesus Christ . 17 

lUfipSy Stephen. Poems 325 

lUlipSy W. Alison. War of Greek Independence 233 

RAiting, Sidney. Margot 78 

faiman, Frank. Psychical Research .... 147 

IK £. A., Letters of, to £. H. N. Patterson . . 201 
nstsnty .............. 26 

IWvbD, £. P. Nullification and Secession ... 258 

fWer, jyArey. William Harvey 231 

IlMPBrSy 6. W. England and the Reformation . 85 

Qmjim, W. A. The Poef s Poet 54 

lUlngh, Walter. Style 233 

Bsnsay, M. M. Elementary Spanish Reader . 56 

Bsnd, MeNaUy & Co.'s War Atias 385 

Batel, Freidrich. History of Mankind, Vol. 11. 143 
lajner, £. Free to Serve 296 

H. R. The Daughter of Tpocas ... 49 
I's Origines, trans, by J. H. Allen . . 26, 333 

's Nota-Book 155 

Bepfdier, Agnes. Varia 149 

Bibot. Th. Psychology of the Emotions ... 148 
Bidge, W. Pett. Secretary to Bayne, M.P. . . 294 
BOey, J. W., Works of, «« Homestead " edition 

56, 125, 155, 268, 361 

Boeds, Charles. The Fifth Gospel 380 

Bobertson, J. M. Essays toward Critical Method 296 
Robinson, E. A. Children of the Night ... 49 
Roonvelty Theodore. American IdMls . . .119 
Rosea, Fritz. Modem Persian Grammar . . . 301 

Ross, Clinton. Chalmette 296 

Rossetti, W. M. Poems by John Lucas Tnpper . 328 
Royee, Josiah. The Conception of Grod ... 46 
Raisell, I. C. Volcanoes of North America . . 15 
Russell, W. Clark. Pictures from Life of Nelson 191 
Saint-Amand, Imbert de. Napoleon III. and his 

Court 331 

Sanders, E. K. For Prince and People . . . 295 
Sargent, H. H. Campaign of Marengo ... 24 

Schaff, D. S. life of PhiUp Schaff 44 

Schofield, J. M. Forty-six Tears in the Army . 352 
Sebouler, James. Constitutional Studies . . . 153 
8eott, Mary A. Elizabethan Translations, 3d sec. 235 
Seott, Temple. Book Sales of 1897 123 

Scott, W. E. D. Bird Studies 383 

Scott's Waverley Novels, ** Temple " edition, 

27, 236, 333, 385 
Scripture, E. W. The New Psychology ... 145 
Sears, Lorenzo. The Occasional Address . . . 119 

Sharp, William. Poems of Ossian 85 

Sherwood, Mrs. M. E. W. Here, There, and 

Everywhere 384 

Sichel, Edith. Household of the Lafayettes . . 297 
Sidis, Boris. Psycholo^ of Suggestion . . . 358 

Sienkiewicz, Henryk. Hania 184 

Sienkiewicz, H. With Fire and Sword, popular ed. 385 
Sigerson, Dora. The Fairy Changeling . . . 327 
Singer, I., and BerenSi L. H. Unrecognized Laws 

of Nature 21 

Skeel, Adelaide, and Brearley, W. H. King 

Washington 296 

Skinner, Charles M. With Feet to the Earth . 122 
Sladen, Douglas. Who's Who, 1898 .... 360 
Slater, J. H. Book Prices Current, Vol XI. . 235 
Sledd, Benjamin. From Cliff and Scaur ... 51 

Smith, F. Hopkinson. Caleb West 355 

Smith, G. Gregory. The SpecUtor . . 85, 268, 385 
Smith, Henry P. The Bible and Islam .... 381 
Snyder, C. M. Comic History of Greece . . . 194 
Spalding, J. L. Life and Education . . . .118 

Spears, J. R. History of our Navy 41 

Speer, Emory. Lectures on the Constitution . . 258 
Statham, H. Heatbcote. Modem Architecture . 359 
Steams, F. P. Modern English Prose Writers . 191 
Stedman, E. C. Poems now First Collected . . 47 
Stedman, E. C. and T. L. Pocket Guide to Europe, 

revised edition 332 

Stein, Evaleen. One Way to the Woods . * . . 51 
Stephens, R. N. An Enemy to the King . . . 295 
Sterling, J. H. Secret of Hegel, new edition . 126 
Stevenson, R. A. M. Peter Paul Rubens . . . 235 
St. Nicholas, bound volumes for 1897 .... 26 
Story, A. T. Growth of British Empire ... 331 

Story, A. T. Story of Photography 385 

Stories by Foreign Authors, new series . . 333, 361 

SuUy, James. Children's Ways 118 

Sweet, Henry. First Steps in Anglo-Saxon . . 235 

Swift, Benjamin. The Tormentor 78 

Swift, Martin. Love's Way 51 

Symons, Arthur. Poems of Mathilde Blind . . 328 
Tarr, R. S. Suggestions for Work in Geology . 125 

Taylor, E.R. Sonnets of Heredia 26 

Taylor, M. Imlay. An Imperial Lover .... 81 
Taine, H. A. English literature, new edition . 126 
"Thanet, Octave." A Book of Trae Lovers . . 81 
Thayer, A. W. The Hebrews in Egypt . . . 380 
Thomas, Calvin. Second Part of Goethe's Faust 121 
Thwaites, R. G. Afloat on the Ohio .... 188 
Thwing, Charles. The American College in 

American Life 117 

Titohener, E. B. Primer of Psychology . . . 299 
Todd, D. P. New Astronomy for Beginners . . 235 

Traill, H. D. Lord Cromer 260 

Traill, H. D. Social England, Vol. VI. ... 141 
Train, Elizabeth P. A Queen of Hearts ... 356 
Train, Elizabeth P. Madam of the Ivies . . . 356 
Trover, G. H. Studies in Comparative Theology 262 

Tyner, Paul. The Living Christ 262 

Uhlenbeck, C. C. Manual of Sanskrit Phonetics 333 

Van Bergen, R. Story of Japan 56 

Van Dyke, Paul. Age of the Renascence . . . 153 
Van Zile, Edward S. The Dreamers .... 52 

Ol A k 191 \^ 


VernoiB, J. von V. With Boyal Headquarters . 379 
Villari, P. Life of Macbiavelli, one-vol. edition . 385 
Vincent, 6. £. Social Mind and Education . . 264 

Viyian, Herbert. Servia 188 

Waldstein, Lonis. The Snbconsoions Self . . 146 

Waliszewski, K. Peter the Great 55 

Wallace, William. Bnms and Mrs. Dmuop . . 315 
Walsh, W. S. Curiosities of Popular Customs . 25 

Ward, Wilfrid. Cardinal Wiseman 253 

Warfield, B. B. The Westminster Standards . 261 
Waring, George E. Whip and Spur .... 84 
Warner, Beverley £. Facts and the Faith . . 262 
Warner, Francis. Study of Children .... 118 
Warner, Ruth J. Historic Art Studies ... 269 
Waterhouse, H. R. Sacrifice of a Throne . . .193 
Waterloo, Stanley. A Man and a Woman, new 

edition 126 

Waterloo, Stanley. Story of Ab 22 

Watson, £. W. Songs of Flying Hours ... 51 
Watson, William. Hope of the World .... 326 
Watts-Dunton, Theodore. Coming of Love . . 323 
Waugh, Arthur. Pamphlet Library . . . 126, 301 
Weare,G.E. Cabot's Discovery of North America 84 
Webb, Sydney and Beatrice. Lidustrial Democracy 263 
Weed, C. M. Life Histories of American Insects 123 

Wells, H. G. War of the Worlds 356 

Wells, J. Oxford and its Colleges, 2d edition . 385 
Westcott, B. F. Christian Aspects of Life . . 47 


Weyman, Stanley J. Shrewsbury 2C 

Wharton, Anne H. Heirlooms in Miniatures . 3S 
Whiahaw, Fred. A Tsar^s Gratitude . . . . 2( 
White, Eliza Ome. A Browning Courtship . . £ 

White, H. A. Robert £. Lee 1 

Whitehead, W. F. Agrippa's Natural Magic . 26 
Whitman's Poetical Works, new edition . . . fi 
Wickham, £. C. Miniature Oxford Horace . . 19 

Wilcox, Delos F. City Government 1 

Wiley, F. B. Flowers that Never Fade ... 15 

Willons, Mary £. Jerome 7 

WiUink, H. G. Nicholls's English Poor Uw . 26 
Willoughby, H. L. Across the Eve^lades . . 1ft 
Wilson, J. G. Grant's Letters to a Friend . . 15! 
Wilson, Lucy L. W. Nature Study in Elementary 

Schools 12: 

Winsor, Justin. The Westward Movement . . 1 

Wister, Owen. Lin McLean 8J 

Wright, G. Frederick. Scientific Aspects of Chris- 
tian Evidences 262 

Wyckoff, Walter A. The Workers . . .261 

WyUe, J. H. England under Henry IV., Vol. IV. 3SS 

Xenos, Stephanos T. Andronike 18C 

Yeats, W. B. The Secret Rose 26fl 

Younghusband, Francis. South Africa To-day . 18fi 
Younghusband, G. J. Indian Frontier Warfiure . 378 

Zenker, £. V. Anarchism 121 

Zola,£mile. Paris 185 


American Library Association, Proposed Period- 
ical Card Catalogue of 87 

American EUstory, Rcnnance in. KcUharine Coman 221 
Americanism, Another Disputed. Albert Matthews 39 

Antiquity. Poem. A. Jessup 346 

Arnold's Qualities as a Critic, Some of. H, B, 

Hinckley 68 

** AtheuBum," London, Seventieth Birthday of . 87 

Bellamy, Edward, Death of 361 

Bookseller as an Educator. Charles M. Roe . . 221 
«< Bookseller, Plight of the.** WiUiam S. Lard . 220 

Clarke, Mary Cowden, Death of 87 

Congress of Religions, Originator of 27 

Defect in an Excellent Text-Book. Henry B, 

Hinckley 252 

Democracy and Literature. Hiram M» Stanley . 374 
Dialect, or English? Marion E. Sparks ... 39 
Federal Constitution, Vote by States on the. Samuel 

Willard . 262 

Gavan Duffy, An American Compatriot of. Burton 

J. Hendrick 313 

History, International Congress of. Meeting at The 

EAgne, Sept, 1898 269 

Honor Worthily Bestowed. George W. Julian . 220 
Ibsen, Henrik, Seventieth Birthday of ... . 180 

Kashmirian Birch-Bark MS., Proposed Reproduo- 

tion of 87 

M Land of Sunshine," New Editorial Staff of . . 270 
Legislative Process in Industrial Affairs. Paul 

M. Paine 106 

Linton, William J., Death of 67 

Loud Postal BUI, Defeat of the 200 

Lowell Memorial, The. W. H. Johnson . . . 251 
Lyric Poetry, Claims of. F. L. Thompson . . . 286 
On a Recent Book of Poems. Poem. Louis J, Block 39 

Payn, James, Death of 235 

Plagiarism, An Interesting and Impudent Bit of. 

JU . ly. ^. ............ w 

Pledge Overseas, A. Poem. E. McQueen Oray . 285 
Ruslon's Seventy-ninth Birthday, Canon Rawns- 

ley's Sonnet on 155 

Saith the Star. Poem. WaUer Francis Kenirick 216 
Shakespearian Plays Acted by College Men. W. E. 

Smyser 69 

Sylvester, J. J., A Proposed Memorial to ... 27 

Tennyson, Frederick, Death of 201 

<< Tote," Some Further Instances of. Albert Mat-- 

thews 106 

Two Dials. Poem. Frederic L, Luqueer ... S 
Yaca, Cabeza de. Route of, in Journey of 1536 . 155 



Jiterarg Criticism, gisrassion, anb Information. 


CHICAGO, JAK. 1, 1898. 



^r-IL^fn^SS"^ The Macmillan Company 

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French literature could ill afford to spare the 
graceful pen of Alphonse Daudet. Within five 
years it has lost in Benan its greatest prosateur 
in the domain of scholarship, in Taine its great- 
est philosophical historian, in Leoonte de 
Lisle its greatest poet, and now in Alphonse 
Daudet its greatest novelist. This does not 
mean that Daudet was a great novelist in the 
sense of Hugo or Balzac, or even of Stendhal 
or Flaubert, but simply that among the writers 
of fiction left living during the past fifteen years 
he was dearly the most important, and that we 
may scan the hori2son of dawning reputations in 
vain for indications of any other likely to occupy 
as large a place in the literature of the Republic. 
His success was hardly and honorably won, and 
his career was that of a typical man of letters. 
The story of his obscure origin, of his early 
struggles for a livelihood, of his eventual recog- 
nition, of his constantly growing reputation 
and the golden sunset of his assured fame, is of 
the old sort so familiar to the student of literary 
history, although one not often to be read in 
books so charming as those in which Daudet has 
himself told it — in '^ Le Petit Chose," to begin 
with, and later in ^^ Trente Ans de Paris," and 
the ^' Souvenirs d*un Homme de Lettres." 

Daudet was a Proven9al by birth, and saw 
the light at Nimes in 1840. His boyhood was 
spent in his native city and in Lyons. He then 
obtained a position as usher in a country school, 
but a year of this drudgery was all that he could 
bear, and at the age of seventeen he started to 
seek his fortune in Paris. From this time until 
the War of 1870, he struggled to gain a foot- 
hold in the world of letters, receiving support 
for a time from a clerical position in the civil 
service, and finding happiness in marriage with 
the talented woman who has ever since remained 
his devoted companion and counsellor. His first 
book was '^ Les Amoureuses," a volume of love 
poems. Other collections of verse followed, and 
quickly won for the young writer a reputation. 
He also essayed the drama, producing nine 
plays in all, besides the later dramatizations of 
his novels. His plays had no great success, and 
their titles convey little to the average theatre- 
goer or reader of dramatic literature. 

These tentative efforts in the lyric and dra- 



[Jan. 1, 

matic provinoes of literature were supplemented 
by joumalifltic work done for *^ Le Figaro " and 
other papers, and in this work we find the 
sketches and short stories in which Daudet's 
true artistic self was first revealed. ^' Le Petit 
Chose," that exquisite fragment of autobiog- 
raphy, dates from 1868, and before the annee 
terrihle he had also produced the charming 
^^ Lettres de Mon Moulin." When the war 
was over, his position as the greatest master of 
the short story was still further strengthened 
by the ^^ Contes du Lundi," the ^* Contes et 
S^cits," and other collections. The best of 
these pieces are the purest gems of their sort in 
modem French literature. Equal in perfec- 
tion of form to the stories of Maupassant they 
have a substance which the stories of the later 
master rarely exhibit, and the pathos of such 
studies as ^'La Demi^re Classe " and ^'Le Sibge 
de Berlin " is wellnigh flawless. He is indeed 
to be pitied who can read with dry eyes these 
masterpieces in miniature. The short stories 
gave to their author just the sort of training 
in the niceties of literary art that was needed 
to develop his powers as a full-grown novelist, 
and enable him to produce, during the follow- 
ing quarter-century, the series of fiction that 
gave him an unrivaled position among the 
French novelists of his time. Other works were 
written in this later period, but they are of 
minor importance — rechauffis or chips from a 
literary workshop — and reveal no development 
of power beyond what was displayed when 
Daudet the novelist was yet artistically unborn. 
The first of Dtfudet's books written de longue 
haleine was the famous *^ Tartarin deTarascon," 
dated 1872. In this book and its two succes- 
sors, *^ Tartarin sur les Alpes" (1886), and 
'' Port-Tarascon " (1890), he achieved his 
greatest title to literary fame, for these three 
works projected into literature one of its few 
immortal types of character. The creation of 
Tartarin stands only just below such figures as 
Falstaff and Sancho Panza. The intensely 
human figure of Daudet's lion-hunter, mountain- 
climber, and colonial adventurer is a fascinat- 
ing study in all three phases of his self-glorious 
career ; all the color of the midi glows from 
the pages in which his exploits are set forth, 
and all the humorous or lovable foibles of the 
Provencal are delineated with a touch that is 
incisive without being painful, with a geniality 
that robs satire of its sting, and finds in happy 
and wholesome laughter a universal solvent for 
the most varied sentiments and emotions. What- 
ever eke may be forgotten, the story of Tartarin 

will be remembered, and will remain among the 
classics of nineteenth century literature. 

The greater part of Daudet's career as a 
novelist was, however, devoted to the production 
of studies of modem life which have made him 
the chief interpreter of the second imperial and 
third republican periods of French society. 
They do not, it is true, present us a delineation 
comparable for minute observation and com- 
prehensiveness with the record of the restora- 
tion period that is made in the forty volumes 
of the '* Com^die Humaine," for not every age 
can produce a Balzac, but they do provide us 
with a series of careful studies wherein much 
of recent French life is pictured, and which 
have a charm of style that was beyond the 
reach of Daudet's great predecessor. Two or 
three of these books are comparatively insig- 
nificant, but at least eight of them are master- 
pieces in a very genuine sense. They are, in 
the order of their publication, ^' Froment Jeune 
et Risler Ain^ " (1874), "Jack " (1876), "Le 
Nabab" (1878), "Rois en Exil" (1879), 
"Numa Roumestan " (1880), " L'Evangeliste " 
(1888), « Sapho " (1884), and "L'Immortel " 
(1888). These books are, on the whole, the 
most remarkable collection of novels produced 
by any Frenchman under the Third Republic. 

Space fails us in which to characterize in any 
detail this series of dromes parieiene. They 
are all well-known to English readers, for they 
have been promptly translated as they have 
appeared. The first of them (called " Sidonie " 
in the English version) was, we remember, 
made the subject of considerable cheap moral- 
izing when it appeared in our language, with 
the natural consequence that it became widely 
known. Much water has fiowed under the 
bridges since then, and so many writers using 
the English language have bettered whatever 
instruction in immorality was to be derived 
from the literature of France that " Sidonie " 
would now be considered very mildly offensive 
even by the self-constituted professional guar- 
dians of our literary virtue. Daudet has some- 
times been called the French Dickens, an 
ascription which is merely absurd if based 
upon any comparison between the humor, say, 
of the "Tartarin " books and of "Pickwick," but 
which has some slight justification if referred 
to the pathos of " Jack," that poignant narra- 
tive whose chief fault is its excessive length. 
Daudet's third novel, " Le Nabab," is probably 
his masterpiece, although this claim may per- 
haps be contested by the partisans of " Numa 
Roumestan " or of " Sapho," The book is a 



im.} THE DIAL 



[Jan« 1 

posed to make the smallest oonoession that 
would meet the case ; while Spain was bound 
that the Bepablio should be shut up east of the 
Mountains, or, if admitted to the West, should 
be oribbed and confined within narrow limits. 
But what did France want? Dr. Franklin 
held, at the time, that Count de Yergennes, 
who for this purpose was France, was acting 
in good faith toward the United States ; but 
John Jay and John Adams believed that he 
was secretly playing into the hands of Spain^ 
These are the Franklin and the Jay-Adams 
views of the situation, which have been pro- 
jected forward to the present time, and neither 
of which gives a sign of coming to an end. 
The question is a subject for a monc^^ph ; we 
have space here to say but little more than that 
it is a fact for scholm to note that Dr. Win- 
sor, as the last sentence quoted above would 
suggest, throws the weight of his authority into 
the Jay-Adams scale. He holds that the pub- 
lications of Circourt, Fitzmaurice, Doniol, and 
Stevens have justified the suspicions of the two 
negotiators rather than the confidence of the 

** Yergennes' present pnrpoee was patent He wished 
to weaken the United States, and he desired to have 
England acknowledge that the bounds of Canada ran to 
the Ohio, so that if ever a torn in fortune rendered it 
possible, Franee oould reoover by treaty her possessions 
in the St. Lawrenoe Valley ." 

Dr. Winsor might have added, we think, with 
equal truth, that the French Minister also de- 
sired to gratify and to strengthen Spain. For- 
tunately, the difference of opinion among our 
representatives at Paris did not practically 
embarrass the negotiations; Jay boldly took 
the initiative in disregarding the instructions 
of Congress to consult the Most Christian King 
at every step, Franklin acquiesced, and the pre- 
liminary treaty of peace was concluded, so far 
as the Americans were concerned, upon the 
theory that Yergennes was playing double. 
Dr. Winsor quotes Shelbume to the effect that 
Franklin*^ wanted to doeverything by cunning," 
and then adds : 

** He was never more astute — which may be a more 
pleasing word — than in now yielding to Adams and 
Jay; and he was never more sucoessfully judicious than 
in disarming the resentment of Yergennes when that 
minister discovered how he had been foiled." 

The arguments that disposed England to 
yield up the West is a subordinate, but still 
an interesting, question. It is common for his- 
torical writers, and especially for historical orar 
tors, to point to the conquest of Greorge Bogers 
Clark as the decisive fact. No man who under- 

stands Western history will depreciate this bril 
liant exploit ; still it is by no means certaii 
that the conquest was the pivotal point or 
which the surrender turned. Some historica] 
scholars certainly will be glad to hear Dr. 
Winsor say : 

« So the Spanish and French Bourbons were thwarted 
in reality by the adhesion of England to her old eolonial 
charters, and by her purpose to miake them an inheritane« 
for her emancipated oolonies. The conquest of the 
Northwest by Clark told in the final result rather miwi 
against the pretensions of Spain than against those ol 

In formulating the American claims to the 
West, the Committee of Congress threw the 
emphasis upon the chartered limits of the old 
colonies ; and yet, as already stated, men have 
not been wanting who denied that the charters 
had any considerable influence upon the issue- 
But whatever the fact may be, it is not a little 
curious that England, our bitter enemy, was 
more willing to give us the West than France, 
our firm ally, and Spain, the ally of FranoSi 
were that we should have it. 

The Ordinance of 1787 presents two moot 
points, one relating to its origin and one to its 
authority. Dr. Winsor utters no uncertain 
sound on either one. Once it was the fashion, 
in accordance with the ancient custom of em- 
phasizing individual lawgivers, to assign the 
principal credit of this famous act of legisla- 
tion to single men, as Thomas Jefferson or 
Nathan Dane. Dr. Winsor, of course, adopts 
the newer and sounder view that several minds 
contributed to it valuable ideas; but while not 
going so far as the late Dr. W. F. Poole, who * 
led the way in this direction,* he sees plain 
evidence of the hand of Dr. Manasseh Cutler, 
one of the directors of the Ohio Company of 

The other question, while less discussed, is 
perhaps even more doubtful. The form of the 
Ordinance is peculiarly impressive. The last 
six articles are called ^^ Articles of Compact 
between the Original States and the people and 
States in the said Territory," and are declared 
to be ^^ forever unalterable," ^^ unless by com- 
mon consent." The long struggle over the 
question of slavery in the Territories gave an 
added emphasis. One of the six articles fixed 
the boundaries of the future States to be formed 
out of the Territory ; and yet not one of these 
States to-day conforms, or practically ever has 
conformed, to these limits ; Congress assumed 
materially to change lines, and sometimes in 

•"The North American Review,** No. 251: "Dr. Cntlav 
and the Oidinanoe of 1787.*' 




[Jan. 1, 

tion with every grade of morality or immorality. 
But when one oomes to the larger question, 
What is a national hero ? more complex ele- 
ments are to be faced, and a larger view of life is 
to be taken. Here also personal character may 
not enter in to make or to mar our estimate, 
albeit it assuredly may heighten or depress the 
sum total. But will anyone undertake calmly 
to say that any man is or can be a national hero 
the supreme effort and achievement of whose 
career is not efficient toward the life and pro- 
gress of the whole nation ? Far be it from any 
sane critic to say aught in disparagement of the 
nobility of soul and of character of that magnifi- 
cent soldier and man, Bobert E. Lee. Men are 
coming more and more — without regard to 
section — to know that this was one of the sweet- 
est and serenest lives ever lived in the public 
gaze, and to recognize the transcendent military 
ability which so long held at bay a lengthening 
list of commanders, and yielded at last only 
when resistance was no longer possible. One 
will as readily grant that it was from a mistaken 
sense of duty that he conscientiously gave his 
sword to a cause whose motive principle 
offended his reason and outraged his heart, 
although aware that men of the South as brave 
and as conscientious as he abandoned their 
homes to fight in the ranks marshalled against 
their people, or else remained to face obloquy 
and ostracism. But that man was no secession- 
ist who wrote, as late as January 28, 1861, the 

** As an Amerioan oitixen I take great pride in my 
oonntry, her prosperity and her institotiona, and would 
defend any State if her rights were inyaded. But I 
can anticipate no greater oaLunity for the country than 
a dissolution of the Union. It would be an accumula- 
tion of all the evils we complain of, and I am willing to 
sacrifice everything but honour for its preservation. I 
hope, therefore, that all constitutional means will be ex- 
hausted before there is a resort to force. Secession is 
nothing but revolution. The framers of our Constitu- 
tion never exhausted so much labour, wisdom, and for- 
bearance in its formation, and surrounded it with so 
many guards and securities, if it was intended to be 
broken by every member of the Confederacy at will. It 
is intended for < perpetual Union,' so expressed in the 
preamble, and for the establishment of a government, 
not a compact, which can only be dissolved by revolu- 
tion, or the consent of all the people in convention as- 
sembled. It is idle to talk of secession: anarchy would 
have been established, and not a government, by Wash- 
ington, Hamilton, Jefferson, Madison, and all the other 
patriots of the Revolution. . . . Still, a Union that can 
only be maintained by swords and bayonets, and in which 
strife and civil war are to take the place of brotherly 
love and kindness, has no charm for me. I shall mourn 
for my country and for the welfare and progress of 
mankind. If the Union is dissolved and the Govern- 
ment disrupted, I shall return to my native State and 

share the miseries of my people, and, save in defense^ 
will draw my sword on none." 

It affects this not at all that the Preamble 
says nothing about ^' perpetual union," as Lee 
supposed. With the sound of his patriotic 
words in our ears, one turns page after page of 
his latest biography with profound melancholy. 
One looks in vain in these four hundred and 
fifty pages for a calm and adequate estimate 
of one who was probably the greatest master of 
military strategy this country has produced, of 
one who was as pure and unselfish in all hb 
personal life as he was sadly mistaken in his 
public career. The author is too busy in posing 
as the champion of a lost cause, which time and 
public opinion have decided not to be a national 
one or a good one, — and which we leave to 
the condemnation spoken by the words above 
quoted, — ever to take time to do full justice 
to his hero. It is pitiful, in these closing 
years of the century, to read that ''in the 
planter's home the African learned to set a 
higher value upon the domestic virtues which 
he saw illustrated in the lives of Christian men 
and women "; to see all the social features of 
'' the peculiar institution " set down in the 
credit column, and only the economic results 
debited to the powers of evil. Let Lee's own 
words — ''I think it is a greater evil to the 
white race than to the black race " — be a 
sufficient answer, though it but half lift the 
veil from the festering plague-spot of slavery. 
One learns in this book — despite Lee's opinion 
to the contrary — that the idea of the fathers, 
one and all, did not go further than a temporary 
and ''trial" union ; &at " slowly upward toward 
a fitness for citizenship this mild servitude was 
lifting the n^ro." The Dred Scott decision is 
handled as reverently as the ark of the covenant f 
one would never gatlier here that it marked the 
lowest humiliation of our great court, or that it 
was obiter dicta. One reads regarding Lincoln 
that " want of accurate knowledge concerning 
the origin of the Federal Union inspired the 
historical errors of the Inaugural Address of 
March 4, 1861, which was merely the untenable 
theory of original consolidation," and that 
" President Lincoln ventured to designate a 
committee's recommendation in 1774 as a 1^^ 
instrument establishing a government I " Of 
his Gettysburg speech we learn that it was " a 
masterpiece of rhetorical beauty, and also of 
the art of shifting great issues." OfMcClellan, 
in the summer of 1862, it is said that " while 
he was glorying in the title accorded him of 
' the Young Napoleon,' Lee, on the other hand,. 




was bending eTery energy to ooUect the soat- 
lered Confederates." Bat one's melancholy is 
qnidraned into something like indignation, 
when, taming to the title-page, he reads that 
ttis belated exploiter of dead institations and 
dead theories of government, who writes the 
symbols of a doable doctorate after his name, 
is a professor of history in an American Col- 
lege, and that one which bears the name of 
Washington. It is a misfortune for the grand 
^Old Dominion '' that its sons are still being 
tnight each strange things m the name of 
tath, and that the trne masic of saoh a har- 
monions life, personally, as that of Lee should 
be marred by such an accompaniment. One 
note soands trne in the book. It is the presen- 
tation of the folly of recdkistrnction methods, 
which the lamented death of Lincoln made pos- 
sible. Forcible in their antitheses are the fol- 
lowing sentences : 

^■Tlie war of mggTe«oii sgainst tlie Sontliem States 
hid been proseeatod npon Liiioolii's theory that these 
states were still m the Union, and oould not poeaiblj get 
o«L Gongreet dealt with IJiem npon the theory that 
the war had left them out of the Union, and they oonld 
BBt enter within exeept throngh the meroy of the eon- 
qaeron, who held them as enhjogated provinees I " 

The narrative, in this book, of Lee's cam- 
paigns is spirited and well done, and if this had 
been the main theme small room for criticism 
coald be found. The same commendation 
may be given to Colonel Church's volume on 
Gbant. This writer has handled the military 
life of his hero with great discernment, and has 
made a fine summary. Here fgain, however, 
although the many personal touches — espe- 
cially from the earlier life of Grant — are 
pleasing, there is no attempt at an estimate of 
the military man, although the constant pres- 
ence in these pages of three out of four of the 
greatest soldiers of our age — Grant, Lee, Sher- 
man, Johnston — continually suggests one. The 
veiy different character of the task given each 
one of these men, involving not only military 
accomplishment, but also resources of men, 
equipment, and transport, makes a comparison 
as impossible as it is undesirable. It is not 
necessary to disparage either Lee or Grrant for 
the purpose of estimating the other. Each 
made mistakes, especially in his earlier cam- 
paigning in Virginia. Each had abilities 
which the other lacked. Professor White 
makes the most of such criticism on Grant as 
is found in Walker's ** History of the Second 
Army Corps," with reference to Cold Harbor ; 
and Colonel Church's sketch does not meet 
folly sach attack. But General Grant was 

frank to criticize his own mistakes in his *^ Per- 
sonal Memoirs." There is, however, a steadily 
growing conviction that die highest mark of 
his genius is found in his ^^ having his own 
way " in the face of the political mismanagers 
at Washington, and even of public opinion — 
a thing that all his military predecessors had 
not been able to dare to do. This large cour- 
age to go ahead and hew out his own road in 
spite of all adverse criticism was the one thing 
the nation needed to constrain the genius of 
Lee, and it could afford even the costly experi- 
ments of the campaigns from the Sapidan to 
the James in 1884 to give such a rider a firm 
and commanding seat. 

The simplicity of Grant's nature is well set 
forth, even in the mistakes which it made pos- 
sible ; and he comes forth with credit even from 
the disastrous personal experiences which cast a 
gloom over his last days. The great, simple- 
hearted, silent warrior, who fought that the 
land might have peace, and whose g^randest 
voucher as a great commander is found in the 
undying loyalty of his peer — Sherman — stands 
unadorned in these pages. Many who cannot 
share the satisfaction of Colonel Church in his 
contemplation of the presidential career, and 
who, regretting that the drum-and-fife theory 
of government forced the great captain into a 
political career for which his simple-minded 
honesty unfitted him, would gladly have seen 
him pass from his battle record to the rewards 
of private life, will be content to leave him to 
his military fame. And to that other, while not 
a hero of the Nation, they will ever give the 
homage of respect and admiration due to a great 
soul which, sorely tried, went on its chosen way 
with an humble and reverent spirit to the end. 

John J. Halsey. 

The Scibxce and History of 

The science of geology has now reached that 
stage of advancement where data on many ques- 
tions are sufficiently full to make it profitable 
to gather them into a connected and unified 
whole. Two notable works on volcanoes, one 
on those of Great Britain and one on those of 

* AiromcT Voloamobs of Gkbat Britain. By Sir Archi- 
bald Oeikie, Director Oeneral of the Geolo^oal Surrey of 
QmaX Britain and Ireland. With maps and illoatrations. In 
two Tolomes. New York : The Maomillan Co. 

VOU3ANOE8 OF NoBTH Amsbioa : A Reading Leeaon for 
Students of Geography and G^logy. By Israel G. RosmII, 
Professor of G^logy, Uniyersity of Biiohigan. With mapt 
and illastrations. New York : The MaomiHan Go. 



[Jan. Ij 

the United States, may be regarded as attempts 
of this sort, and as representing what is likely 
to be one of the chief phases of the work of 
geologists in the fatore, namely, the constmo- 
tive or synthetic phase. While the analysis 
which must precede this sort of work may not 
yet be complete in any field, it has gone so far 
in many that synthesis is profitable, even if not 
final. That it is not final, none know better 
than those who attempt it. In the preface to 
his work on ** Ancient Volcanoes of Oreat 
Britain," Sir Archibald Geikie says that a 
book which is abreast of our knowledge to-day 
begins to be left behind t6-morrow. While 
this is probably measurably true, the Tolnmes 
before us are at least up to date now, and are 
not likely to become antiquated for a long time 
to come. 

Sir Archibald Greikie has become well known 
as one of the few geologists able to present a 
tedinical subject in a semi-popular way without 
sacrificing the accuracy of tiie subject-matter 
involyed ; and his present work will in no way 
detract from his reputation in this line. While, 
as the title indicates, the object is to g^ve an 
account of the ancient volcanoes of Oreat Brit- 
ain, this account is prefaced by a series of 
chapters that prepare the reader not already 
thoroughly familiar with this phase of geology 
for an appreciation of that which follows. The 
introductory chapters give a brief but adequate 
glance at tihe views which have prevailed at 
various times concerning the nature of volcap 
noes, a brief statement concerning the causes 
of volcanic activity, a discussion of volcanic 
products, and a general account of existing 
volcanoes, from the study of which geologists 
have learned how to study and interpret the 
volcanoes of the past. But this introductory 
study of existing volcanoes is in itself most in- 
structive, — far in advance of most text-books. 
The special merit, or at any rate one of the 
special merits, of this part of the work lies in 
the fact that volcanoes are looked at from the 
historic (in a geological sense) point of view. 
Existing volcanoes are described as the descend- 
ants of a long line of ancestors, and their full 
significance is seen only when studied in the 
light of this ancestry. Only when so studied 
do they throw their true light on the problems 
of the physical evolution of the globe. The in- 
troduction of this historical idea into the study 
of existing volcanoes is an admirable prepara- 
tion for the more detailed portion of the work, 
in which the author's aim, stated in his own 
language, is as follows: 

** I slisll try to show ths nature and relativo impoft* 
anoe of the reoozds of aneient voleaiioee; liow these 
records, generally so fragmentary, may be pieeed to-, 
gether so as to be made to f nrnii^ the history which 
tiiey contain; how their relative 'chron<^g7 may be es- 
tablished ; how their testimony may be supplemented in 
snch wise that the position of long Tanished seas, lands, 
rivers, and lakes may be ascertained; and how, after 
ages of geological revelation, volcanic rocks that have 
liun long buried nnder the surface now influence the 
scenery of the regions where they have onee more been 
exposed to view." 

In carrying out this plan, the author has taken 
pains to make sharp distinctions between facts 
and theories, and between theories that are well 
founded and those that are merely speculative. 
The study of the ancient volcanoes is taken up 
historicaUy. There is an account of the vol- 
canoes and volcanic #ocks of each of the several 
great divisions of geological time, beginning 
with the pre-Cambrian. Those of Cambrian, 
Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, and Ter^ 
tiary ages are dealt with successively. In the 
case of each period, the study of volcanoes is 
taken up much as it might be in the case of ex- 
isting or recent volcanoes ; that is, the ancient 
volcanoes are studied with reference to their 
types of eruption, the conditions under which 
the eruptions took place, the character of the 
products discharged, the variations in these 
products during a period of activity, etc. 

In discussing the volcanic action of the vari- 
ous periods, the author has frequently taken 
pains to bring out at the same time the salient 
points in the physical geography of Great Brit- 
ain ; thus, we Qnd sections with such headings 
as " The Physical Geography of the Cambrian 
Period," and ^^Land and Sea of Silurian 
Times." These topics, which at first thought 
might appear to be outside the scope of the 
volume, really have a bearing upon the main 
theme under consideration. This ability to 
comprehend and portray the broad relations of 
things constitutes one of the charms of Sir 
Archibald's writings. 

The study of the ancient volcanoes of Great 
Britain has led to many general conclusions 
which are of interest. The ancient volcanoes are 
found to be distributed in a belt running length- 
wise of the island and along its west side. They 
have been so widely distributed in time that the 
persistence of volcanic activity is to be regarded 
as one of the great facts of geological history. 
Furthermore, the volcanic activity has been 
intermittent. Nearly every great division of 
Paleozoic time — namely, Cambrian, Silurian 
(Lower), Devonian, and Carboniferous — has 
had its great series of eruptions ; but there waa 




general qdet, so far as this phase of activity was 
QOiicemed, in the Upper Silurian. The Meso- 
loie periods seem not to have been marked fay 
Yoleanio aotirity within the area considered, but 
nch activity wsa renewed in the early Tertiary. 
While ezteoiding through this great range of 
time, the periods of aotiyity hare been separated 
ly long interrals of quiescence. The same 
localities have served repeatedly for the dis- 
charge of lava and other igneous products. 
Thus, in southwestern England there were great 
eruptions in the Devonian, the Suboarbonif er- 
oos, and the Permian. In southern Scotland, 
within a very restricted area, there were Silu- 
rian, Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian 
eruptions. Another important conclusion is 
fliat the sites of volcanoes, throughout the his- 
tory of Great Britain, were not determined by 
my obvious structure in the rocks now visible. 
They were not usually connected with faults, 
even when faults existed near the volcanic 
region. Again, it seems to be clearly indicated 
that the volcanic vents were, as a rule, on low 
land rather than on high, throughout the course 
of the physical history of Oreat Britain. The 
great series of volcanic rocks occuring in the 
central hollow of the Scottish midlands found 
their way to the surface in a region which was 
a great depression at the time they were ex- 
truded. The great Tertiary eruptions took 
place in the depression between the outer ridge 
of the Hebrides and the mainland of Scotland; 
while the Permian volcanoes were all in valleys, 
the adjacent highlands being free from them. 
It is suggested that ** a difference of a few hun- 
dreds or thousands of feet in the depth of over- 
lying rock, such as the difference of height 
between the bottom of a valley and the tops of 
the adjacent hills, may determine the path of 
escape for the magna through the least thick- 
ness of overarching roof.'' 

The conclusion is reached that periods of 
general crustal disturbance were in a general 
way periods when volcanic activity was great, 
and that periods of crustal quiescence were 
periods during which volcanic action was least. 
The Lower Silurian period was a period of 
general crustal disturbance in Great Britain, 
and these disturbances were accompanied by 
great volcanic activity. The Upper Silurian 
was a period of general quiet, and there was 
little volcanic activity. The great disturbances 
of the Old Bed Sandstone period were acom- 
panied or followed by great outpourings of lava; 
while the Tertiary volcanic activity, perhaps the 
greatest in the history of the island, was con- 

nected in time with the latest great orograpUc 
movements of Western Europe. 

Another conclusion of moment is that there 
has been essential uniformity of vdcanism since 
the known beginnings of geological history. 
While volcanic activity has been widely distri- 
buted throughout geological time, the periods 
of eruption during the Paleozoic seem to con- 
stitute a diminishing series from Lower Silu- 
rian to Permian, the periods of activity being 
separated by intervals of quiescence. After 
the Permian there was a long period of qui- 
escence, following which volcanic activity was 
renewed on a scale greater than at any previous 
time ; so that it cannot be concluded that vol- 
canic activity is declining. The study of the 
igneous rocks of all ages leads to the conclusion 
that there is no less and no greater variety of 
igneous matter in recent than in earlier times, 
showing that there has been an essential uni- 
formity of products as well as of activities. 

The study of the ancient volcanoes also shows 
that there is a recognisable sequence in the 
nature of the materisds erupted during a single 
volcanic period, from the earliest to the latest 
times, and that, in spite of occasional departures, 
the normal order remains broadly uniform. In 
general, the earlier eruptions of each period 
were most basic and the later most acid, indi- 
cating that there was in the course of a single 
period of igneous activity a progressive dimi- 
nution in the quantity of bases and a corre- 
sponding increase in the proportion of acids in 
the lavas discharged. The fact that the igneous 
rocks of various periods are essentially the same, 
even in the same locality, shows that the magma 
from which the discharges proceeded must have 
been renewed from time to time during the 
period of quiescence, so that the nature and 
succession of lavas brought out at one period 
are much the same as those of another. 

The volumes are illustrated by nearly 400 
figures, and by seven maps which show the dis- 
tribution of the volcanoes and igneous rocks of 
the several periods. 

Professor Russell's work on the volcanoes of 
North America covers a much wider area than 
the work just considered, but a correspond- 
ingly more restricted period of time. Its object 
is ^^ to make clear the principal features of vol- 
canoes in general, and to place in the hands of 
students a concise account of the leading facts 
thus far discovered concerning the physical 
features of North America which can be traced 
directiy to the influence of volcanic action." 



[Jan. It 

The aoope of this Tolnme is therefore maoh more 
limited than that of the preceding work. The 
time is not yet ripe for a treatise on the ancient 
volcanoes of North America corresponding in 
detail to that on the volcanoes of Gr^t Britain* 
Before this shall be possible, years of careful 
work most be done. Nevertheless, Professor 
Rnssell's volume, whidi does not attempt more 
than is now possible, is a welcome summary of 
our present knowledge concerning existing and 
recent volcanoes from the point of view an- 
nounced by the author. 

Like the author of the preceding volumes. 
Professor Russell has devoted an introductory 
chapter to the discussion of volcanic phenomena 
in general. Following this are chapters devoted 
to such topics as ** Types of Volcanoes," *^ Stages 
in the Lives of Volcanoes," ^* Characteristics of 
the Products of Volcanoes," '' Profiles of Vol- 
canic Mountains," ^* Structure of Volcanic 
Mountains," *' Erosion of Volcanic Mountains," 
^^ Subterranean Intrusions," and ** Character- 
istics of Igneous Bocks." Subsequent chap- 
ters deal with the general question of the dis- 
tribution of volcanoes in North America, and 
give longer or shorter descriptions of the vol- 
canoes of the different portions of the continent. 
Following the chapters which describe the active 
and extinct volcanoes of Central America, 
Mexico, and the United States, an account is 
given of our present knowledge concerning the 
deposits of volcanic dust. A general discission 
of the causes of volcanic activity follows the 
descriptive portion of the volume. These state- 
ments concerning the contents of the volume 
may suffice to indicate the ground which it 
covers ; and if it be added that these various 
topics are treated in such a way as to justify the 
explanatory title, ** A reading lesson for stu- 
dents of geology and geography," the character 
of the work will be made dear. 

One of the important and attractive features 
of the book is its treatment of many of the 
curious and striking geographic features of the 
Far West, a region which is as yet too little 
known even to those who are charged with the 
direction of geographic study. Throughout 
the work, too, Professor BusseU has introduced 
the historical idea into his descriptions of the 
subject-matter in hand, as the topics *^ Stages 
in the Lives of Volcanoes " and '^ The L^e- 
history of a Volcano " sufficiently show. This 
gives the volume an additional value to teachers, 
as this is an element which has generally re- 
ceived far too little consideration. 

The chapter on the deposits of volcano dust 

deals with a phase of volcanic products which 
is less familiar than most others. The great 
abundance of such dust, and its wide distribu- 
tion, give rise to a conception of volcanic activ- 
ity in NorUi America widiin reeent times which 
is not commonly held. In view of the object 
of the volume. Professor Russell is perhaps 
justified in giving some rein to the imagination 
in connection with this subject. He says : 

** Tlie great ahandaiiee of Toleanio doit in the Cor- 
dilleran legioiiy its wide dittribation, and its oe enn e n ee 
in nnmeroQs instances at manj horizons in the same ver- 
tieal section, is eyidenoe that Tsst areas in Western North 
America have been shrouded in darkness at many sepa- 
rate periods, and have time and again witnessed horrors 
like those which overwhelmed Pompeii and Herenla- 
nenm. Disasters similar to those acoompanying the 
eruptions of Conseguina and Krakatoa occurred at in- 
terrals throughout the Tertiary and Recent history of 
fully one-half of North America." 

The effects of these discharges of volcanic dust, 
as conceived by Professor Sussell, are thus ex- 

" The volcanic dust of the Fkeifio states sometimes 
contains the bones of mammals and is frequently charged 
with quantities of leaTCS, showing that some of the tem- 
pests generated by volcanic agencies were disastrous to 
animal and plant life. These and related disturbanees 
in environment probably had much to do with the modi- 
flcation and extinction especially of the higher mam- 
malian species." 

The chapter devoted to a consideration of 
the causes of volcanic action includes an ele- 
mentary statement of the principles believed to 
be concerned, and of the various theories that 
have been advocated as to the methods according 
to which these principles work. The discussion 
touches the vital points in the explanation of 
volcanoes, and in such a way as to be readily 
understood by readers of maturity, even though 
their knowledge of geology and allied sciences 
be meagre. While this discussion does not 
contain much that purports to be especially 
new, the presentation of the subject is much 
better than that which appears in most text- 
books. Incidentally, some original suggestions 
are introduced which are well worthy of con- 

Professor Russell's book will be a valuable 
work of reference for students of geology in 
the last years of high school, and for maturer 
students who are interested in geology and 
geography, even though their preparatory stud- 
ies in diese subjects have been neglected. The 
volume is illustrated by sixteen plates, some of 
which are maps, and some of which are half- 
tone reproductions of notable volcanic peaks. 

RoLLiN D. Salisbuby. 





OF Jgsxr a,* 

It BometimeB appears as if the more learned 
s life of Jesus is made the less it reveals the 
persMiality it seeks to portray. Such learned 
treatises are very nnmerooa and very useful ; 
hot the number is small of biographies of Jesus 
winch make his career much more than a string 
iqpon which to hang arduBological disquisitions 
and pious reflections. Indeed, it is as rare to 
find a life of Jesus in Englidi that is a true 
narratiye as it is to find one that is scientific in 
its method. It is therefore with interest that 
one turns to a biography of Jesus produced by 
i skiUed story-teller who has at the same time 
deep sympathies with things that make for 
beauty and righteousness. 

Mrs. Ward characterises her <* Story " as a 
nsnrative — that, and nothing more. Yet the 
title itself shows that such a narrative is 
intended to set forth some conception of who 
and what Jesus was. Sudi a method is legiti- 
mate, though unusual in this class of literature. 
It is simply doing for the Gk>8pel what the 
writer of an historical novel does for his sources. 
Granting that the writer's imagination is kept 
within the bounds of what his sources make 
probable, and that facts are not distorted in the 
interest of some theory, there is no reason why 
a character should not be set forth in action as 
well as by description. But these two conditions 
are absolute. 

As regards the present volume, it can be said 
that from the point of view of sober historical 
investigation tiiere is nothing in it worthy of 
the attention of scholars. The general chro- 
nological scheme of the life of Jesus is that of 
the conventional harmony of the most conserva- 
tive sort. It is true that some of the difficulties 
that beset an uncritical handling of the text 
are obviated by judicious omissions and the 
proper placing of emphasis in treatment ; but 
that an interpretative narrative really should 
aid one in solving such problems of harmoniza- 
tion as the two deansings of the Temple is not 
to be expected. Such few archsological ele- 
ments as are introduced are treated with the 
experienced touch of a maker of novels ; but 
they are those to be found in almost any life of 
Christ, and are simply details necessary for 
literary treatment. The same is true of geo- 
graphical references, although here accuracy is 
less pronounced and one becomes at times some- 

^Ths Stobt or Jbsus Chbiot: An Interpretation. By 
Bbsbttli StUAit Flialps. Boston : Honghton, Mifflin A Co. 

what confused in following the footsteps or the 
vision of Jesus. Altogether, in all matters in 
which scholarship is indispensable and of pri- 
mary importance the volume is justly regarded 
by its author as outside of criticism. 

In the region, however, in which the book 
does profess to be of help, much more can be 
said in its behalf. As one possibly might ex- 
pect, the narrative at times is somewhat over- 
told, the dramatic incidents are sometimes over- 
worked, the completeness of the biography at 
times is sacrificed to the necessities of dramatic 
interest But none the less, it is graphic, 
earnest, and successful in presenting the inter- 
pretation intended. If one is tempted to say 
that Mrs. Ward has preferred to describe mira- 
cles rather than teaching, to strain out the less 
difficult elements of the Gospel narrative while 
accepting those about which the critic feels the 
least confidence, to follow Benan — though at 
a great distance — into the uncertain ways of a 
romance, the reply is ready that such must of 
necessity be the method of a narrative, and that 
such elements also may very well be elements 
in the interpretation. 

And what is the interpretation ? The Jesus 
who looks out from these pages is not a strong, 
resistless Messiah. Despite his ability to raise 
the dead, and walk on the waves, and feed 
thousands with a few loaves, he is continually 
questioning himself as to himself and his mis- 
sion ; he is repeatedly brought to the verge of 
despair by the uncertainties that overhang his 
mission ; he grows weak with alternating periods 
of exaltation and depression ; he looks much 
with deep eyes at other souls in silence ; he 
barely escapes hysteria under severest strain ; 
he hears about him hosts of unseen spirits. 
Withal, he is passionately religious, but trust- 
ing ever to his intuition rather than to his 
reason. And thus, altogether, he is a woman 
and not a man. Strong and spiritual, he is not 
strong and spiritual after a man's fashion. The 
interpretation is unexpected, is doubtless un- 
conscious, but as one re-reads the volume it is 

And thus we have a new contribution to the 
ceaseless effort to interpret the personality of 
Jesus. For that this work really adds to our 
knowledge of him, one cannot for a moment 
doubt. All that subtle, emotional life which 
the mere scholar — especially if he be a man — 
so soon outgrows is discerned by the one who 
comes like Mary to sit in sympathy rather than 
in analysis and philosophy. In the hands of 
I Mrs. Ward some things that have escaped the 



[Jan. 1, 

scholar are thus made to appear, and deapite 
the limitationB of her mterpretation it is sore 
to be helpful beoanse it has made Jesus real — 
has given to him, one may say, the objeetiye 
reality of a hero of a story. 

Shailer Mathews. 

Pboblbms of B bIjF a np of Society.* 

Professor Baldwin follows up his work on ** Men- 
tal Development in the Child and in the Baee " with 
a very important and interesting eontribotion to 
soeial psydiology. The point to be investigated is 
the relation of individual to soeial development, and 
the extent to which one throws light on the other. 
The author describes three methods of dealing with 
this problem — the historic, the sociological, and the 
genetic ; and he proposes to use the last, without 
excluding the others. This method ** inquires into 
the psychological development of the human indi- 
vidual in the earlier stages of his growth, for light 
upon his social nature, and also upon the social 
organisation in which he bears a part" The men- 
tal development of infancy has been the author's 
favorite field of study, and his illustrations have the 
freshness of direct personal observation. 

The volume is divided into two books — one on 
the Person (446 pages), and the other on Society 
(198 pages). The discussion of the *' imitative 
person " shows the process by which new elements 
find their way into the life of the soul. Social 
heredity is carefully distinguished from physical 
heredity. The person is built up by assimilating 
the life of society. He becomes himselJP by becoming 
a social creature. There is no such contradiction 
between self interest and social interest as Mr. Ben- 
jamin Eadd assumes. It is rational for a man to 
further the common good because his reason itself 
would not exist save through the creative forces in- 
herent in society. 

The social person is always an inventor, making 
discoveries for himself if not for the world. Im- 
portant aids to the inventive process are language, 
play, and art Play, for example, is not merely 
the outburst of superabundant vitality running to 
waste, and it is more than mere imitation of the 
serious labors of adults ; it is actual trainiufi; for the 
motions, gestures, labors, and arts of the community. 

*SociiAL AKD Ethioal Intsbpbstatioks ht Mbntal 
Dbyklopmbht. By Jamat Mark Baldwin. New York: The 
Maomillan Company. 

Thb Study of C^tt Govbrkmsmt. By Deloe F. Wilooz. 
New York : The Maomillan Company. 

Thb Comoio Pboplb. By Charles F. Dole. New York : 
Thomae Y. Crowell «fc Co. 

Imkqualitt AMD Pboobcss. By Qeoige Harris. Boston : 
Honghton, Mifflin A Co. 

SooiAL Facts and Fobobs. By Washington Gladden. 
New York: G. P. Pntnam^s Sons. 

Tbb Enctolopjedia of Social Refobm. Edited \j 
W. D. P. Bliss. New York : Fonk & Wagnalls Co. 

The true genius is an inventor in a larger sense 
than is the average man, but he is not isolated from 
his kind. If he has ability of the highest order, 
and is thoroughly sane, he will see what is praeti- 
eable and uselnL There is risk of society thinking 
him a visionary or a rebel ; but there is also a possi- 
bility of the insane man imagining himself a genius. 

Under the caption <<The Person's Equipment '* 
we have an analjrsis of instincts, emotions, intelli- 
gence, and sentiments, and an account of the man- 
ner in which they are formed by social factors, and 
yet tend to rise above the level of the actual at new 
points. The person is held to his task by certain 
<* sanctions," and these are not merely outward coup 
straints, but impulses, desires, ethical and religious 
sentiments, which are social products. 

Coming tq the brief concluding chapters on So> 
ciety, we find the person set in the only environ- 
ment which is natural to him. The person is the 
^particularizing" force, and society generalizes 
elements of progress introduced by individuals. It 
is by this reciprocity between habitual conduct and 
custom on the one hand, and finer or wider accom- 
modations on the other hand, that society moves 
onward. Strong emphasis is laid upon the distinc- 
tion between the matter of social organisation and 
the functional method. The matter of social or- 
ganization <' consists of thoughts : by which is meant 
all sorts of intellectual states, such as imaginations, 
knowledges, and informations." The process of 
social organization turns on the imitative function. 
The person << reaches his subjective understanding 
of the social copy by imitation, and then he con- 
firms his interpretations by another imitative act 
by which he ejectively reads his self-thought into 
the persons of others. Each of these stages is essen- 
tial to his growth as a person, and so also is it 
essential to the growth of society. For society 
grows by imitative generalization of the thoughts of 

No brief summary can do justice to the wealth 
of suggestions of this vigorous treatise. But a few 
words of interrogation may put readers on their 
guard, and set them upon a search for omitted fac- 
tors in social organization ; and the caution is sug- 
gested by the author himself in several places. We 
are distinctly told that the historical and sociologi- 
cal methods, with the data of anthropology and 
analysis of institutions, are used only in a subordi- 
nate way. The phenomena held in the foreground 
are those of infant life. One may accept as probable 
the hypothesis that the child recapitulates the pre- 
vious social history of mankind, and reproduces in 
his attainment of selfhood the *< dialectic " by which 
society advances from mob impulses to ethical con- 
trol. But if the best method of learning the process 
of child development is to watch and interpret their 
physical manifestations of psychical life, then the 
most fruitful and reliable method of studying social 
psychology must be directly to observe and interpret 
the embodiments and relations of society in its in- 
stitutions. Since the infant is a product of social 




kklory and apropheej of the toeialfatorey we shoald 
eaiefiill J itndy him ; bat haman lociety never wm 
eompoeed entbely of infante. 

We foUy agree with the author's rejection of the 
lednetion of sodology to a sort of biology, and of 
tiie whole proeese of reasoning from biologieal 
■aalogms. An adequate stody of the individnal 
mind mnsly however, consider tiie relation of mind 
to body ; snd so an adequate stody of society most 
have regard to the material forms which are the 
lerelation of social life and the means of its progress. 
Therefore we may hesitate to accept as final and 
eomplete this summary (p. 522) : << The organisa- 
tiMwhiehisellbetedinsoeial life is, in all its forms, 
a peyehological organization. Its materials are 
ptTchologica] matwriab: thoughts, with ftU their 
Imuc in desires, impulses, sanctions, consciences, 
MBtimentB." In New En^^and graveyards one sees 
esrved on the ancient tombstones images of saints 
or angels, bodiless figures with only faces and wings. 
The i^ect on the modem mind is grotesque. Society 
u we know it in thu world exists on the land and 
na, draws its physical energies from soil and air, 
sad every one of its members is a composite being 
with all the parts and organs of an animal. Ade- 
quate synthesis of social studies compels a full rec- 
ognition of what Schftffle calls «'the Social Body.'' 
Yet if we had to choose between the crude material- 
ktic and biological sociology, which has about run 
its course, and this nltra-spiritual view, we should 
ehoooe the latter, and agree with the closing word 
of the eminent peychologist : ** The true analogy is 
not that which likens society to a physiological organp 
ism, but rather that which likens it to a psychological 
organisation. And the sort of psychological organi- 
istion to which it is analogous is that wb^ch is found 
in the individual in ideal thinking." 

The Elementary treatise on City Gk>vemment, by 
Mr. Delos F. Wilcox, not only makes good use of 
sxeeUent authorities, but it also goes to sources and 
draws from them fresh materials. The author con- 
nders three principal topics : the functions of city 
government, the problems of control, and the prob- 
lems of organisation. The style is clear ; the ani^yses 
of subjects is suggestive ; and the literary form 
sdapts the book for use as text-book or as a reading- 
book. It is encouraging to find at least a suggestion 
that a city is not primarily nor principally a political 
organisation. It is to be hoped we may some day 
have a work on cities which gives more attention to 
the social tendencies, wants, organizations, interests, 
which constitute their real life. This is hinted on 
page 15 : '< The practical task of political economy 
sad sociology is the assignment of functions to the 
state and its agents on the one hand, and to indi- 
viduals and voluntary organisations on the other. 
Politics or political science treats of the methods of 
fulfilling the functions assigned to the state and its 
agents." And also on page 237 : *< Back of the 
merely political problems of the city lie the great 
problems of social development." 

** The Coming People " discussed by Mr. Charles 
F. Dole are the products of natural selection in a 
rational and ethical universe. The old moral virtues 
of honesty, veracity, kindness, justice, are not feeble 
ideals of optimistic dreams, but their sanctions are 
in the actual world. The might of the cosmos is in 
them. The modem world is producing a higher 
type. For the care of long-homed cattle, wild and 
fierce, we need rude cow-bogrs, with revolvers and 
long whips ; but for sleek shori-homs and well-bred 
Jerseys, another and finer type of man most be 
chosen as keepers. This is the theme of Mr. Dole's 
attractive and inspiring book. It is a series of ser- 
mons, — optimistic, bearing with stress upon the 
moral sense, not specially instructive for the student 
of special social sciences and problems, and giving 
bare outlines of the ethical ideals of social coopera- 
tion. The severe cost and pains by which progress 
must be paid for are not overlooked. The writer 
is sane, well-informed, awake to the infamies which 
blot our civilisation, and without any panacea for 
human ills ; but he is always clear as to the power 
which makes for righteousness, always sure that 
iniquity is feeble and troth alone is strong. It is a 
noble and healthy book, by one who has long taught 
men to regard the duties of society as sacred, and 
now shows that these duties are based on a rational, 
practical, and religious view of life. 

The author of *< Moral Evolution " excites expec- 
tations of good writing and intelligent interpreta- 
tions. His little treatise on << Inequality and Pro- 
gress" is suggestive and sane. Democracy and 
Christianity both declare for the right of utmost 
self-development for every human being. Before 
the law, every individual must have a fair hearing. 
In religious belief, all are children of a common 
Father. But equality does not exist as a matter of 
fact in this world where the Divine will gives law, 
and where democracy is advancing to supremacy. 
Physically and intellectually, human beings are un- 
like, and must treat each other according to their 
natures and capacities. Education that treats all 
pupils alike is a humiliating failure. Progressive 
methods tend to give scope to individuality and 
variety of talents. Progress secures variety and is 
dependent upon it There must be leaders, if so- 
ciety is to move onward. Monotony is stagnation. 
We live by the awakening and satisfaction of new 
wants. We rise to better ethical and spiritual levels 
by admiration of superiors. Envy is a mean and 
degrading vice. Social unity is not the effect of 
sameness, but of uniqueness of individnals. 

The noble monument of the late Dr. W. H. Ryder 
of Chicago, the lecture endowment *' in aid of the 
moral and social welfare of the citizens of Chicago," 
has been the occasion of bringing to the public one 
of Dr. Washington Gladden's most powerful and 
wholesome discussions. The aims and limitations 
of the book, <' Social Facts and Forces," are frankly 
stated by the author : ^< No one will expect to find 
within a space so limited an adequate investigation 
of subjects so large. I have tried to seise upon 



[Jan. 1, 

aoino of the salient points, and espeeially to empha- 
size the tendencies whieh affeet eondnet and shape 
oharaeter." The subjects discussed are the factory, 
the labor nnion, the corporation, the railway, the 
city, the church. Technical adaptation of means 
to ends he usually leayes to experts within each or^ 
ganization ; Dr. Oladden's purpose is to criticize the 
ethical value of the ends of action, the results in 
character. The reader is compelled at every step 
to inquire what will be the social consequences of a 
particular method of producing wealth and aecu« 
mulating fortunes. 

In one large Tolume one may now find, for the 
first time, a brief and clear statement of nearly 
every important reform movement of our age. ^The 
Encyclopedia of Social Reform'' includes, as we 
learn from the sub-title, 'Apolitical economy, polit- 
ical science, sociology, statistics, anarchism, chari- 
ties, civil service, currency, land and legislation, 
penology, socialinn, social purity, trades unions, 
woman sufErage," etc Some of the artidss are 
signed by leaders of the various movements repre- 
sented. Advocates of the reforms have been chosen 
to state the case, but the divergent views are also 
given a hearing. There may be some advantage 
given to editorial positions, but there is a manifest 
purpose to give the strongest positions of opposing 
parties. The dictionary form of the work makes it 
very convenient for reference, but breaks up the 
systematic and organic discussion of particular sub- 
jects. The references are fairly complete for pop- 
ular uses. No prof esrion of service to scholars is 
made, as specialists do not depend on cydopssdias. 
For persons remote from libraries, who wish to have 
a brief statement of the socializing movements of 
our time, this volume is the best available, and it is 
unique in its field. q. ^ Hkkdkbson. 


Perhaps the most notable recent contribution to 
philosophy in America is Professor 6. T. Ladd's 
large volume entitled '< The Philosophy of Knowl- 
edge." This work discusses with great fulness, and 
in the main in an admirable temper, the most gen- 
eral questions concerning human knowledge, such as 
<< Thinking and Knowing," << Knowledge of Things 

* Thb Philosopht of Knowledob. An Inquiry into the 
Nature, Limits, and Validity of Hunum CognidTe Faoulty. 
By George TmmbuU Ladd. New York : Gharlee Sorilmer*e 

Thbobt or Tbouoht Aia> Knowlbdob. By Borden P. 
Bowne. New York : Harper A Brothers. 

BvOLDTioif AJTB Rbuoion ; or. Faith as a Part of a Com- 
lilete Cosmio System. By John Basoom. New York: G.P. 
Putnam's Sons. 

HisTOBT of Iktbllbctual Dbyblopmbht, on the lines 
of Modem ETolution. By John Beattie Croner. Volume I. 
New York : Longmans, Green, A Go. 

iBTBODUcnOHToPmuMOPHT. By Oswald Kill pe. Trans- 
lated by W. B. Pillsbury and E. B. Titohener. New York : 
The MamniUan Company. 

and of Self," «< Implicates of Knowledge," ^ Trath 
and Error," «< Knowledge and Reality," << Knowl- 
edge and the Ahsolate." These sahjects, whose 
treatment is embraced onder the technical name of 
Epistemology, are the ones upon whieh modem 
philosophy more and more concentrates, and are 
here treated comprehensiTcly and fairly, and so 
dearly and ontechnically that most educated persons 
will have no difficolty in following the writer. Pro- 
fessor Ladd starts from the common consciousness, 
and, indeed, in a measure vindicates it throaghoat; 
and his constant assumption is the *' I know " of 
common conscioasness. The fundamental assamp- 
tions of the ordinary unreflecting man are shown to 
have in them a real basis of philosophic truth, and 
hence the philosopher cannot look down in scorn 
upon the plain man of CTcry-day life. But the 
author proceeds far beyond common-sense realism, 
and formulates a critical idealistic realism. The 
Self is the kej throughout Self-knowledge, the 
'< I know," appears to Professor Ladd as the dear- 
est and most certain knowledge, and altogether un- 
assailable, and so the basis of all knowledge. The 
mind is capable of knowing a world of things or 
objects only as they are in some sense other-eeUes, 
and these as the expression of the Absolute Sdf • 
Another prominent point in the author's m^hod is 
the making of knowledge an expression of the whde 
man, and not an isolated faculty. Feeling and will 
are dosdy connected with knowledge, and he even 
goes so far (page 187) as to make feding the essence 
of cognition, or again (page 502) he makes cogni- 
tion " a species of conduct" From this unitary point 
of yiew, he sharply criticises E[ant There is also 
much criticism of scepticism and agnosticism in 
generaL While Professor Ladd has learned much 
from Lotze, Wundt, Paulsen, and other Grerman 
philosophers, he has re-thought the whole into an 
original exposition and criticism. Although we miss 
in this work that high degree of demonstration, 
that definiteness and closeness of thought, and that 
thorough originality of treatment, which character- 
ize a great philosophical treatise, yet by its suggest- 
iyeness and comprehensiveness, by its clearness and 
force, it must be assigned a prominent place in 
American philosophy. 

Professor Borden P. Bowne*s '< Theory of 
Thought and Elnowledge" is a dighter performance 
than Uie foregoing, and at the same time coyers a 
wider field. 0£ the three diyisions of philosophy — 
logic, epistemology, and metaphysics — this present 
book is a sketch of the first two divisions. By logic 
is meant, of course, not f ormd logic, but a philo- 
sophical discussion of notion, judgment, inference, 
deduction and induction, the categories, etc., in re- 
lation to truth ; in short, a general theory of thought 
in all its forms and functions. The last third of 
the book is taken up with the theory of knowledge. 
This opens with an analysis of philosophic scepticism, 
aimed to show the possibility of knowledge; and 
the remaining chapters on << Thought and Thing," 
<< Realism and Idealism," etc, seek to show just how 




kMfdedge k powble, — «.«., its fandameiitai eon- 
UtimoM. Phrfwicr Bowne eomes to miieh the same 
wnrfoiiomi m ProleMor Ladd. While this work 
ihows MMne acateness and dearaess, yet we eannot 
Ughly eommend it as a whole. The treatment is 
■oeh loo smnmary, and the simplifying is earned 
ISO far. Farther, the tone of the hwA, is very 
nphiloaophie by r e a so n of gross dogmatism and 
didactieiam, and the work is c^ten marred by aead- 

Dr. John Baeeom has lately added to his nnmerons 
fslnmeo on religion and philosophy a brief work 
wtitled <« Brolntion and Religion/' He treats in 
this book of f oar main topies, namely, '' Brolation 
IS a Cooeeption,'' ** Evolation as GKving Unity to the 
Field of Knowledge and Aetion/' ** Bvolotion in its 
Ptasent Spiritaal Phases," and «< Evolation in the 
Fhwfs it Offers to Spiritaal Beliefs." Eyolation is 
sseepled in the widest sense, and is theistically and 
ipirteaally interpreted. SoggestiTe remarks are 
made oo Tarioos ethical and social matters. The 
pr ss entati on is Tigoroas, popalar, and rather ser- 
monie. While notibing very new is given, yet there 
is always originality of statement. The anthor is, 
tbooghoot, very ironic, very sententioas, and very 
withnsiastie. While the treatment is not especially 
piofoand or thoroagh, yet it is always broad and 
gsnerous ; and there are many qnickening thoaghts 
wfaidi will be of serrice to those who are seekiDg to 
know the rigns of the times and to adjast them- 
islrea to a new spiritaal basis. Many persons oaght 
to find in this book help toward a larger, saner, and 
freer life. 

Mr. John Bea tt ie Crosier follows ap his work on 
''CiTilisation and Ph>gress" by Volame I. of the 
'^ History of Intellectaal Deyelopment,'* which, he 
explains, is to point oat the laws of the eTolation of 
religion, science, and philosophy. This is a very 
Isrge and difficalt task, and the aathor seems to 
show neither safficient ability nor training for the 
work. Perhaps the qaoting of a single sentence will 
give some inkling of the mental status of the writer : 
^I am aware, of coarse, of the deep suspicion with 
which many readers will regard any attempt to 
lednce to law those products of thought or action 
which would seem to depend on the uncertain ca- 
prices of men ; and can fully realize the surprise of 
the reader when he hears that an attempt has here 
been made to anticipate the yiews which men like 
Plato, Aristotle, Buddha, or Paul were likely to hold 
on the great problems of the world and of human 
fife." While this yolume may be a passable com- 
pilation on the history of Greek, Hindu, and Judaic- 
Christian thought, and conceived in a broadly the- 
istic and Christian spirit, it is not a closely scienUfic 
itudy, and can scarcely be considered a serious con- 
tribution to historical or sociological literature. 

Professor Oswald Eolpe's brief text-book on phil- 
osophy is now translated in a correct and convenient 
Torsion by Professors misbury and Titchener under 
the title ^ Introduction to- Philosophy." This work 
is much more compendious and impersonal than 

Professor Paulsen's work with the same title. Pro* 
f essor Kdlpe aims to giro the beginner ^ a short ac- 
count of the development and status of phflosophy." 
Chapter I. is devoted to ^the definition and classifi- 
cation of philosophy "; Chapter II. to '* a survey of 
the separate disciplines which are now included under 
the general name of philosophy"; and Chapter III. to 
** a characterization of the more important schools of 
philosophic thought" The aim throughoat has been 
** to assist the student in the understanding of lectures 
and treatises upon special philosophical topics." A 
final chapter gives very briefly the author's own 
view as to what philosophy should be and do in the 
future — a view which discourages systems of phil- 
osophy. The standpoint of the book is too German, 
and the treatment, though clear, is too dry, to be very 
serviceable to the American student desiring an 
initiation to '< divine philosophy." The profuse use 
of technical and German terms and the historical 
rSsumS will embarrass many. The chief value of 
the work is as a reference book to help clarify the 
ideas of advanced students. 

HiBAH M. Stanlbt. 

Bbisfs om New Books. 

A rtoimdnteud The volumo by Mr. Ignatius Singer 
immimougjf and Mr. Lewis H. Berens, entitied 

qfpkifsict, u gome Unrecognised Laws of Na- 

ture" ^Appleton), offers to tiie physicist greatly 
varied interest. Seldom does one find propositions 
more dearly enunciated or more concisely and logi- 
cally discussed. Their exhaustive analysis holds 
attention and forces conclusions as to many of the 
terms and conventions of modern science, some of 
which have claimed the highest prerogative and have 
generally had their claims allowed. As an example 
may be cited the term *< energy," with its derivatives 

— «< conservation " and ^ dissipation " of energy, 
kinetic energy, potential energy, etc. To Tait's 
definition of energy, "the power of doing work," 
the present authors do not object ; but to the idea 
that energy is a "distinct entity," even though "in- 
separable," they oppose serious and well-founded 
objections. There are those who seem to regard 
energy as a sort of soul residing in matter, but cap- 
able of unlimited transmigrations, having present 
existence, but resting under the possibility of disem- 
bodiment and final dissipation, perchance ending in 
a form of nirvana. But Tait's definition needs a re- 
striction ; energy is " the power of doing work " at 
a given instant, — not a power which may have been, 
or, under conditions, may arrive. If a body be 
thrown vertically into the air, no energy may be 
attributed to it at the instant which ends its upward 
flight and begins its descent. When the object 
started upward it had power within itself to do work, 

— work expended in lifting itself to an altitude. 
When its returning fall is finished, it has again ac- 
quired from the attraction of gravitation the energy 
perhaps to smash a casemate or to drive a timber 

THE MAL P«»i. 




toy partieiilarly in France, hold abaolately to the 
idea of eonfciniiity of eoltare. The best thing in the 
book, from the orohtDologitt'e standpoint, is the em- 
p^^aUmg of the importanoe of indindoal effort and 
di s eo rei y in prehistorie times: this is admirably 
branghl oat. Taming from the arehisology in the 
sUny to the book itself, we most admit that it is a 
strange one. The coyer is a nightmare in Uaek, 
ysUow, and red. The author aims at Anglo-Saxon 
smpliei^ and at quaint eombinations of unusual 
voids. This is pleasant and odd for a time, but the 
vsader finally wearies of strange uses of mumbling 
and ikmg. A fair example, taken almost at hap* 
haiard, of the style is the sentence, ** To eross thai 
morass safely required a touch on tussocks and an 
upbonnding aside, a sigiag exhibition of great 
sMngth and knowingness and recklessness.'' This 
ii no doabt ingenious. We may adopt Mr. Water- 
Iso's Toeabolary and stj^le, and say that it is a lush 
bsok, full of punkish crudity of things, thought 
pnidnetB and word forms, fit to hU flaUy on truly 


The world is made up of most various 
types, and it is just conceivable that 
there are persons to whom the fourth 
ootavo volume of an ecclesiastical biography gives 
DO suggestion of tedium. It is barely possible that 
four sound divines might conspire to make the work 
10 readable that, as chUdren cry for Castoria, so lay- 
minded folk would clamor for yet one volume more. 
The supposition is perhaps extreme, and the Life of 
Dr. Pusey is hardly a case in point. We have sought 
to examine it, at intervals, wakefully, with very 
moderato success. We presently came to feel that 
it was almost discourteous not to be drowsy in Dr. 
Posey's company. We perceived how admirably 
Canon Liddon and his literary coadjutors had caught 
the tone of the subject of their biography, and how 
the whole work was, as artists say, in keeping. It 
was a wonderful group of men who favored or re- 
listed the Oxford Movement. They range from 
Newman to Stanley, from Ward to Jowett, men full 
of life and character. Even in Manning, through 
the hard and fast sheU of the ecclesiastic may now 
sad then be seen the red blood beating. In Dr. 
Posey also are microscopic traces of our common 
humanity. It is to the credit of his biographers to 
have discovered them. He was not only a saint in 
a niche, a painful controversialist, a hammerer of 
heretics, an automatic letter- writer, and a munificent 
ehurch-benefactor. He was more. He could dis- 
tinguish between things that differ. Assisting a 
worn-out London vicar through an epidemic of 
cholera, it is told of Dr. Posey that he insisted on 
waiting upon him at dinner, tempting him with 
special morsels, and with his own hands, as he poured 
it, frothing his beer. That last is a touch that 
brightens the picture. Could he have cared to have 
his own beer foaming? May we venture to con- 
templato him as winking back at '< the beaded bub- 
bles winking at the brim"? The conception is 

audacious, yet we must indulge it. For it lends one 
breath of fragrance, one suggestion of flesh and 
blood, to two thousand lifeless pages. (Longmans.) 

The series of ^Literatures of the 
^Vffil<JJS:2L World » rAppleton), edited by Mr. 

Edmund Gosse, has now advanced to 
its second volume. Professor G. 6. A. Murray's 
survey of Greek literature having been followed by 
Professor James Dowden's survey of French litera- 
ture. We have looked forward with much interest 
to the appearance of these books, for the production 
of a uniform series of accurate and readable histo- 
ries of the great national literatures is a very desir- 
able thing to undertake, and the successful accom- 
plishment of the task would mean much for popular 
cultore. Profeuor Dowden's work, now before us, 
is all, or nearly all, that such a work might be ex- 
pected to be, and yet we have read it witih a certain 
sense of disappointment The plain truth of the 
matter is that a thousand years of rich literary his- 
tory cannot be made very interesting in a volume 
of a few hundred pages, from which all illustrative 
quotations must perforce be omitted for the sake of 
the history itself. There are so many names and 
books to be considered, and so little space in which 
to talk about them. Professor Dowden's book 
is probably as good a one as we should have the 
right to expect from any hbtorian, and in sanity, 
balance, and literary expression is distinctly better 
than Professor Saintsbury's work, hitherto probably 
the best of its kind. Fi^thermore, there are many 
scattered pages whi^h are really instructive, and 
may be kmmI with much satisfaction. But for all 
that, the book must go to the reference shelf rather 
than to the library toble. 

^^^ The <' Handbook of American Au- 

l,;2Sr?X* »»»«>"." P"!""^! l>y Mr. Owar Pay 

Adams, and published in 1884, was 

a very small book, very far from exhaustive, and 
by no means always accurate. Yet, in spite of ito 
shorteomings, it has proved indispensable to every 
stodent of American literature, and has had no 
serious competitor short of the voluminous Allibone. 
There will be thousands of literary workers glad to 
learn that the book has at last grown into the " Dic- 
tionary of American Authors," just issued from the 
press of Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. It is now 
" fairly inclusive," as the editor remarks, for more 
than six thousand names are mentioned, and the 
work extends to 444 pages. The entries are, of 
course, very brief, aiming at littie more than the 
name of each author, the place of birth, the dates 
of birth and death, the occupation, and the (undated ) 
tities of the books. Now and then we are given a 
few words of criticism or a few bibliogpraphical ref- 
erences. The editor has discriminated between 
«< poets " and '< verse-writers," an exercise of pre- 
rogative which may arouse the indignation of some 
members of the latter class, but which is surely well- 
advised. For example, Mr. Bliss Carman is a poet. 

THE DIAL [J"-!. 




[Jan. 1, 

lilTBB ABY y OTB8> 

An ootline ** Sketch of Jewish History," translated 
from the German of Dr. Gnstav Karpeles, has just heen 
sent out bj the Jewish Publioation Society of America. 

Mr. Henry Frowde announces for early pablieation in 
America "The Bible References of John Rnskin," 
selected and arranged by Misses Mary and £llen 

The J. B. Lippincott Co. publish « A History of the 
United States of America, Its People, and its Instita- 
tions," a work by Mr. Charles Morris, intended for use 
as a school text-book. 

The Maomillan Co. publish, in a single Tolume of 
their excellent ** Globe " edition, « The Poetical Works 
of Elizabeth Barrett Browning," with portrait, and an 
introduction by Mr. F. G. Kenyon. 

*< The Beginning, Ftegress, and Conclusion of Bacon's 
Rebellion in Virginia, in the Years 1675 and 1676 " is 
the December number of the "American Colonial 
Tracts," published by Mr. G. P. Humphrey. 

Messrs. Hinds & Noble publish, in their " University 
Tutorial " series, a third and enlarged edition of Mr. 
John S. Mackenzie's " Manual of Ethics," a work that 
has met with much success as a college text book. 

Mr. Charles A. Bramble's book "Klondike" (Fenno 
& Co.) is a compilation, largely from the newspapers, 
but apparently serviceable to those wishing a practical 
knowledge of the Klondike gold fields and how to get 

A belated holiday publication is Mr. Sydney George 
Fisher's interesting work on " Men, Women, and Man- 
ors in Colonial Times." The work is in two volumes, 
attractively illustrated, and sent out in a neat box by the 
J. B. Lippincott Co. 

Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. have issued a new 
edition of their well-known " Portrait Catalogue." The 
number of portraits has been increased to sixty-three, 
and all are entirely new, having been made especially 
for this edition of the catalogue. 

Volume XVIII. of " Harper's Round Table " is a 
stout quarto of nearly thirteen hundred pages, abun- 
dantly illustrated. It contains no less than eight com- 
plete serial stories, besides its hundreds of other fea- 
tures interesting to young people. 

The Jewish Chautauqua Society of Philadelphia sends 
us an interesting syllabus of a reading course in " Jew- 
ish History and Literature," covering the period of 
"The Crusades and the Spanish Era," and prepared 
under the direction of Professor Richard GrottheiL 

Mr. Frederic G. Kenyon is about to publish, through 
the Oxford University Press, the text of the recenUy 
duMovered poems of Bacchylides. The editor will 
furnish an introduction and commentary, while the 
fragments will be printed in both ordinary and uncial 

" Rampolli " is the title given to a volume by the 
Rev. Grcorge MacDonald, just published by Messrs. 
Longmans, Green, & Co. It contains a sheaf of trans- 
lations in verse, mostly from the Grcrman, and one long 
original poem, entitled "A Year's Diary of an Old 

Mr. George Laurence Gomme has undertaken to edit 
a ** Library of Historical Novels and Romances," which 
are to be published by Messrs. Longmans, Green, & Co. 
The first two volumes of this series, just issued, are 

Bulwer's well-known " Harold," and Charles Maefar- 
lane's little-known romanee " The Camp of Refuge." 
The editor contributes an elaborate introduction to eadi 
volume, together with illustrations (the Bayeux tapestry^ 
for instance) and notes. 

Mr. Fisher Unwin is about to publish in England 
(and we shall doubtless soon have it in this oountry) a 
work on " Modem France," written by M. Andr^ Leboa 
for the " Story of the Nations " series. This wUl pre- 
cede even its appearance in the country and language 
of its origin. 

Two bound volumes of " St. Nicholas," embracing the 
whole of the year 1897, and the semi-annual bound voL* 
ume of " The Century Magazine," have found their way 
to our table, as usual at this time of year, from the 
offices of the Century Co. They are quite as full of good 
things as ever, and it would be invidious to attempt to 

Ex-President Cleveland's address at the Princeton 
Sesquicentennial is published by Messrs. T. Y. Crowell 
& Co. as a booklet with the title «< The Self-Made Man in 
American Life." It is just the sort of thing for young 
men to read, with its homely, yet finely impressive plea 
for ideals of a sort too often neglected in our rushing 
American life. 

In a very thin volume some nameless one, who may 
be a great authority, gives a final settlement to a series 
of problems whose mere titles occupy about seven pages 
in the table of contents. " Posterity, or. Democracy is 
A. D. 2100 " (Putoam) has hints of " Looking Back- 
ward." If one could be sure of only one of these solu- 
tions he would be willing to read a longer book. 

Two mites are contributed to the growing mass of 
text-book literature by instructors in the Chicago High 
Schools. Mr. Harry Nightingale has edited for Messrs. 
Ainsworth & Co. a pamphlet of " Selections from Wash- 
ington, Lincoln, and Bryant," and Mr. Fred. L. Charles 
has published on his own account a pamphlet guide to 
the young geologist, entitled " How to Read a Pebble." 

We have received a little pamphlet entitled " Nick- 
names and Psendomyms of Prominent People," com- 
piled by Mrs. Fannie Parmelee Deane, Holyoke, Mass. 
Among the " prominent people " listed are those ancient 
ladies, the nine Muses. We also learn that one Quintus 
Fabius was also known as Crunctator. The booklet 
does not seem to have been edited with much discrim- 

Bishop Creighton's " History of the Papacy from the 
Great Schism to the Sack of Rome " has for some years 
occupied a place among the standard productions of 
English historical scholarship. Many students wUl be 
grateful to Messrs. Longmans, Green, & Co., the his- 
torian's publishers, for the neat new edition of this work, 
just published in six volumes, and at a price materially 
lower than that at which the history has heretofore been 

A well-printed volume comes to us from Mr. William 
Doxey, of San Francisco, and contains the " Sonnets of 
Jos^Maria de Heredia," done into English by Mr. 
Edward Robeson Taylor. To translate M. Heredia at 
all is to attempt the impossible, and Mr. Taylor, if he 
is to be congratulated upon his ambition, cannot be con- 
gratulated upon his work, which is entirely inadequate, 
besides giving evidence of an imperfect knowledge of 
the French language. 

It is a singular fact that the English language hsyi 
yet to await a good, an even tolerable, complete transl*- 

»•••] THE DIAL 



[Jan. 1, 

Biaston of Medloine. Edited by Emart Hut, D.C.L. 
Flnt Tols.: Jolm Himter, Man m Seienoe and Snrmoo 
(1728-1793), by Stephen Facet, M.A.; and William Baa- 
Tey, by D* Arey Power, FJ3. A. Eaeh with portrait, Iftno, 
nnont. Loopnans, Green, A Go. Per toI., $1.25. 


The Westward Movement : The Coloniea and the Bepnblie 
Wett of the Alleghaniee, 1763-1796. By Joatin Wumot. 
With mape, laige 8to, gilt top, nnont, pp. 605. Honghton, 
Mifflin AXo. $4. 

HlBtoryofOallflomla. By Theodore H. ffitteU. In4To]i., 
large 8to. San Franoiioo : N. J. Stone A Go. $16. 

HlBtoric New York: Being the First Seriee of the Half 
Moon Papers. Edited by Mand Wilder Goodwin, Alioe 
Garrington Royoe, and Roth Putnam. Dine., 8yo, i^t top, 
nnont, pp. 462. G. P. Pntnam*a Sona. $2.50. 

Nullification and Sooooalon in the United States: A 
jffistory of the 1^ Attempt! dnrinflr the First Gentniy of 
theRepnblie. Bv Edward Payion Powell. 12nio,pp.461. 
G. P. Pntnam*8 Sons. $2. 

The Story of the Palatines: An Episode in Golanial Bm- 
tory. By Sanford H. Gobb. 12mo, gilt top, pp. 319. 
G. P. Putnam's Sons. $2. 

Social Life in Old Virginia befbre the War. By Thomas 
Nelson Pkce;illns. by the Misses Gowles. 12mo, gilt top, 
nnont, pp. 100. Ghanes 8oribner*s Sons. $1.50. 

A Sketch of Jewish History. By GnstST Karpeles. 16mo, 
pp. 109. Jewiah Pnb*n Sodety of Ameriea. 30 eta. 


The Letters of Elisabeth Barrett Browning. Edited, 

with biographioal additions, by Frederie G. &enTon. In 

2 Tols., with portraits, 12mo, gilt tops. MaomflJan Go. 

New Letters of Napoleon L Omitted from the Edition 

Published under the Anspiees of Napoleon III. From the 

Frenoh by Lady Mary Loyd. With portrait, 8to, gilt top, 

nnont, pp. 380. D. Appleton & Go. $2. 
New Bssairs towards a Grltical Method. By John Mao- 

kinnon Robertson. 12mo, unout, pp. 379. Jokai Lane. $2. 
The Interest of America in Sea Power, Present and 

Future. Bjr Gaptain A. T. Blahan. D.G.L. 12mo, gilt top, 

pp. 314. Little, Brown, A Go. $2. 
Men, Women, and Manners in Golonlal Times. By 

Sydney Geo. Fisher. In 2 toIs., lUus. in photogrsTure, 

16mo, gilt tops, unout. J. B. lippinoott Go. Boxed, $3. 
Victorian Literature : Sixty Years of Books and Bookmen. 

By Glement E. Shorter. 16mo, gflt top, pp. 231. Dodd, 

Mead A Go. $1.50. 
General Grant's Letters to a Friend, 1861-1880. With 

Introduotion and Notes by James Grant WihMMi. With 

portraits, 12mo, gilt top, unout, pp. 132. T. Y. Growell A 

Co. $1. 
A Book of Old Bn^rlish Love-Sonffs. With Introduotion 

br Hamilton Wright Mabie; illns. by George Wharton 

Edwards. 12mo,giIttop,unout,pp.l59. MaoimHanGo. $2. 
The Century Illustrated Monthly Magasine. Vol. LTV., 

May to Qot., 1897. Ulos., laige 8to. gilt top, pp. 960. 

Gentury Go. $4. 
Specimens of the Pre-Shaksperean Drama. Edited by 

John Matthews Manly. Vol. II.; 12mo, pp. 500. *' Athe- 

n«nm Press Series.'* GinnAGo. $1.40. 

Transatlantic Traits: Essays. By the Hon. ICartin Morris. 
12mo, unout, pp. 125. London : Elliot Stook. 


Library of Historical Novels and Romances. Edited hj 
George Laurence Gomme. First toIs.: Lytton's Harold, 
and Maofarlane's The Gamp of Refuse. Eaoh illns., 12mo, 
unout. Longmans, Green, A Go. Per toI., $1.50. 

Poetical Works of Elisabeth Barrett Browninir* With 
portrait, 12mo, gilt top, pp. 667. Maomillan Go. $1.75 ii«t. 

Lucile. By Owen Meredith ; iUus. in oolors by ICadeleine 
Lemaire and in black-and-white by G. McGormiok Rogers. 
Large 4to, gilt top, pp. 382. F. A. Stokes Go. Boxed, $4. 

Illustrated E^lieh Library. New toIs.: Thackeray's 
Pendennis. illns. byGhris. Hammond jGharlotte BrontlS's 
Shirley, illns. by F. H. Townsend ; Thackeray's Vanity 
Fi|ir, Olus. by Gnris. Hammond ; Scott* s Rob Roy, illns. 
by F. H. Townsend. Eaoh 12mo, uncut. G. P. Putnam's 
Sons. Per yd., $1. 

Shakespeare's Hamlet. Illns. by H. G< Ghristy. 12mo, 
gUt edges, pp. 254. Dodd, Biead A Go. $2. 

"Outward Bound" Edition of Budyard KipUnc^s 

WorkSL New yol.:Veises, 1889-1896. Illiis..8y«K gilt ton, 

unout, p^. 869. Gharles Soribner's Sons. (Sold only ^y 

A Sentimental Journey. By Lanrenoe Sterne ; fflns. by 

T. H. Robinson. 12mo, gttt top, unout, pp. 442. Loar- 

mana, Orssn, A Go. $1. 
The Reader's Shakespeare. By Dayid Gbarles BeU. 

Vol. in., Gomedies. 12mo, pp. &1. Funk A Wagnidk 

Go. $1.50. 


The GomincT of Love, and Other Poems. By Theodore 

Watts-Dunton. 12mo, gilt top, unout, pp. 268. John 

Lane. $2. 
The Wooing of BCalkatoon, and Oommodus. By Lew. 

Wallaoe;iUns.byDuMondandWegnelin. 8yo,gilttop, 

unout, pp. 168. Harper A Brothers. Boxed, $2.50. 
A Selection from the Poems of Mathilda Blind. Edited 

by Arthur Symoas. With portrait, 16mo, gUt top, naeut, 

pp. 146. London : T. Fisher Unwin. 
Rampolli, Growths from a Lon^Planted Root : Beins Trans- 
lations, Ghiefiy from the German ; along with A Diaryof 

an Old Soul. By George liacDonald. 12mo, unout, pp. 80S. 

Longmans, Green, A Go. $1.75. 
TheGhlldrenoftheNiffht:ABookofPoems. Bt Edwin 

Arlington Robinson. 16mo, unout, pp. 121. Riohard G. 

Badger A Go. $1.25 net. 
The Habitant, and Other Frenoh-Ganadian Poems. By 

William Henry Dmmmond. M.D.; with Introduotion by 

Louis F^raohette ; illns. in pliotograyurB by F. S. Gobnra. 

12mo, gilt top, unout, pp. 187. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $2JS0. 
Sonnets of Jos^Maria de Heredla. Done into English by 

Edward Robeeon Taylor. 8yo, unout, pp. 177. San Fran- 

eisoo : William Dozey. $2.50. 
Shadows. By M. A. DeWolfe Howe. 18mo, unout, pp. 47. 

Gopeland A Day. $1. 
From Gliff and Scaur: A GoUeotioQ of Verse. By Ben- 
jamin Sledd. 16mo, gilt top, pp. 100. G. P. Putnam's 

Sons. $1.25. 
Oolumbia Verse, 1892-1897. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 118. 

New York : William Beyeriey Hariaon. $1. net. 
One Way to the Woods. By Eyaleen Stein. 24mo, unont, 

pp. 72. Gopeland A Day. 75 ots. 
Washlncrton : A National Epic in Six Gantoo. By Edward 

Johnson Runk. With portrait, 12mo, gilt toi>, naeut, 

pp.169. G.P.Putnam's Sons. $1.25. 
Sonffs of FlsrlnfiT Hours. By Dr. Edward Willard Watson. 

IUus., 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 181. H. T. Goates A Go. 
Truth and Poetry. By R. P. Brorup. 12mo, pp. 114. 

Ghioago : International Book Go. 40 ots. 


The Stihool for Saints. By John Oliyer Hobbes. 12mo, 

pp.405. F. A. Stokes Go. $1.50. 
Hania. By Henryk Sienkiewios; trans, by Jeremiah Gartin. 

Withfrontispieoe,12mo,pp.551. Little, Brown, A Go. $3. 
Lin McLean. By Owen Wister. IUus., 12mo, pp. 277. 

Harper A Brothers. $1.50. 
Bye- Ways. By Robert S. Hkshens. 12mo, unout, pp. 366. 

Dodd, Mead A Go. $1.25. 
Vivian of Virsrinia. By Hulbert Fuller. IUus., 12mo, gOi 

top, unout, pp. 877. Lamson, Wolff e, A Go. $1.75. 
Harvard Episodes. By Gharles Macomb Flandrau. 12mo, 

uncut, pp. 399. Gopeland A Day. $1.25. 
Iva Kildare: A Matrimonal Problem. By L. B. Walford. 

New edition; 12mo, pp. 332. Longmans, Green, A Go. 

Spanish John. By WUliam McLennan. IUus., 12mo, 

pp. 271. Harper A Brothers. $1.50. 
Jimty, and Others. By BCaigaret Sutton Briscoe. IUus., 

12mo, pp. 326. Harper A Brothers. $1.50. 
Secretary to Bayne, M.P. By W. Pett Ridge. 12mo, 

pp. 263. Harper A Brothers. $1.25. 
Dorothy Draycotfs To-Morrow& Bt Virginia F. Town- 
send. 12mo, pp. 383. Lee A Shepard. $1.50. 
A Tsar's Gratitude. By Fred Whiahaw. 12mo, pp. 320. 

Longmans, Green, A Go. $1.25. 
Paul Mercer: A Story of Repentance among BfiUions. Br 

James Adderiey. 12mo, uncut, pp. 234. Edward Amola. 


The Sinner. By *'RiU." 12mo, gUt top, pp. 308. Rand, 
MoNaUyAGo. $L 




Hm Man of Last B eeo r t; or, Tli* Clieati of BandoMi 
BylfalTilb D»TiMM Foot. 13mo,pp.38«. 6. P. 

tteLadyoftheVloleta BjFnakWmkRdOkm, 16mo, 
gik top. ne^ pp. S88. LmAHIwpbrL $1. 

A DIvoroe Ocmtraot. By Robt. J. Smith. 12iiio, pp. 190. 
T«i<t Haste : C. W. Biown. Paper, 25 oti. 


On Blma Water. By IMniniMio de Amioia ; trana. by Jaoob 

B. finiwB. Ulna., Sro, gilt top, niioat, pp. 887. G. P. 

Pataaa'aSow. $2.S5. 
Pt utui ea u ue SloUy. By WiDiaai Agaaw Paton. Dlaa., 

Sra, fitt top, naent, pp. 384. Harper A Brothara. $2.60. 
BiDtn, the Glty of Blood. By Commaiider R. H. Baoon, 

RJm. niai.,laiga8TO,aaeBt,pp.l61. Edwatd Arnold. $2. 
A World-PnffTlmace. By JoIib Hanry Banowa ; edited 

by MasKj fieaaoir Barrowa. Uloa., 8to, pp. 479. ▲. C. 

MiGlaiKAGo. $2. 
A Year flnom a Beportar'a Note-Book. By Richard 

HardioK Biafia. lUna., 12&BO, pp. 905. Harper A Brotheia. 


Afloat on tlie Oblo : Ad Hiatorieal Pilgrimage of a Thooaand 
lOka ie a Sldff, liom Redatoae to Gairo. By Reaben 
GoldlliwaitaB. ISnao, gilt top, anoot, pp. 384. Way A 
WQliaBM. ^JSO. 

Hawaii, Oar New PoaNariona. By Jdm R. Mnaiek. Uloa., 

8Ta,pp.aM. FaakAWagnallaCo. $2.75. 
Ootag to War In Greeoa By Frederiok Pahner. mm., 

Utoo, gUt top, oneot, pp. 192. R. H. RvMell. $1.25. 
antral Berkflhlre niustrated: A Seiiae of Reprodoetiona 

fraa Photognnha. Obloiig8TO. Pittafield, Maea.: Qeoige 

Bhlahfoid. IHo. 


Iha Snoaltor'g Gre^ Taatament. Edited by the Rot. 

W. RobertaoB NiooU, M.A. Vol. I.; large 8to, imont, 

pp.8?S. Dodd, Mead A Go. $7JM). 
A History of the Papaoy, from the Great Sehiam to the 

SaekofRoDM. By M. Crt^toii, D.D. New edition ; in 

6 Tola. 12nao, anent. Longmaaa, Green, A Co. $12. 
The Anglican BeformatioxL By William Clark, M.A. 

lteo,pp.482. ^'TeaEpoelwofCharohHiatory.'* Chria- 

£nLaintaie Co. $2. 
Selantlflo Aapeota of Ohrtstian Evidencee. By G. Fred- 

•ridc Wri^t, D.D. Blaa., 12mo, pp. 362. D. Appleton 

ft Go. $1JM). 
In Tone with the Infinite; or, Fallneea of Peaoe, Power, 

aad Plenty. By Ralph Waldo Trine. 12mo, gUt top, 

aaeat, pp. 222. T. Y. Crowell A Co. $1.26. 
BnddhlBm and ita Ohrlatian Critioa. By Dr. Paul Cama. 

12mo, gilt top, pp. 316. Open Court Pab*g Co. $1.26. 
Pr ayere , Ancient and Modem. Selected and arranged 

for daOy reading by the editor of *' Daily Strength for 

Duly Needa." 24nio, pp. 366. Donbleday <ft McClnre 

Co. $1. 
moatratlTe Notea: A Guide to the Study of the Intoma- 

tkaal Sunday Schod Leoeona for 1898. By Jeeee Lyman 

Harlbnt and Robert Remington Doherty. Dloa., large 

8vo, pp. 390. Curti A Jennings. $1.25. 
Hymna that taave Helped. Edited by W. T. Stead. 24mo, 

pp.276. Donbleday A MoClure Co. 76ot8. 
The Proteetant Faith ; or, Salration by Belief. By Dwight 

ffinekley Olmatead. Third edition ; 12mo, pp. 74. G. P. 

Pataam^a Sooa. 76 eta. 
Gbalk Unee over Morale. By Rey. Charles Cayemo, A.M. 

12taio,pp. 313. Chariee H. Kerr d; Co. 


Poole'a Index to Periodical Literature. Third Supple- 
UMBt, from Jan. 1, 1892, to Deo. 31, 1896. Br William I. 
fletehcr, A.M., and Franklin O. Poole,, with por- 
trait, large 4to, pp. 637. Houghton, Mifflin <fe Co. $10. 

American Book-Prioea Current for 1897. Compiled from 
the aaetioBeere' oatalognes by Luther S. Liyingston. 8to, 
filt top, pp. 661. Dodd, Mead & Co. $6. net, 

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82 THE DIAL [Jan. 1,1898 


FOR THE PRESENT HOLIDAY SEASON, Book-lovera have the chance tc 
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ITtttrarg Crittrism, ^brnssian, antr information. 

DRSD BT ) Votwrne XXIV, 

FRANCtS F. BROWNE. { No. 278. 

CHICAGO, JAN. 16, 1898. 

10eU.a copy. ( 315 WabASH AyI. 
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A History of the United States for Schools. 

Bj Whbub F. Gordt, Principal of the North School, Hartford, Conn. With abont 300 illustrations and 

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Ihrftwoi €knd7 is indelj kaown in edaoational oiiolss ss a snoeei sfu l teaohsr, partioalarly of history, and ss the 
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vUeh is sminently in sdTanoe of its predecessois in oleamess of amuigement, in p re s e nting the esi€tUials in a way that 
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The Oxford Manuals of English 


Utod hr C. W. C. Okav, M.A., FJ3.A., Fellow of All 

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hFrtpmnitom: m. THB HUNDRED YEARS' WAR; A.D. 
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A National Church. 

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The Significance of the Westminster Standards as a Creed. 

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Audubon and His Journals. 

QtICabia R. Audoboh, with Notes by Eluott Couas. 
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The Boropean Joamals, 1826-99. 
The Labrador Jonmal, 1833. 
The MIssearl JooraaU, 1843. 
The Episodes. 

notable for important Momphies is not to be 

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daya of 

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CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS, 153-157 Fifth Avenue, New Yorlc. 



[Jan. 16, 189a. 




The Elements of Qrammar. 

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IB Columbia GoUeee. 

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A Preparatory Course in 

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A Primer of Psychology. 

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Fh J>., Cornell UniTcrsity, author of 
** An Outline of IVychology.'* 

doth, 16mo. Nmrly Ready 

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No. 278. JANUAKY 16, 1898. Vol. XXIV. 

irbbgy and art 86 


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DiidMt,orEi«^uh? Marion E. Sparks, 
Aaollier Diqmted Amerioanism. Albert Matthewt, 


TEACHER. Harry W.Beed 44 


Frederick Starr 45 

Th« Coneeptioii of God. — Brace's The ProTidential 
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Stadman'e Poems Now First CoUected. — Johnson's 
Soagsof Ldbertj. — Burton's Memorial Day. — Roh- 
iason's The Children of the Night. -^ Remsen's The 
Danghter of Ypoeaa. — Howe's Shadows. — Horton's 
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tory. — Min Stein's One Way to the Woods. — Mrs. 
Johnston and Mrs. Bacon's Songs Ysame. — Swift's 
Lore's Way. — Sledd's From Cliff and Scaur.— 
Moore's The Death of Falstaff . — Watson's Songs of 
Flying Hours. — Van Zile's The Dreamers. — Browne's 
The House of the Heart. 


Tlie Rescue of Mr. Ruskin's Scapegoat. — Disquisi- 
tioos on the Dandaioal Soul. — Two new Gblden 
Treaaufies. — " Music ; Ito Ideals and Methods." — 
Enays in English. — A compact popular life of Marie 
Antoinette. — Peter the Great as a monster. — Mjrsti- 
fyiag the mysterious in theology. — A supernal Bible. 
— Patriots of the RcTolution. 





Mr. Swinburne speaks somewhere of the dis- 
tinction, which yet amounts to ** no mutually 
exclusive division," between the gods and the 
giants of literature. Practically the same dis- 
tinction is made by his friend, Mr. Theodore 
Watts-Dunton, in the statement, which recurs 
frequently in the writings of the latter critic, 
to the effect that poetic energy and poetic art 
are *^ the two forces that move in the produc- 
tion of all poetry." The distinction is illumi- 
nating for the understanding of poetry, for 
these two forces are the fundamental elements 
of the effective appeal of literature, as, indeed, 
of all the forms of artistic endeavor. In the 
greatest of poets, to be sure, we find the two 
forces to coexist in such supreme degree and 
perfect balance that they become, as it were, 
merely the two aspects of the phenomenon 
which we call genius, and we understand that 
for the highest achievements of literature the 
one is but the necessary complement of the 
other. This is what we find in Shakespeare 
and Dante and Pindar, possibly also in Goethe 
and Milton. But when we view the work of 
the poets who just escape inclusion in the small 
company of the supreme singers of the world, 
we nearly always discover some preponderance 
of energy over art or of art over energy. As 
coming under the latter category, for example, 
we think of Sophocles and Virgil and Tenny- 
son ; while the former category embraces 
^schylus and Lucretius and Victor Hugo. 
Taking a step still further away from the great 
masters, we meet with such fairly antipodal 
contrasts as are offered by Horace and Juvenal, 
by Spenser and Jonson, or by Keats and Byron. 
In these cases we have either art so finished 
that the energy has become potential, or energy 
so unrestrained that the art has been well-nigh 

This thought may profitably be pursued into 
the domain of prose literature, and even, as 
was above suggested, into the field of the fine 
arts in general. The noblest prose — that of 
Plato,' for example — has the same balance of 
energy and art that is displayed by the noblest 
poetry. On the other hand, we have tremen- 
dous energy with but scant art in such a writer 



[Jan. 16, 

as Carlyle, well-nigh perfect art with but little 
energy in such a writer as Landor. In archi- 
tecture, the Grothic style astonishes ns with its 
energy, the classic style entrances ns with its 
art. In sculpture, the one type is represented 
by Michel Angelo, the other by Thorwaldsen. 
In painting, the predominance of energy in 
Tintoretto is as unquestionable as the predomi- 
nance of art in Raphael. And in music, while 
Bach and Beethoven stand for the Shakes- 
pearian harmony of both forces in their highest 
development, we may easily discern the over- 
plus of energy in Liszt and Tschaikowsky, of 
art in Gluck and Mozart. The broad distinc- 
tion between the classic and the romantic styles, 
which runs through all the arts, is, moreover, 
to a considerable extent, the distinction between 
these two primary forces under other names. 

In a recent number of ^^ The Athenaeum " 
there are some interesting remarks upon this 
subject as it is related to literary criticism, re- 
marks in which it would be an affectation to 
pretend not to recognize the hand of Mr. 
Watts-Dunton. ^< It would be unseemly here 
to criticize contemporary criticism, but it may, 
without intending offense, be said that while 
the appreciation of poetry as an energy is as 
strong as ever in the criticism of the present 
day, the appreciation of poetry as an art is 
non-existent, except in one or two quarters 
which we need not indicate. . • • To go no 
further back than the time when Bossetti's 
poems were published, compare the critical 
canons then in vogue with the critical canons 
of the present day. On account of a single 
cockney rhyme, the critics of that period would 
damn a set of verses in which perhaps a meas- 
ure of poetic energy was not wanting. The 
critics of to-day fall for the most part into 
two classes : those who do not know what is 
meant by a cockney rhyme, and those who love 
a cockney rhyme." If this is true, it is a 
serious matter, for we are not content to share 
the non-committal position of the writer, who 
oonfines himself to saying : *^ We merely record 
an interesting and suggestive fact of literary 
history. If in poetical criticism the wisdom 
of one generation is the folly of the next, it is 
the same in everything man says and in every- 
thing he does, so whimsical a creature has the 
arch-humorist Nature set at the top of the 
animal kingdom." 

For our part, we believe that the appreciation 
of poetry as an art is essential to the very ex- 
istence of criticism, and are far from willing 
to admit that it is non-existent at the present 

day. It is true enough that a great deal of 
verbiage about poetry issues from the ** blind 
mouths " of self-constituted critics who know 
not whereof they speak ; but that has always 
been the case. Our writer himself makes the 
saving admission that the art of poetry still 
finds appreciation *Mn one or two quarters 
which we need not indicate," and that is prob- 
ably all that might be said of the criticism of 
Bossetti's time, or of a still earlier generation. 
When we are well along into the twentieth 
century, it is precisely the criticism from these 
unindicated quarters that will alone survive^ 
and will urge the writers of that period in 
turn to say things about the decay of criticism 
in their own time. The ineptitudes of the 
criticism that greeted the early work of Keats 
and Shelley, of Wordsworth and Tennyson^ 
were surely as unfortunate as any utterances 
of the present day, and, what is psurticularly to 
the point, they were lacking in precisely that 
appreciation of poetry as art for which Mr. 
Watts-Dunton seeks almost in vain in our 
current critical literature. 

Having entered this protest against a state- 
ment that seems altogether too sweeping, we 
are now prepared to admit that a good many 
present-day facts lend countenance to the con- 
tention. Popular opinion naturally cares more 
for energy than for art in literature, for the 
obvious reason that it is stirred by the one and 
not easily susceptible to the appeal of the other* 
It feels the power of Browning, for example^ 
and, although by long familiarity made dimly 
conscious of the exquisite art of Tennyson, is 
disposed to allow the one quality to offset the 
other, and consider the two as equally great 
poets. It is the same rough-and-ready sort of 
judgment that for a long time held Byron to be 
a greater poet than Wordsworth, that in our own 
time thinks of Tolstoi as a greater master of 
fiction than Tourgu^nieff, or that made Juvenal 
seem a greater poet than Virgil to the indi- 
vidual idiosyncrasy of Hugo, or Wordsworth 
and even Byron greater poets than Shelley to 
the individual idiosyncrasy of Matthew Arnold. 
It is the sort of judgment that reaches the cul- 
mination of extravagance in the things that are 
sometimes said about Walt Whitman by the 
injudicious among his admirers. When we 
consider that Whitman's verses are not even 
what the worst of Browning's are — ^^ verses 
from the typographical point of view " — we 
may realize to what an extent criticism gone 
mad is capable of ignoring poetic art and rest* 
ing its case upon poetic energy alone. 




The reference to Arnold snggests reflections 
of ft deeper sort. That the writer who was on 
die whole the traest and finest English critic of 
our generation occasionally went wrong, is well 
enough understood ; and it is generally admit- 
ted that his dicta about Shelley constitute the 
most wrong-headed of all his utterances. Now 
die substance of his criticism was that Shelley's 
poetry is "beautiful but ineffectual" — the 
passage is too familiar to need quotation in full 
— and the implication clearly is that it is more 
important for poetry to be effectual — charged 
widi energy, that is — than beautiful. This is 
mainly interesting as going to show how a critic 
of the best type may be deluded by a formula, 
since this condemnation of poetry for being 
ineffectual is merely an application of the 
^eriticbm of life " formula which gave a doc- 
trinaire tinge to so much of Arnold's writing. 
We do not for a moment admit that Shelley's 
poetry is ineffectual — we haye known too many 
young and generous souls to be moved by it as 
by a trumpet call — but we understand that its 
energy is so bound up with the loveliness of its 
art that the critic who is looking chiefly for the 
bearings of poetry upon conduct might easily 
he led — as Arnold was — to underestimate the 
energy in the presence of so dazzling an art. 
AU of which goes simply to show that Uie critic 
who is bent upon finding the effectual in poetry 
may miss it for the very reason of an unworthy 
distrust in the beautiful. " Beauty is truth," 
but this does not mean that the truth need stick 
out at all sorts of angles from the beautiful 

On the whole, while there are some signs that 
energy gets more attention than art from critics 
nowadays, and while popular judgments are 
based, as was always the case, upon little save 
energy in poetry, we are inclined to say that 
tiie only criticism that counts seriously does 
not notably disregard the claims of art. There 
ire still men like Mr. Watts-Dunton and Mr. 
Stedman and M. Brun^tiere to expound poetry 
to an incredulous public, and we do not recaU 
that earlier periods have been much better 
served. And the same incredulous public re- 
mains, as it always did remain, mosUy imper- 
vious to the doctrine of the critic, and con- 
tinues to worship its false gods — occasionally 
bhndering into worship of a true one — com- 
fortably thinks that it is enjoying poetry when 
it is only dazzled by rhetorical fireworks or 
dazed by sledge-hammer blows upon the brain, 
and gets a great deal of Philistine satisfaction 
oat of life generally, and regards critics as daft 

persons of most unaccountable tastes. And 
the beautiful remains the beautiful in all ages, 
its laws immutable and its strength sure, while 
some there be who find it out, and, not content 
to know it for their own enjoyment alone, bid 
others to the feast and help them to understand 
how, although poetic energy by itself may ac- 
complish much, conjoined with poetic art it 
may accomplish more, and that the abiding 
power of literature resides in its form more 
than in its force, or rather that the form alone 
can preserve the force from becoming spent in 
the hour of its birth. 


There was a time when the Modern-Language 
teachers and students of the United States found in 
the meetings of the Philological Society a sufficient 
opportunity for the presentation of papers and the 
discassion of qaestions in their field. Some fifteen 
years ago it seemed advisable to found a separate 
Association ; and three years ago a Central Division 
of the latter was established in the Middle West. 
On both occasions the parent society was somewhat 
critical of the advisability of the newer organization ; 
but in each case it was ultimately recognized that 
real needs had been met. It is very significant that 
it was the modern languages that first found the 
bounds of the general society too confining, and 
still more so that this society now maintains two 
SQccessful meetings. Nor must it be supposed that 
numbers alone are involved in this matter. When 
it comes to scientific training and natural ability, 
the moderns have every reason to welcome a com- 
parison. This is all natural enough, and would 
cause no comment were it not for the fact that it is 
but a short time ago that the prophecy of such a 
state of things was generally ridiculed in scholarly 
quarters. The times were ripe for the development 
of modern-language study; capable men were at 
hand ; and the public gladly, the schools less readily, 
granted recognition to the new scholarship. 

The relations between the national society and 
the Central Division are now very agreeable. The 
good sense of the great majority of those in attend- 
ance at the recent Western meeting prevented even 
the recognition of the grumblings of the one or two 
who still fail to see that the Central Division is not 
a separate society, but simply affords the Western 
members of the national association a more con- 
venient place of gathering. The dates of the ses- 
sions were so arranged that it was possible for 
members to attend both meetings, and one or two 
did so. The Eastern meeting was held in Phila- 
delphia, at the University of Pennsylvania; the 
Western meeting convened at Northwestern Univer- 
sity in Evanston. Of the twenty-four papers read 



[Jan. 16, 

at Philadelphia, nineteen were hj men from States 
bordering on the Atlantic, five by men representing 
Michigan, Ohio, Tennessee, and California. In 
addition to these five papers, all the fifteen papers 
read at Evanston were by Western men. Ann 
Arbor still forms the boundary between the East 
and the West, being represented at both meetings 
and in both cases by English papers. The attend- 
ance at the Western meeting was larger than usual, 
and more representatiye of the best the West has. 
At the Eastern meeting there was a noticeable in- 
crease in the number of rising young men. 

The papers read at the two meetings indicate, to 
some extent, the comparative activity in the differ- 
ent fields of work, though the hand of the Secretary 
is quite properly exerted to regulate this to some 
extent and thus make the meetings equally attractive 
to men representing the various languages. There 
is usually a dearth of Romance papers ; this year 
there was a great change in this matter at the 
Eastern meeting, there being nine English, eight 
Romance, and five Grermanic papers. At Evanston 
there were six English, six Grermanic, and but two 
Romance papers, though the Secretary made espe- 
cial efforts to have the Romance department better 
represented. An unusual paper at the East was 
one on recent work in Celtic (which was, however, 
scarcely more than a bibliog^phy) ; while at the 
Western meeting there were three papers dealing 
with Scandinavian subjects : one on the Scandina- 
vian element in English, by Professor Egge ; one 
by Professor Dodg^, on the gander of English words 
in the Danish spoken in this country ; and one on 
the literary language or languages of Norway, by 
Professor Bothne. These papers, for the most part, 
represent the activity of men of Scandinavian de- 
scent living in the Northwest, and show how local 
meetings tend to bring out the less general phases 
of linguistic study. 

More than half of the papers at both meetings 
dealt with literary, and most of the remainder with 
philological, subjects. At the £2astem meeting. 
Professor Hunt of Princeton read a semi-pedagogy 
ical paper extolling the new requirements in ** En- 
trance English"; the paper was censured for its 
indulgence in generalities. A pedagogical paper, 
read by Professor Clark at the Evanston meeting, 
on <* Methods of Studying English Masterpieces," 
was criticised because it advocated the study of 
English masterpieces, not as literature, but as illus- 
trations of rules in formal rhetoric, and as a means 
of increasing the student's vocabulary, which latter 
point the writer seemed to regard as one of the 
chief aims of such study. Of the literary papers 
presented at Philadelphia, several dealt with prob- 
lems in comparative literature, and one, by Professor 
Brander Matthews, with a problem of general liter- 
ature. The writer called attention to the fact that 
we have gone too far in regarding the drama as 
only a phase of literature. The conditions under 
which the real drama can succeed are quite different 
from those under which most literature is best ap- 

preciated, and these conditions cannot be ignored in 
writing drama, and must be borne in mind in criti- 
cising a drama as a piece of literature. The address 
of the President, on "The Province of English 
Philology," was also of a somewhat general nature 
in that it made an appeal for the maintenance, or 
rather the establishment, of the broader and higher 
signification of the word " philology." It is to be 
doubted whether this meaning will ever really attach 
itself to the word, unless the higher conception is 
actually realized in a larg^ number of our institu- 
tions, and in that case it would come about without 
personal resolves or the resolutions of learned socie- 
ties. Another paper that aroused general interest 
was that of Professor Fulton, of Wells College, 
<' On Translating Anglo-Saxon Poetry "; for Uie 
discussion soon passed to the subject of the trans- 
lating of any kind of poetry. Professor Fulton 
advocated a metre that should conform as nearly 
as might be to that of the original, and in this was 
supported by Professor Bright and others. Professor 
Schelling advocated gpreater freedom, and Professor 
Cook even contended for the use of prose in order 
to secure a faithful rendering of the thought, though 
at the total sacrifice of the form. In an interesting 
paper entitled " Verbal Taboos, their Nature and 
Origin," Professor Scott, of Michigan, explained, 
from the point of view of the psychologist, how it 
comes about that some of the natural developments 
of language fall under the ban of the makers of 
rhetorics and g^mmars. There can be no doubt 
that, as Professor Scott said, these taboos of various 
forms of speech are often based on personal likes 
and dislikes of the authors of such books ; but it 
must be conceded that these personal likes and dis- 
likes are generally due to the belief that certain 
forms accord with real or assumed laws of langruage. 
What is needed is that scholars possessing a higher 
and truer knowledge of the life and growth of lan- 
guage be willing to write elementary books on the 
subject. In the meantime, such papers as Professor 
Scott's will do much to bring into ridicule the pro- 
nunciamentos of ignorant pedants who have assumed 
dictatorship in the matter of speech usag^. 

In a paper of unusual breadth of view. Professor 
Schelling undertook to reconstruct the history of the 
Classical School with Ben Jonson as the comer- 
stone. He reviewed the well-known character of 
Jonson's work and influence, and made clear the 
direct and important relation existing between these 
and the essential characteristics of the Classical 
School. At the meeting at Evanston Professor 
Hempl, in accordance with the principles laid down 
in the paper read by him at New Haven two years 
ago, made clear the relation existing between the 
«' Palamon and Arcite " and the '< Knight's Tale," 
and showed that about two-thirds of the latter is 
essentially as it was in the earlier poem. Professor 
Jack, of Lake Forest, presented a careful study of 
those passages in << Piers the Plowman " that have 
been reg^arded, especially by Mr. Skeat, as reflecting 
facts in the life of the author, and showed that it 




18 exceedingly unlikely that these passageB fnnuBh 
any bat the most insignificant biographical data. 

Professor Groebel, of Stanford, sent to the Western 
convention a paper on Heine's relation to Wolfgang 
Menzel, in which, with considerable intensity of 
feeling, he undertook to show that Heine had plun- 
dered Menzel and then reviled him. The assertions 
and arguments of the paper were severely handled 
by Professor Hatfield, of Northwestern, in a brief 
but pointed criticism. Professor Hatfield himself 
read a paper on the earliest poems of Wilhelm 
Holler, and invited the convention to examine a 
collection of 2500 volumes of early and rare edi- 
tions of modem Grerman writers, which the library 
of Northwestern has just acquired through the 
efforts of Professor Kohn. Professor Yoss, of Wis- 
consin, called attention to the need of a more thor- 
ough study of the prose writings of Thomas Mumer, 
which has hitherto been much retarded by the lack 
of suitable reprints. Of the papers touching on 
Grerman literature that were read at Philadelphia, 
that of Professor Wood, of Baltimore, on the proto- 
type of Leonore, attracted especial attention and 
aroused the acute criticism of Professor Thomas of 

The election of officers resulted in the selection of 
Professor Fortier, of Tulane University, as presi- 
dent of the national society ; and of Professor C. A. 
Smith, also of Louisiana, as president of the Central 
Division. The next meeting of the national society 
will be at the University of Virginia; the place of 
meeting of the Central Division has not yet been 
determined upon. 


(1V> E. C. 8.) 

Once again the olden 

Joyance blossoms fair; 
Once again the golden 

Accents thrill the air; 
Once again we listen 

To the mellow strain, 
Gaze where song- waves glisten 

On that music's main. 

Clear as erst the message, 

Voice as nobly true, 
Sweet the wondrous presage 

Of the dreams we knew, 
Dreams that with the magic 

Of that singing rise, 
Sweeping every tragic 

Cloud from off our skies. 

Realms that light has builded 

Song has ever known, 
Seas that joy has gilded 

Verse has ever shown, 
And the gentler Muses 

Here again have sent 
What no heart refuses 

Of hope's blandishment. 

Louis J. Block. 


(To the Editor of Thb DzAX..) 

May I ask the opinion of your critical readers on a 
question of English ? The growth and popularity of the 
dialect story has caused words unknown to polite litera- 
ture to appear in oonservative periodicals. That seems 
to be accepted as necessary. But how far can we per- 
mit this to go ? Can we afford to admit these tramps 
in the world of words into the society of their betters 
on terms of equality ? Can dialect and colloquial terms 
take the place of words which are acknowledged as 
standards in literature apart from the dialect story ? 

In an article in a recent number of « Soribner's Maga^ 
sine " 1 find the word ** tote " in the foUowing sentenoe: 
** The sellers of the unsubstantial cakes called harquUloif 
* little boats,' tote around their roulette machines which 
resemble fire-extinguishers." 

What is the reader to understand from the sentenoe ? 
Is it supposed to be humorous ? or does the author, Mr. 
Bishop, so far forget his Connecticut birth and Yale 
training that he prefers a colloquial term to an orthodox 
English word ? 

The « Century,'' «« International," and « Standard" 
dictionaries give ** tote " as a word of unknown origin, a 
colloquial Southern United States word, in use especi- 
ally among negroes. The ** Century " adds that it is 
« in humorous use in the North and West." In an article 
on the Southern States, the occurrence of the local word 
might be justified by a desire for what is known as local 
color. But what justification can there be for using it 
in a description of a Spanish town ? 

Pursuing « tote " a little further, we find two instances 
of the use of the word cited in the " Century " diction- 
ary. One is in ** Science," VoL XL, p. 242, in a query 
concerning human beings as pack-animab : <* The first 
pack-aninuds were men and women . . . They toted 
(carried on the head) . . ." In this instance, •* tote " 
has a definite meaning peculiarly its own, which the user 
feels bound, however, to explain. The other citation is 
the *< Century Magazine," Vol. XL, p. 224, the passage 
being from a story by Miss Alice French (Octave 
Thanet) ; the scene is an Arkansas town, and Uie man 
in whose conversation the word occurs is an illiterate 
native, using the word in his own way. The two instanoes 
illustrate the legitimate use of the word, and leave Mr. 
Bishop to explain why he finds it needful to use it in writ- 
ing of life in a place so remote from the home of the 
ooUoquialism which it certainly is. 

Mabion E. Sparks. 
Urbana^ III., Jan. 8, 1898. 

(To the Editor of Ths Diain) 
In a notice of a report made by Hamilton in 1791, 
an English reviewer wrote as follows : 

** We shall, at all times, with pleasure, receive from our 
transatlantio brethren real improvements of our common 
mother-tongfue : but we shall hardly be induced to admit snoh 
phrases as that at page 93 — *more lengthy,* for longer, or 
more diffuse. But, perhaps, it is an established Amerioaa- 
ism." — ''British Critic," Nov., 1703, Vol. II., p. 286. 

Seldom has the danger of prophesying without knowl- 
edge been better illustrated than in this passage ; for 
while, doubtless, during the early part of this century 
British writers looked askance at the word and fre- 
quently qualified its use by the phrase « as the Americans 



[Jan. 16, 

say," yet soon the epithet found favor. In 1818 Lord 
Harrowbj, as we learn from R. Rush, ** spoke of words 
that had obtained a sanction in the United States, in 
the condemnation of which he did not join; for example, 
lengthy, which imported what was tedious as well as 
long, an idea that no other English word seemed to 
convey as welL" (<* Residence at the Court of London,** 
1833, p. 267.) In 1839, the late Asa Gray, after lis- 
tening to a debate in the House of Lords, wrote that 
** the word * lengthy,' which was not long since called 
an Americanism, seems to be pretty well naturalized, 
as Brougham used it several times, and Scarlett more 
than once." (" Letters," 1893, p. 143.) In 1852 Mr. 
S. Bailey said that «in compliment to our brethren 
across the Atlantic " he would ** mention an adjective 
. . . which is worthy, I think, of being accepted at 
their hands, I mean lengthy'* (« Discourses on Various 
Subjects," p. 76.) And in 1867 a writer in « Black- 
wood's Magazine," unmindful of the rash prophecy of 
the earlier reviewer, did not hesitate to assert that 
«< lengthy,' whether of American or English origin, 
will probably remain English while the language lasts." 
(Vol. OIL, p. 411.) 

The first dictionary to recognize the word was Web- 
ster's Compendious Dictionary of 1806; while the earli- 
est English dictionaries to admit the word to their 
pages seems to have been those of Enowles (1835), 
Smart (1836), and Richardson (1838). In a review 
of Webster's Dictionary which appeared in 1809, the 
writer thus freed his mind: 

** This is the wont of the whole oataloflrue of Amerinankms. 
• . • If of so low a word it were neoeanry to show the pre- 
cise meaning, we might say Mr. Webster has mistaken it, for 
the vulgar usually employ it to mean long even to tedioosness, 
as his discouae wss very lengthy." C^ Monthly Anthology 
and BoeUm Review," VII. 264.) 

The implication that only " genteel " words require 
accurate definition is sufficiently amusing; but how 
astonished would be the British reviewer and the Bos- 
ton purist could they know that an epithet ** which we 
shall hardly be induced to admit " has had in the present 
century the sanction of such « vulgar" English men 
and women as Dr. Arnold, Byron, Coleridge, W. L. 
Courtney, Dr. Dibdin, Dickens, George Eliot, J. Foster, 
E. A. Freeman, W. C. Hazlitt, Bishop Jebb, Professor 
Latham, R. LeGrallienne, C. Lever, E. O'Donovan, 
Professor Powell, T. W. Reid, 6. Saintsbury, Scott, 
Southey, J. A. Symonds, Miss M. Symonds, R. C. 
Trench, and Miss Yonge. 

So far, then, as the reputableness of the word is con- 
cerned, the controversy may be said long ago to have 
ended; but it is otherwise with regard to the question 
of its origin. For more than a century the belief has 
been held, on both sides of the Atlantic, by those who 
are competent to express an opinion as well as by casual 
users of the word, that it was first employed in this 
country. If, however, we turn to the Century Dictionary, 
we there read under lengthy : ** Said by Richardson to 
have originated in the United States . . . but the earli- 
est quotations are from British authors." A single be- 
lated example from Southey is all that is given in sup- 
port of this statement. The only instance known to the 
present writer of the use of the word by a British author 
before this century, occurs in a letter written by Thomas 
Paine in 1796. (« Writings," 1895, III. 251.) That, 
however, as the English reviewer surmised, the term 
was well established in this country in the eighteenth 
oentnzy is shown by the following citations; and the 

burden of proof lies on those who maintain that the 
word was not first used on this side of the water. 

**Bnt I grow too minute and lengthy." — 17S9, J. Adams, 
" Diary," " Works " (1850), U. 59. 

** A oommittee was appointed to draw up reasons against 
issuing said charter, to be laid before his Excellency ; which 
has been done ; those reasons, whioh are pretty lengthy, hav- 
ing been drawn up by your humble servant, instead of some 
more capable person." — 1762, J. Mayhew, in B. Peiroe's 
*' History of Harvard University " (1833), 278. 

" I ought to tell you that the Debate upon the American 
Stamp- Bill came on before the House [of Commons] for the 
first time, last Wednesday, when the same was opened by 
Mr. GrenviUe, the Chancellor of the Exeheqner, in a pretty 
lengthy speech." — 1765, J. IngersoU, ** Letters relating to the 
Stamp-Act" (1766), 14. 

" Dangerous consequences, they apprehend, would attend 
being nearer to them [Indians], arising from their being bur- 
densome and expensive to ye School by their frequent and 
lengthy visits."— 1768, N. Cleaveland, in F. Chase*s ''History 
Dartmouth College" (1891), 1. 107. 

'* We have received sundry Reoes, some of whioh came so 
late, and others so lengthy, that we are obliged to postpone 
them."— 1769, March 6, '" Boston Oaxette." 

*' The great defect here [England] is, in all sorts of people, 
a want of attention to what passes in such remote countries as 
America ; an unwillingness to read anything about them if it 
appears a litUe lengthy." — 1773, B. Franklin, '' Works " 
(1887), V. 190. 

'* You make no mention of the whole sheets I have wrote to 
you, by whioh I judge you either never received them, or that 
they were so lengthy as to be troublesome." — 1776, Abigail 
Adams, in ''Familiar Letters of J. Adams and his Wife " 
(1876), 161. 

*' Journals of observations on the quantities of rain, and de- 
gree of heat, being lengthy, and confused, and too minute to 
produce general and distinct ideas, I have taken five years* 
observations."— 1782, T. Jefferson, "Writings" (1894), IIL 

"This is my fourth letter to you since I arrived in this 
State ; and some of them are so lengthy that I presume you 
must return before you can find leisure to read, much more to 
answer them."— 1785, E. Gerry, in R. King*s " life and Cor- 
respondence" (1894), I. 74. 

" Many of the buildings are brick and stone ; but the atten- 
tion of travelers is principally engaged by a very lengthy brick 
building, just above the town, two stories high, and in a most 
delightful situation."- 1787, M. Cutler, in "Life, Journals, 
and Correspondenoe" (1888), I. 244. 

In a work already quoted, Mr. S. Bailey declared 
that the word " is a modem instance of what forms a 
fascinating feature in the study of Etymology, namely, 
the power of words to indicate the habits and customs 
of those who used them," and asserted that ** it could 
have sprung up nowhere but in a country addicted to 
protracted oratory." (« Discourses," p. 76.) On this 
passage Dr. Fitaeedward Hall remarks that <<as the 
word originated, so far as is known, in the days of 
Washington, who uses it, one may still justly object to 
Mr. Ba^ey's associating it with American grandilo- 
quence, a feature of the present century ; " and asks 
whether ** it can be proved that the epithet was ever 
applied more freely to spoken discourse than to written ? " 
(« Modem English," 1873, p. 56.) The answer to this 
question furnished by the eighty or more examples be- 
fore me is that the adjective is used over twenty times 
in qualification of various nouns, and that it is applied 
over fifty times to written discourse but only five times 
to spoken discourse. Mr. Bailey, then, however sound 
his main contention may be, was certainly unfortunate 
in his choice of an illustration. 

Albert Matthews. 

BattOH, January iO, 1898, 




C^e Itto ^aaliB. 

The Navy and thb NAVAii Policy 
OF THB United States.* 

Mr. John R. Spears's " History of Oar Navy" 
is a popularly written work devoted mainly to 
descriptions of naval actions and warlike opera- 
tions afloat generally, participated in by our 
ships and sailors, from the ^' Oasp^ " affair in 
1772 down to recent times. Dwelling thus 
chiefly on the more romantic and picturesque 
side of his theme, the author has treated briefly 
and incidentally the drier and more technical 
topics of naval administration and development. 
What he says in the latter regard, however, is 
instructive and to the point, and seems to de- 
note a closer knowledge on his part of marine 
matters than is to be gained from histories and 
manuals alone. We are not prepared to assert 
that Mr. Spears has actually been in the ser- 
vice, but his book has, to our thinking, an un- 
mistakable professional ring. Sea terms and 
scraps of nautical vernacular drop from his pen 
as easily and aptly as from Mr. Clark Russell's, 
and he describes a sea fight with a zest and 
verve and a grasp of marine technicalities hardly 
to be looked for in the work of a landsman. 
His account of the famous actions of the War 
of 1812 is notably good — though here the 
English reader, used to the consolatory versions 
of his own historians, may perhaps detect a note 
of undue exultation in Mr. Spears's effusively 
patriotic pages. 

In his opening volume Mr. Spears touches 
briefly on the origin of the American Navy, 
and then passes on to the narration of the naval 
actions of the Revolutionary War and the flrst 
war with the Barbary pirates. The story of the 
War of 1812 occupies the whole of Volume II. 
and about half of Volume III.; and the latter 
volume contains also accounts of the second 
war with the Algerines, of the naval operations 
of the Mexican War, and of Perry's Japan 
Expedition. There are special chapters on the 
British press-gang system, British prisons, 
naval duels, the West India pirates, etc. 

The fourth and concluding volume is devoted 
to the Civil War, and closes with a suggestive 
chapter on our new navy and the naval policy 
which in the author's opinion this country ought 
to pursue. Mr. Spears's views in this regard 
seem sounder than those generally advanced 

* Thx HiiiTOBT OF OuB Nayt, from its Origin to the Present 
D»7t 1775-1897. By John R. Spears. In f our Tolnmes. lUu*- 
trated. New York : Charles Scribner*s Sons. 

by advocates of naval expansion — one of 
whom he is, though in a comparatively moderate 
way. The gist of Mr. Spears's contention 
seems to be that the important thing for us is 
not so much the immediate possession of a 
g^at array of battleships and big guns as the 
maintenance at all times of an ability to con- 
struct them when needed. The conditions 
which force European nations into the cosily 
race for naval supremacy do not obtain in our 
case. We have no chronic quarrels on hand, 
no ^'imperial policy" of foreign aggression and 
annexation, no ouUying and vulnerable posses- 
sions to defend.* We need not aspire to rate 
first, or even third, among naval powers in 
point of numbers. But in point of ability to 
construct we should aim at all times to be 
abreast of the first. We must not allow our 
plants to decay, our tools to rust, our artisans 
and inventors to stagnate. We must '^ keep 
our hand in"; and to this end a relatively 
moderate degree of continuous activity in ship- 
building and gun-making, positive and experi- 
mental, will suffice. Mr. Spears thinks we 
ought to lay down at least one new ship of the 
first class yearly. This course would serve not 
only to maintain and foster the ability in ques- 
tion, but also to keep afloat under our flag such 
a navy as sense and experience point to as the 
ideal one for us — that is to say, a navy rela- 
tively modest in numbers, but unsurpassed in 
efficiency. As for our former cheese-pariug 
policy of ^^ letting other nations do the experi- 
menting for us," events have shown us the 
futility of that. We ^* saved the dollars," it 
is true ; and we had the fleeting satisfaction 
of chuckling over what we thought our ^* cute- 
ness " in getting our experience gratis. But 
they laugh best who laugh last. We speedily 
found, when we concluded some ten or twelve 
years ago to put our cheaply gained *^ experi- 
ence " to the test, that it was practically next 
to no experience at all ; that what w^ had saved 
in dollars we had lost in capacity; that we 
could no more, of our own knowledge and re- 
sources, build a flrst-dass battleship than China 
could ; and that if we needed one on compara- 
tively short notice we should be reduced to 
buying it of the nations that had been " doing 
our experimenting for us." That was humiliat- 
iug. More than that, it was alarming, since it 
disclosed our defenceless condition, and nobody 
in his senses contends that we are so absolutely 
exempt from the danger of foreign war as to 

*The acquisition by this oonntry of Gnba or Havaii voold 
of oourse neoessitato some rsTisal of oar author's i 



[Jan. 16, 

need no degree of ^^ preparedness " for it what- 
ever. Not even Jefferson went so far as that ; 
for he advocated, as we know, a defensive navy 
to consist of a sort of amphibious gun-boat that 
could be stored on land in times of peace, and 
rolled down on the beach for launching in case 
of invasion. So, when we discovered the folly 
of expecting to absorb, without cost or effort, 
the hard- won skill and capacity of other nations, 
we set about mending matters with an energy 
and judgment of which we are now beginning 
to reap the reward. Fortunately, we slipped 
through the ticklish period of our apprentice- 
ship in modern naval construction without seri- 
ous foreign entanglements ; else we must have 
had to pay for our former penny- wise methods in 
the solid coin of national shame and disaster. 
For years, with an elastic and vaguely conceived 
Monroe Doctrine, a minatory press, and a blus- 
tering coterie of Congressional Bobadils on our 
hands, the condition of our navy was such that 
had we gone to war with even a minor power 
like Chili — which at one time showed some- 
thing like a desire to *'get at us" — we should 
probably have met at the outset a series of 
mortifying defeats. Time, enabling us to 
bring our vast general resources to bear, must 
have reversed matters ; but in the meantime 
we should have drunk of the cup of national 
humiliation — deep enough, perhaps, to satisfy 
even our British post-prandial friends and well- 
wishers, and enable them to return in kind our 
compliments on their exploits against petty foes 
at Majuba Hill and elsewhere. 

Turning to current events, can anyone doubt 
that the greatly improved condition of our navy 
to-day is a factor making mainly for peace in 
our present entanglement in Spanish-Cuban 
quarrels, or that if our navy were twice or thrice 
as strong as it is our position at Madrid would 
be twice or thrice as strong also ? It needs but 
a slight acquaintance with Spanish opinion as 
mirrored in the usual organs of expression to 
see that the first consideration that presents 
itself to the Spanish mind when weighing the 
alternative of "Peace or War?" with this 
country is not a moral or even an economical 
one, but the purely practical one as to the 
chance of success the Spanish navy would have 
in a conflict with ours. The Spaniard is con- 
vinced that we are totally and flagrantly wrong 
on this Cuban question ; he is convinced of his 
patriotic duty to resent what he deems our 
insolent intermeddling in his private affairs ; 
and it is by no means unreasonable to assert 
that were our navy to-day what it was ten or 

twelve years ago we should have a war on our 
hands within six months. As it is, our diplo- 
matic efforts to abate the Cuban nuisance are 
already bearing good fruit, and will doubtless be 
crowned with ultimate success. Complications 
such as this with Spain may arise at any time, 
and from unforeseen quarters. The policy to 
which we stand committed, of opposing vi et 
armis on this continent such political enter- 
prises on the part of European nations as that 
of Louis Napoleon in Mexico, or as are now 
(thanks to the prevalent craze for " Imperial- 
ism " and schemes of ^' colonial expansion " of 
the Jamesonian order) on foot in China, and 
indeed almost everywhere else where the local 
power is notoriously weak and unsupported, is 
in itself, one would think, enough to warrant 
us in keeping afloat such a navy as Mr. Spears 
holds to be commensurate with our needs and 
our political pretensions. 

The building of our new navy virtually began 
with the formation by Secretary William H. 
Hunt of a board, headed by Bear- Admiral John 
Bogers, " to determine the requirements of a 
new navy." The board found that the United 
States ought to have twenty-one battleships of 
the first dass, seventy unarmored cruisers, 
twenty torpedo boats, five torpedo gunboats, 
and five rams. The estimate was not extrava- 
gant, and it was largely approved by the nation. 
Then we started, or tried to start, to build our 
ships. We had a beautiful theoretical knowl- 
edge of how everything was to be done, and the 
time had come to show a rather skeptical world 
how extremely sharp we had been in getting 
all this knowledge without expending a dollar 
or handling a tool. But somehow or other, 
when we turned to our ship-yards and foundries 
things did not work as smoothly as our politi- 
cians and naval doctrinaires had led us to ex- 
pect. There was an ominous hitch at the start. 
We found that we could not build even one of 
the armored ships. We could not roll even the 
thinnest of armor-plates, nor make a gun that 
would pierce even the cheap plating of the 
ramshackle old monitors we had lying up in 
ordinary. In short, we had to begin our edu- 
cation in modem naval construction almost de 
novo ; and so, instead of building battleships 
off-hand as we had expected to do, we started 
in tentatively on third-rate cruisers. Of course 
we had to buy our first armor-plates abroad, 
and we even went abroad for the plans of one 
of our cruisers — the " Charleston." Had war 
been impending we should have had to buy our 
ships outright and fully equipped wherever 




they could be found. But, as Mr. Spears ob- 
serves, we were building a navy in time of 
peace ; and a ship that *^ could not get out of 
her own way/' if built by our own mechanics 
and designers, was then more to our purpose 
than the best one afloat would have been if 
purchased abroad. The important thing for 
us at the start was not so much the product as 
the training, — the building of men rather than 
the building of ships. The product, however, 
of our earliest efforts was very creditable to us. 
Our first cruisers were the '^Chicago," the 
'^ Atlanta," and the '^Boston "; and these ships, 
while by no means ^'the best of their class 
afloat," as our enthusiastic reporters and poli- 
ticians of course declared them to be, were 
remarkably good ships, considering the circum- 
stances under which they were built. Says 
Mr. Spears : 

** As the prodoot of apprentices in the art of building 
modem warships, they are marvels of excellence. But 
since they were designed we have learned something." 

Since they were designed we have indeed learned 

a great deal. We have, for instance, learned 

to design and build a ship like the '' New York," 

of which Mr. Spears says : 

** She cost * a whole lot of money,' it is true, but as 
we recall the thrill that stirred the nation when the 
story of her trial trip was told — when it was told that 
we had built the swiftest and most powerful cruiser in 
the world, we are bound to say that twice the sum in- 
vested in any other way by the government could not 
have given the nation so great a benefit. It was not 
that anyone was incited to a point where he wished the 
nation to go to war. . . . With the * New York ' afloat, 
the American patriot was so far assured that his country 
would not be bullied, and so we should have peace." 

Swift cruisers like the twenty-two knot '^ Co- 
lumbia " and the still swifter '' Minneapolis," 
and a shoal of little cruisers and gunboats for 
shallow waters, followed the " New York." In 
the meanwhile we were at work on real battle- 
ships, beginning with the ^' Maine " and ending 
with the *' Iowa," the " Indiana," the " Kear- 
sarge," and the '^ Illinois." Mr. Wilson, the 
English author of ^^ Ironclads in Action," draws 
an instructive comparison between our ^^ Iowa " 
and the British ^' Majestic," and concedes that 
the American ship, though considerably smaller 
than the British one, is fully a match for her. 
Says our author : 

** Let no mistake be made about this. It is a matter 
of the greatest moment when our ship of 11,500 tons is 
conceded to be a match for one of 15,000 tons in the 
best navy in the world — not because we have the ship, 
but because we have developed the men who can do 
that kind of work and the tools for their use." 

While we were developing shipbuilders we 

were also developing gunmakers. As we have 
said, we could not ten years ago make a gun 
that would pierce the armor of one of the old 
^* Monitors." The ^^ Monitor " turret was com- 
posed of eight layers of one-inch iron plates, 
laid so as to break joints, and our best gun of 
that day, — a seven-inch Brooke, firing a solid 
shot weighing 160 pounds, — was unable to do 
any material damage to it. Nowadays we make 
guns throwing projectiles that would pierce the 
turret of a *' Monitor " as a rifle-buUet would 
pierce a bandbox. The fact that our mod- 
em cannon throw projectiles weighing 1,100 
pounds, which strike with a force sufficient to 
lift a thousand tons twenty-five feet, tells the 
story of the development of the gun. The 
modem eight-inch rifie throws a steel bolt 
weighing 250 pounds, at a muzzle velocity of 
2,600 feet per second, with a striking power of 
10,830 foot-tons. The fact that the old eight- 
inch iron shot could not penetrate four inches 
of iron plates, while the modem steel bolt pene- 
trates twenty-six inches of wrought iron, is sug- 
gestive. The best thirteen-inch modem rifles 
have a striking power of about 86,000 foot-tons, 
and penetrate thirty-four inches of wrought 

Thus, after an apprenticeship of ten years 
the gunmakers and shipbuilders of the United 
States have done enough, as Mr. Spears thinks, 
to entirely satisfy their countrymen. We can 
now build and equip our own ships. Among 
the navies of the world ours ranks, at best, 
fifth, — hardly as high as it should rank even 
now, perhaps, and certainly far lower than it 
should rank were the government to embark on 
that ^^ forward policy " of which the annexation 
of Hawaii would be the first step. Whether 
or no that step will be taken is doubtful ; and 
there now seems to be a growing tendency to 
adopt Speaker Seed's sober dictum, *' Empire 
can wait," as a watchword. We all know the 
magic influence on opinion of catching phrases 
currently repeated ; and it is not unlikely that 
this one of Speaker Reed's will go far to turn 
the scale in settling the impending Hawaiian 
question. Mr. Spears's " History of Our Navy " 
is, all things considered, the b^t that has yet 
been produced, and it is profusely and appro- 
priately illustrated. £. o. J. 

The centenary of Leopardi's birth will be celebrated 
in Italy next Jane, Senator Mariotti having charge of 
the festivities. It is hoped to publish at that time the 
unedited manuscripts of the poet, which include letters, 
a tragedy in verse entitled "Marie Antoinette," and 
philosophical disquisitions. 



[Jan. 16, 

Church Historiait, Theologian, akd 


^^ I am a Swiss by birth, a German by edu- 
oation, an American by choice." Sach was Dr. 
Philip Schaff's description of himself nationally. 
Had he said, ^^ I am a Christian," he would have 
expressed his real relationship theologically. 
True, he was connected with a denomination ; 
but he was claimed by the whole Christian 
choroh. As his Ufe wL given in service for 
the whole church, so an account of that life is 
of interest in every branch of the church. 

His son, as his biographer, realizes the deli- 
cacy and difficulties of his position. *^ A son 
is prompted by natural disposition to mistake 
matters of a purely private interest for matters 
of public concern, and to dwell upon what is 
usual and common as though it were exceptional 
and distinctive." But he has selected his mate- 
rials most wisely, and has proved his fitness for 
his task by showing a fair discernment of his 
father's abilities, and by a marked modesty in 
reference to matters in which he personally was 
a participant. He tells us of his father's life, 
not of his own. 

In reading of Dr. Schaff 's early days, we gain 
an insight into Continental methods of instruc- 
tion in both preparatory and university work. 
And as Dr. Schaff's long life was spent in the 
class-room, this view is extended even into our 
own times, and in this country as well as in 
Europe. More than this, the biographer, having 
access to memoranda preserved by Dr. Schaff, 
shows us much of his father's association with 
the leading theological and philosophical teach- 
ers of the last sixty years. And, still further, 
we gain Dr. Schaff's own intelligent estimate 
of tibese leaders of thought. Extracts from his 
journal are more valuable than encyclopaedic 
articles, as being less formal, and as being the 
written appreciation of one who knew them 

Dr. Schaff impressed all his acquaintances 
as an intensely spiritual man. With him knowl- 
edge never took the place of piety. His was a 
simple yet perfect trust on Jesus Christ. Much 
of his conversation had this as its topic. The 
first chapter of this biography tells of his con- 
version, and the infiuence in his early life of 
pastor and teachers. It was his most precious 

Much interest naturally centres about the 

*Thb Lifb of Phiijp Sohajt, in part Antobiosraphioal. 
By Dairid S. Sohaff, D.D. With portzaiti. New Tork: 
GharlM Soribner*! Soot. 

occasion of his coming to America, and the 
views held by German Christians as to the con- 
ditions and needs of this country. His coming 
was largely in the missionary spirit. His first 
twenty years of service were given in the semi- 
nary of the German Reformed church at Mer- 
cersburg, Pennsylvania. His inaugural address, 
at the age of twenty-five, on *^ The Principle of 
Protestajitism," opened a new line of thought, 
and has been regarded as the most infiuential 
work of the denomination in this country. It 
led to a trial of its author upon charges of 
heresy, and, because of his acquittal, the with- 
drawal of leading men from denominational 
affiliation. But the Mercersburg theology, so- 
called, as developed out of this discussion, has 
exerted a helpful influence upon the statements 
of all the Reformed communions. 

The last twenty-three years of Dr. Schaff's 
life were devoted to teaching in Union Theo- 
logical Seminary. To this work he brought 
the abilities gained by long years of close 
study, by twenty years of teaching experience, 
and by thirty years of personal contact with 
the leading educators of the world. His long 
service in Union Seminary was particularly 
fruitful. His instruction was helpful and au- 
thoritative. His influence upon students was 
encouraging and uplifting. His service to the 
church was wide-reaching. His opportunities 
for research and authorship were unlimited. 

A look at Dr. Schaff's relations to his stu- 
dents may be pleasant. Many will remember, 
as does this writer, his custom of inviting us 
to walk with him, one on either side, for half 
an hour, seeking to become better acquainted 
with us, and to give such direction and encour- 
agement in our student work as was possible. 
These half-hours out of his busy life were 
among his best gifts, and awaken renewed 
gratitude when recalled to memory. His stu- 
dents also found employment in his study, at 
remunerative prices, in clerical work in con- 
nection with his publications. 

The study of Dr. Schaff's life really shows 
us the history of the great religious movements 
during the last half-century. During these 
years Protestant Christianity has become more 
compact. Its members have come closer to- 
gether. A heartier fellowship exists. Prob- 
ably no other agency has been so helpful in 
this respect as tibe Evangelical Alliance ; and 
at times it seemed hardly too much to say that 
Philip Schaff was the Evangelical Alliance. 
Here he could work as could no other, because 
of his extraordinary acquaintance in all parts 




of the Christian world, and the eminent re- 
spect and affection felt for him by leaders in 
all denominations. And the reason was evi- 
dent. He did not seek or expect an organic 
union of churches. **He urged confederate 
union between allied Protestant communions." 
In the service of the Alliance, and looking 
toward such a union of sentiment and effort, 
he gladly gave his time, and made it the sub- 
ject of constant thought and prayer. He 
believed that American theology should be 

The Bible Revision idea early secured his 
attention. He saw the need, and he labored 
unceasingly and persistently for its accomplish- 
ment. To him was entrusted the responsibility 
of organizing the American companies of Re- 
visers. Through him the communications be- 
tween the English and American companies 
were continually held. And when, because of 
the terms imposed by the University Presses, 
to whom the English Revisers transferred the 
copyright, the original relations to the Ameri- 
can Revisers could not be maintained, and it 
seemed impossible to hold the American com- 
panies together, it was again Dr. Schaff who, 
by his intermediary relations, restored the har- 
mony, and enabled the project to succeed. 

Perhaps the one feature in his theological 
life most pleasant to him was his relation to 
German and American theologians. He called 
himself ^^a mediator between German and 
Anglo-American Theology and Christianity." 
Dr. Mann called him ^' the presiding genius of 
international theology." His breadth of view 
and catholicity of temperament led him to enter 
with enthusiasm into the project for a Parlia- 
ment of Religions, at Chicago, in 1893, and to 
take an active part in this world-famous gath- 
ering. He did not regard this Congress, as 
some seem to have done, as an exaltation of 
non - Christian religions, nor did he consider 
himself as sacrificing any Christian convictions 
by sharing in its discussions. He looked upon 
it as a step toward the reunion of Christen- 
dom, — the thought to which he had given his 
whole life, and which formed the subject of 
his address read at the Parliament. Dr. Henry 
H. Jessup characterized this paper as ^' apos- 
tolic, one of the most Christ-like utterances in 
all church history." 

Dr. Schaff is known most widely by his 
writings. Men marvel at reading the list of 
original and edited works, both in English and 
in German. His " History of Christianity," 
his " History of the Creeds," and his " Person 

of Christ " will live, and long be recognized as 
leading works in their spheres. 

Thus we have tried to give an idea of the 
picture of this great life as portrayed in the 
stately volume before us. It is only a sugges- 
tion. The reader wiU not want to leave the 
book. It is well written. It presents a faithful 
picture. It is not overdrawn. It shows us 
the man. 

Habby W. Reed. 

Mn. Grant Allen as an anthro- 

Everyone knows Mr. Grant Allen's style: 
it is always bright and attractive. Its charm 
is not absent in his first extensive work in 
anthropology, " The Evolution of the Idea of 
God." In this work he aims to get at the way 
in which our modern idea of Gt>d has originated 
and developed. He recognizes two conflict- 
ing schools of thought upon the matter, that of 
the humanists and that of animists, and says, 
*^ This work is to some extent an attempt to 
reconcile them." Having made this statement, 
he proceeds to draw up what is perhaps the 
most complete and forceful statement of the 
ghost-theory pure and simple that has been 
presented. The book shows an enormous 
amount of thought and ingenuity. While he 
does not appear to us to demonstrate the fal- 
lacy of animism, he certainly presents many 
points favoring the ghost-theory, which must be 

Having thus indicated the author's position, 
we may briefly trace his outline of treatment. 
The origin of gods is in every case traced back 
to the dead man. '^ We see at once that no 
gods exist for them [i. 6., simple savages] save 
the ancestral corpses or ghosts." The subject 
of the worship of stones and stakes is then 
taken up. The claim is made that the sacred 
stone is in its origin the gravestone : at flrst 
merely a bowlder rolled upon the grave to keep 
the dead man down ; later, a true gravestone, 
coming in time to be the representative of the 
man ; lastly, his carved representation. In 
similar wise it is claimed that the sacred stake 
was at flrst driven through the body to hold 
the dead man. It followed much the same line 
of development as the stone, and came in time 
to really represent the dead man in his divine 
form. Having traced the beginning of idols 

*Ths Eyolution of the Idea of God. By QrAut Allen. 
New York : Heniy Holt A Co. 



[Jan. 16, 

— stocks and stones — to the worship of the 
dead, the author makes a special application of 
his theory to the Jews, and claims that Jahweh 
was a sacred gravestone, which was carried in 
the ark of the covenant and represented a long- 
deceased ancestor. In the light of his investi- 
gations to this point, the gods of Egypt and 
Israel are studied, and the rise of monotheism 
out of polytheism traced. At this place we find 
the author saying : 

" We have shown how polytheism came to be, and 
how from it a certain particular groap of men — the 
early Israelites — rose by slow degrees through natural 
stages to the monotheistic conception. . . . How did 
this purely local and national Hebrew deity advance 
to the conquest of the civilized world ? . . . Why do 
most of the modern nations which have nominally 
adopted monotheism yet conceive of their god as com- 
pounded in some mystically incomprehensible fashion 
of three persons — the Father, the Son, and the Holy 
Ghost ? " 

In elucidation of these questions, the matters 
of incarnation and the intentional manufacture 
of gods are discussed. Of such manufactured 
gods, the gods of cultivation, and especially the 
gods of corn and wine, are studied. Here the 
vast mass of materials gathered by Mannhandt 
and Tragen are drawn upon, though Mr. Grant 
Allen's point of view and mode of treatment 
are radically different from theirs. Resurrec- 
tion, sacrifice, the sacrament, atonement, are 
investigated in connection with such gods. 
Two principles are then enunciated — ^* first, 
that a dying god, human or animal, is usually 
selected as a convenient vehicle for the sins of 
the people ; and second, that without shedding 
of blood there is no remission of sins." The 
reader can easily see that Mr. Allen is leading 
up to his climax. Christ is the god of a Syrian 
population y a com-and-wine god, whose death 
frees the world from sin and whose resurrection 
proves that man shall rise again. The sacra- 
ment of his flesh and blood, bread and wine, is 
paralleled by many similar sacraments to such 
gods elsewhere. 

We have thus fully presented Mr. Allen's 
treatment, because fairness appeared to demand 
it. It is at once thoughtful and ingenious ; it 
is presented as inoffensively as possible. It 
deserves careful study, not only from the an- 
thropologist of whatever school, but also from 
the religionist who pays no attention to anthro- 
pology proper. While the animist will not be 
convinced by the argument, he will certainly 
be given abundant matter for thought, pre- 
sented strikingly and fearlessly. 

Frederick Starr. 

Phiix)80phy or Religion ?* 

The interesting initial volume of the projected pub- 
lications of the Philosophical Union of the Univer- 
sity of California bears the title "The Conception of 
God." It is the product of a debate in the Univer- 
sity between Professors Boyce, LeConte, Howison, 
and Meres. Professor Royce led off in the discus- 
sion, and his presentation was made the pivotal 
point of what followed. The later and larger por- 
tion of the volume is made up of a more complete 
statement and more careful defense of his positions. 
His view is that of Monism, rendered in the form 
of Idealism; and the doubt it occasioned was 
whether any adequate room could be found in it 
for the transcendental personal character of God. 
The defense and the attack necessarily led to the 
question of freedom, the distinguishing point in 
personality, and the dividing point in forms of law. 
It is this question especially which Professor Royce 
treats in his final statement. 

One observes with interest the assertion of each 
of the contestants, that he finds as the fruit of the 
debate but little occasion to modify his own opinions. 
The grasshopper plunges through the ingenious web 
of the spider. It is of no moment ; there is thread 
enough in the spinneret to repair the damage. The 
same instinct that wove the first tissue will readily 
restore it. 

Is it simply the cohesion of a philosophical con- 
ception we seek after, or is it a faithful rendering 
of all Christian experiences ? Does philosophy 
follow after faith with a theory conformable to 
facts ; or does a theory predetermine the contents 
of faith, giving faith less or more room as the ruling 
idea expands or contracts upon it under the hand- 
ling of the mind? There can hardly be a doubt as 
to which is the proper relation. Religious belief, 
religions activity, and religious sentiment constitute 
the controlling evolutionary facts which make up 
the spiritual world. It is the business of philosophy 
simply to take these facts at their true value, which 
is their empirical value, and give them adequate 
support and inner coherence. The subtlety of the 
ideas developed in this process, and their logical 
coherence, are of little moment compared with their 
conformity to the religious history of the world in its 
depth, power, and diversity. The effort of Professor 
Royce seems to be to broaden an idea, the inade- 
quacy of which the mind instinctively feels, so that 
it may, with some color of truth, embrace the facts 

* Thb Cohgbptzon of God. By Josiah Royoe, Prof eoor of 
the History of PhUosophy in Harvard Uniyerrity ; Joaeph Le 
Gonte and G. H. Howiaon, Profenors in the Uniyenity of 
California ; and Sidney Edward Meres, Professor of Philoso- 
phy in the Uniyenity of Texas. New York : The Blacmillan 

Thb PBOvmKXTiAL Obdbb of thb World. By Alex- 
ander Balmain Bmoe, D.D., Professor in the Free Church 
College, Glasgow. New York : Charles Soribner's Sons. 

Chbistian Abpbots of Lifb. By Brooke Foes Westoott, 
D.D.; D.C.L.; Bishop of Dnrham. New York: The Bfao- 
nullaa Company. 




of a spiritnal world, in itself so ample, unimpeach- 
able, and grandly significant These experiences 
are crowded together and belittled, simply that a 
ruling conception may have some show of covering 
them. We much prefer the idealistic to the em- 
pirical rendering of the world ; but we can accept 
neither, because neither is adequate to its work. 
One can hardly touch the discussion involved in this 
book without being at once immersed in it Pro- 
fessor Boyce shows much ingenuity of thought, and 
clearness and grace of expression. The fatal defect 
in his theory is that it is a web floating in the air. 
To pursue it with the eye is to fall over the things 
nearest to us and be bruised upon them. It is fitted 
to give correction to the inadequate statements of 
realism, not to displace them. It is only an invigo- 
rating intellectual gymnastic to encounter idealism. 
The doctrine is far too-removed from the general 
mind — the facts which that mind stands for — 
to make any extended conquests. 

The criticism of Professor Boyce on the thing-in- 
itself as an unknowable term, brought in to no pur- 
pose to expound phenomena, seems to us just. We 
do not think it holds, however, as against force and 
phenomena, regarded as one inseparable fact 

<' The Providential Order of the World " is the 
title of a volume containing a series of lectures 
given in the University of Glasgow, on the Gifford 
foundation. Lord Gifford, in endowing these lec- 
tures, assigned as the theme, A Knowledge of God, 
and directed that the lectures should be addressed 
to the general student and that they should keep 
pace with current thought The well-trodden con- 
ventional paths of apologetics were thus closed to 
them. The subject chosen by Professor Bruce, and 
the discussion under it, were in harmony with this 
purpose. The salient points are man's place in the 
universe, the worth of man, the discipline of the 
world as developing character. No themes could be 
more vital and comprehensive. The author treats 
them with liberal resources of knowledge, and with 
a broad and generous spirit. We cannot, however, 
think his thoughts quite as incisive, nor his conclu- 
sions quite as masterful, as the topic demands. 
While he does not fall below the occasion, he does 
not signally rise to it. 

" Christian Aspects of Life " is a volume made up 
of occasional addresses by the Bishop of Durham, 
delivered in the ordinary routine of his work. They 
are united by a loose cohesion of topics, under a 
variety of headings, such as "The National Church," 
"Foreign Missions," "Education," "Social Service." 
They are hardly vivacious or fresh, but they are 
eminently sober and substantial. We are left in no 
doubt as to whether they are philosophical or relig- 
ious. They are profoundly religious ; yet taken out 
of the region of cant by an erudite and reflective 
temper. Bishop Westcott is one more in the long 
list of experienced, devout, and cultivated divines 
whom the Church of England has nourished in its 

communion. They have been men who have deeply 
felt the force of religious ideas as applied in a sober 
and extended form to the affairs of life. They have 
had a faith conformable to and strengthened by a 
varied, positive, and fruitful experience. Little as 
we may be inclined to accept the details of doctrine 
or ritual associated with this Church, we can hardly 
fail to see that there is a solid and undeniable ele- 
ment of fact and truth in this continuous develop- 
ment of human life under religious belief. 

John Basgom. 

Recent American Poetry.* 

It is many years since it was last possible to in- 
clude a new volume by Mr. Stedman in any review 
of recent poetry. The student of literature does 
not altogether bemoan the lapsed period, for it at 
least enabled the poet to win another sort of dis- 
'tinction by producing, in his three volumes of prose, 
the most substantial and serious body of literary 
criticism that has yet been written by any American. 
Meanwhile, although Lowell and Whittier and 
Holmes went to join the majority of poets dead and 
gone, we knew that one of their noblest fellow- 
singers was still with us, and were not infrequently 
reminded of the fact by an occasional contribution 
to some periodical publication. These scattered 

*PoBMB Now FiBST CoLLBCTBD. By Edmund Clarenoe 
Stedman. Boston : Houghton, Blifflin & Co. 

SoKGS OF LiBBBTT, and Other Poems. By Robert Under- 
wood Johnson. New York : The Century Co. 

Mbmobial Day, and Other Poems. By Richard Burton. 
Boston : Copeland & Day. 

Thb Chiudbbm of thb Night. A Book of Poems. By 
Edwin Arlington Robinson. Boston: Richard G. Badger 

Thb Dauohteb of Ypogas, and Other Verse. By Henry 
R. Remsen. Hartford : Clark <& Smith. 

Shadows. By M. A. De Wolfe Howe. Boston : Copeland 

APHB<SB8aA, A Legend of Argolb, and Other Poems. By 
George Horton. London : T. Fisher Unwin. 

Out of thb Silbnce. By John Vance Cheney. Boston : 
Copeland A Day. 

Thb Choib Visiblb. By Mary M. Adams. Chicago: 
Way & Williams. 

ViOTOBT, and Other Verses. By Hannah Parker Kimball. 
Boston : Copeland & Day. 

Omb Wat to thb Woods. By Evaleen Stein. Boston : 
Copeland & Day. 

SoMOS TsAJCB. By Annie Fellows Johnston and Albion 
Fellows Bacon. Boston : L. C. Page & Co. 

Love's Wat, and Other Poems. By Martin Swift. Chi- 
cago : A. C. McCInrg <& Co. 

Fbom Cuff and Scaub. A Collection of Verse. By 
Benjamin Sledd. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

Thb Death of Falstaff, and Other Poems. By L. Bruce 
Moore. Baltimore : Cushing & Co. 

Songs of Fltino Houbs. By Dr. Edward Willard Watson. 
Philadelphia : Henry T. Coates & Co. 

The Dbbambbs, and Other Poems. By Edward S. Van 
Zile. New York : F. Tennyson Neely. 

The House OF thb- Hbabt. By Lrving Browne. Buffalo: 
The Peter Paul Book Co. 



[Jan. 16, 

contribations, and many others heretofore onpub- 
lished, haye at last been broaght together in a 
Yolome of << Poems Now First Collected/' and our 
literature is made the richer hj a book which not 
only exhibits no decline from the standard of the 
familiar << Household Edition " of Mr. Stedman's 
verse, bat in some respects marks an advance in 
power of expression, a severer artistic restraint, a 
richer music, and a riper passion. Some of these 
pieces, indeed, are already familiar enough. << The 
Hand of Lincoln " long ago took its place among 
the best poems inspired by the great leader whose 
life and tragic fate also inspired the '< Commemo- 
ration Ode " of Lowell and the immortal threnody 
of Whitman. The *< Provencal Lovers," too, has 
long been a favorite illustration of the vein of 
mingled sentiment and fancy that has been so char- 
acteristic a feature of Mr. Stedman's work. Of 
such poems as these little remains to be said, and 
we note, rather, some of the less familiar pieces in 
the collection now published. Among these a high 
place must be given to the Christmas ballad or carol 
of " The Star-Bearer," which has an imaginative 
reach and splendor of diction to which the poet has 
not often attained. The first two stanzas may be 

^* There were seyen angels erst that spanned 
Heayen's roadway out through spaoe. 
Lighting with stars, by Gk>d*s oommand, 
The fringe of that high place 
Whence plomM beings in their joy, 
The senritors His thoughts employ. 
Fly ceaselessly. No goodlier band 
Looked upward to His face. 

** There, on bright hoyering wings that tire 
Neyer, they rested mute. 
Nor of far journeys had desire, 
Nor of the deathless fruit ; 
For in and through each angel soul 
All wayes of life and knowledge roll, 
£yen as to nadir streamed the fire 
Of their torches resolute." 

A music simpler, but no less exquisite, is found in 
<< A Sea-Change, at Kelp Rock," a reflective strain 
suggested by reading Sophocles one summer day. 
It is the music of Mrs. Browning's " Wine of Cy- 
prus,'* and is quite as haunting in its melancholy 

** Drops the book — but from its prison 

Tell me now what antique spell, 
Through the unclaspt coyer risen, 

Moyes the waves I know so well ; 
Bids me find in them hereafter. 

Dimpled to their utmost zone 
With the old innumerous laughter, 

An iEgean of my own ? 

'* Even so : the blue JEgean 

Through our tendriled arches smiles, 
And the distant empyrean 

Curves to kiss enchanted isles : 
Isles of Shoals, I know — yet fancy 

This one day shall have free range. 
And yon isles her necromancy 

Shall to those of Hellas change." 

Still another strain, this time stately and austere, 
breathes from the noble ode << Corda Concordia,*' 
written for the opening in 1881 of the Concord 

School of Philosophy. The poem ends with these 

fine stanzas : 

** So come — when long grass waves 
Above the holiest graves 
Of them whose ripe adventure chides our own — 
Come where the great elms lean 
Their quivering leaves and green 
To shade the moss-dung roofs now sacred grown, 
And where the bronze and granite tell 
How Liberty was hailed with life's farewell. 

** Here let your Academe 
Be no ignoble dream. 
But consecrate with life and death and song. 
Through the land's spaces spread 
The trust inherited. 
The hope which from your hands shall take no wrong, 
And build an altar that may last 
Till heads now young be laurelled with the Past." 

As a writer of poems dedicated to persons or in- 
spired by occasions, Mr. Stedman at his best is not 
surpassed by any of his fellow-singers. The << com- 
memorations" section of his new volume gives us, 
in such poems as that last mentioned, a music and 
an ethical passion combined beyond which even 
Lowell did not go, in the << Ubi Sunt Qui ante Nos " 
— with such touches as 

** There the blithe divines, that fear no more the midnight 
chimes, sit each 
With his halo tilted a trifle, and his harp at easy reach " — 

a lambent humor that Holmes never bettered; and 
in the exquisite sonnet '< Ad Vigilem," addressed to 
the poet who had inspired the blank verse of '< Ad 
Vatem " a score of years before — a note of tender 
reverence that is all his own. And even yet we 
have not tasted all the varied richness of this vol- 
ume. The considerable section of lyrics and descrip- 
tive pieces styled collectively << The Carib Sea " has 
put the color and the languorous passion of the 
tropics into verse so exquisite that the lack of space 
which forbids us further quotations seems more 
oppressive than usual ; while the closing poem, an 
ode written for the Shelley centenary, brings to a 
worthy end the most precious volume of American 
poetry that has seen the light for many years. It 
seems to us the most important volume that the 
author has ever produced, for it exhibits the restraint 
of the full-grown artistic consciousness in combina- 
tion with the qualities that we most associate with 
youth — the freshness of feeling and the ardor that 
the advancing years of the poet have had the singu- 
lar happiness to preserve uncooled and undimmed. 

The best of our other poets must suffer in com- 
parison with Mr. Stedman, but there is still a niche 
in the temple of song for such sincere and fastidious 
verse as is found in Mr. Robert Underwood John- 
son's new volume, " Songs of Liberty, and Other 
Poems." Better, in our judgment, than Mr. John- 
son's more pretentious poems is the tender senti- 
ment of such a lyric as '* Oh, Waste No Tears." 

" Not for the flaws of life shaU faU 
The tear most exquisite — ah, no ; 

But for its fine perf eotions all : 
For morning's joyous overflow. 

For sunset's fleeting festival, 
And what midwinter moons may show ; 

18980 THE DIAL 

THE DIAL [Jan. 16, 




Nature is almost the sole inspiration of 
Evaleen Stein's <<One Way to the Woods," as, 
indeed, the subject of ibis title poem would indicate. 
A typical stanza is the following, from << Flood- 
Time on the Marshes ": 

" Where, fringed with Iftoy froodi of fern, 

The grass grows rich and high. 
And flowering spider-worts haye caught 

The oolor of the sky ; 
Where water^wks are thickly strong 

With green and golden halls. 
And from tall tilting iris-tips 

The wild canary calls.*' 

This sort of landscape inyentory is one of the com- 
monest features of modem minor verse, and it is 
usually so well done that we cannot escape wonder- 
ing at the thoroughness with which one, at least, of 
Tennyson's lessons has been learned by his latter^ 
day disciples. 

The ^' Songs Ysame" of Mrs. Annie Fellows 
Johnston and Mrs. Albion Fellows Bacon (two sis- 
ters, apparently) present nothing particularly note- 
worthy. From the first-named of the two we select 
'< Spring's Cophetua." 

** She came with garments scant and poor and thin, 
And white feet gleaming hare ; 
With pallid smiles where April tears had heen. 
And snowflakes on her hair. 



Oh, neyer — Winter thon^t — sneh gentle look 

In all the land was seen I 
From his gray locks the diadem he took 

And crowned her as his queen. 

And now, in silken rohes and gowns arrayed. 

Fair Spring reigns in his stead. 
Upon his throne she sits, the heggar maid — 


The second writer yields a pretty elegy on '< Ophelia. 

** Calm dost thou lie in waye-swept resting-place. 
No more the glances of the hanghty Dane 
Can fill thy gentle hreast with longing yain. 
The wayes that stilled thy heart haye drowned thy pain. 
And washed the sorrow from thy sweet, pale face, 


** Thine he the yiolets, hut his the rue. 
Though hope should sleep, and deep regret should wake, 
Thy elaspM hand from Death's he could not take ; 
The spell on those mute lips he could not hreak. 
What more with life and loye hast thou to do, 


<* Love's Way " is a <' monodrama," and the hero- 
ine's name is Lilian. The story of the poet's love 
is told in a series of lyrics, various in form, and, 
unlike the story of '< Maud," ends with the chime of 
wedding bells. Mr. Swift's '< other poems " are two 
long essays in heroic verse, ^'The Vision of Galileo " 
and '< Heracles upon CEta," both dignified and finely 
wrought, and a few short pieces. Our selection 
must perforce be made from the latter, and so we 
take the sonnet '' Far above Rubies," 

** All that we dream of gracious or diyine 
In woman hath its type ; each holy sprite, 
Poet or seer, or saintly eremite, 
Resemhles woman ; all that doth refine 
The arts, the manners, to her sway benign 
Owes high allegiance ; all things fair and right 
champions in the worid*s despite : 

Where woman is, no home but hath a 
How oft, alas, profaned I Men crucify 

Her gentle spirit, and to shame betray 
Her innocence with a kiss ; her agony 

And sweat of blood the winds that ever stray 
Foreyer witness ; and her bitter cry 

Qoes up to heaven for vengeance, night and day." 

We trust that Mr. Benjamin Sledd is not as mel- 
ancholy a person in real life as his verses would 
make him out to be. His songs '< From Cliff and 
Scaur " have their being in deep gloom, relieved by 
hardly an occasional ray of light This, for exam- 
ple, is the sort of thing he gives us : 

'* No life was tiiere in that lone land : 
Or only lived the shuddering sand. 
Blind, hungry thing. 

Which round my helpless feet would ding 
And striye to clasp me fast 
In its cold arms. There was no light. 
And yet I felt that height on height 
Shut in the dead bkck vast.'* 

The trouble with Mr. Sledd's gloom is that it is not 
convincing. He leads us to no *< city of dreadful 
night " in which he has long sojourned, but rather 
bids us share a perverse mood that he has forced 
upon himself for literary effect 

We have examined every page of << The Death of 
Falstaff, and Other Poems," hoping that the vol- 
ume might yield some bit of verse with the touch of 
distinction upon it, but the search has been in vain. 
We can find nothing better than such a stanza as 


** Tell me. Lady Bfoon, though morning 

Beckon from the distant hill. 
Where my lady lies, adorning 

Sleep itself, do dreams distill 

Songs more sweet than bird can trill 
In the day-dawn when it hoyers — 

Songs my happy name containing f 
Ah, no longer fear complaining 

That you are too kind to loyers I *' 

Of such commonplace texture is Mr. Moore's verse 
throughout, sometimes stilted, but never inspired. 

A breath of gentle melancholy fills Dr. Watson's 

<< Songs of Flying Hours," a collection of poems 

which exhibit considerable technical skill, a wide 

range of serious thought, and a certain command of 

felicitous diction. They are verses of which no man 

would need to be ashamed, yet they are such verses 

as hundreds of men can write equally well. We 

reprint the sonnet-like poem called '< Death." 

** And if we sleep ? If souls go out and die, 
As soft notes die upon the eyening air, 
And if we fade and wither like a sigh. 
As fade the flowers that are so wondrous fair. 
Why should we grieye ? The life we lose was sweet. 
Or it was bitter — good to have or lose ; 
And sleep comes soft, and no man may refuse 
The summons when he hears its stealthy feet. 
And if it lead us through the dark, blindfold. 
To where, we know not : still the hour may come 
When, with our eyes unbound, we may behold 
Whateyer waits — a prison or a home ; 
Or will it lead, still on, with fainter tread. 
Into some yoioeless land, and leaye us — dead ? " 

There is much verse of this grave meditative sort in 



[Jan. 16, 

Dr. Watson*8 volame ; it is too vague to make a 
sharp impression, and too diffuse to make a lasting 

The greater part of Mr. Van Zile's volume is 
made up of such verse as journalism begets, verse 
that cares more for a <* point " than for an idea, and 
is not meant to be taken seriously. Occasionally, as 
in << The Unknown Sea," the auUior rises above this 
plane and achieves melodious stanzas. 

" LoDff ere Colambiis sailed the unknown sea, 
Upon the sancLs a lonely dreamer lay. 
And, gazing westward, sought to pierce the void 
Beyond the sky-line*s nnresponsiye gray. 

** There at his feet the ocean, throbbing, stroTC 
To tell its secret to the weary soul. 
But knowing not the language of the sea 
He heard no message in the billows' roll. 

'* Beyond the mist, where sky and ocean met, 
Reposed the waiting islands of the West, 
But nanght the dreamer learned sare that his heart 
Ghrew heayy with the yainness of his qaest. 

" So are we dreamers on the strand of life. 
Scanning an ocean heeding not our cry ; 
And, dim with tears, onr straining eyes see not 
The smiling islands of the bye-and-bye.' 


With Mr. Irving Browne's '* House of the Heart " 
we reach the end of this review of recent American 
poetry, and to the end of Mr. Browne's book do we 
turn for our final excerpts. There are, indeed, 
temptations by the way, for the author's humorous 
fancies are often very cleverly expressed, but we 
have found nothing better or more characteristic 
than the series of short poems on " The Moon as 
Viewed by Various Persons." First, there is the 
young woman, who is sentimental, then the physi- 
cian, who is practicaL The one says : 
" Under the moon my lorer walks with me. 

And swears his Ioto will nerer know eclipse," 

while the other comments grimly : 

" The moon is my good patron, f ruitfol source 

Of aches and pains and cold is moonlight walk." 

The painter is vexed because he does not know how 

large to make the moon on his canvas, while the 

burglar objects to it for rising at a most inopportune 

hour. The astronomer remarks that he can no 

longer be expected to be devout at sight of a moon 

which reveals only 

'* A lot of empty craters, 
Dotting her surface like huge nutmeg graters," 

and the farmer complains that 

** That pesky moon is always wet or dry, 

A tumin* down or up her darned old horn, 
A rottin' all the taters and the rye. 
Or bumin* up the garden-sass and com." 

Thus the practically-minded. The poet, meanwhile, 
sees nought of these things, but instead this vision : 

** And still the moon moTCS on in God*s highway. 
Heedless alike of fond Endymion's sighs. 
Of querulous man's lament, of watchdog's bay. 
And shows nor scorn nor pity nor surprise. 
So shall she moye, until this trivial world. 
In hopeless ruin and confusion hurled, 
shattered at the awful judgment day." 

William Mobton Paynx. 

Bbisfs ON New Books. 

Th»r9$tMt(f '^^ period of the Renaissance has 
Mr, Butkimu for somc time been a matter of eul- 
BcaptgoaL tivated acquaintance and interest 

Such a book as ^' Earthwork out of Tuscany " shows 
that Ruskin and Symonds and Pater, as well as 
many another too in other ways than those of liter- 
ature proper, have so familiarized us with the gen- 
eral outline of Italian art and life, that a book which 
assumed really a great deal would find many readers. 
It is chiefly in painting, to tell the truth, that this 
interest manifests itself, but Renaissance painting 
has given reflected interest to many things else. 
One rather marked exception, however, is architec- 
ture. In the popular mind the architecture of the 
Renaissance has never taken a place alongside of 
painting and poetry. In fact, to many the idea of 
Renaissance architecture has been accursed, in ac- 
cord with the well-known views of Mr. Ruskin as 
expressed in '< The Stoues of Venice." This may 
have been partly because there was already a strong 
architectural favorite in the public mind, namely 
Grothic architecture, — a favorite which had had 
Scott and Pnsey as sponsors and the great cathe- 
drals of Europe as its own intrinsic merit. The 
victory of Grothic had been won during the century 
over the weak followers not so much of Palladio 
even, as of Mansard and the Barocco artists, and 
the popular mind did not incline to see excellence in 
that which had been but recently displaced. These 
tjrpes, however, had not much connection with the 
Renaissance, — they were really but remnants, as it 
were. Mr. Anderson's book on *< Italian Renais- 
sance Architecture" (imported by Scribner) deals 
with the real Renaissance, with the sixteenth cen- 
tury, with the period from Brunaleschi to Palladio. 
It is based on lectures given before the Glasgow 
School of Art, and has, as the author observes, '< a 
rudimentary and popular character " which recom- 
mends it to the untechnical reader. It is further 
very fully illustrated with excellent pictures, so that 
it is not only intelligible but useful. It will be found, 
on the whole, rather more available than anything 
else on the subject that we know of. 

It is always important to compare the 
dSI^!^^^ *** opinions of great men on great sub- 
jects. Hence the debt which the 
thinking world owes to Mr. Jacobs for his presenta- 
tion of the views of Walter Pater and Maurice 
Barr^ on the Blessedness of Egoism. It is by such 
work that we in America are able to keep in touch 
with the advancing thought of the Old World. 
Another opportunity is now at hand. American 
readers can at last weigh against Mr. Max Beer- 
bohm's theory of Dandyism the estimate of Barkey 
D*Aurevilly. It has long been known that there 
was a difiFerence of opinion, but so far Mr. Beer- 
bohm has had the advantage of the last word in a 
case where the first had never been heard. For, 
beyond the mention in " Dandies and Dandyism," 




we fear that Barkey D'Aarevilly has heretofore 
been largely conceived in America merely as a per- 
son who delighted in the use of inks of varioos 
colors and wore rose-colored silk hats and gold-lace 
neckties, facts drawn from a book entitled *^ Degen- 
eration." The widely-read anther of that entertain- 
ing work inferred hysteria from the violent colors 
and ego-mania from the hats and cravats. Mr. 
Donglas Ainslie, however, who now presents ns ?nth 
a translation " Of Dandyism and of G^rge Bmm- 
mell '* (Copeland & Day), does not seem to agree 
with the gpreat sconrge of letters ; he would seem to 
regard these matters as unimportant. Certainly they 
cannot be weighed in importance with the great 
fundamental question. And here it must first be 
remarked that our two authorities differ in more 
respects than had been previously mentioned. They 
disagree not only in theory, but on facts. For 
instance, although they agree that it was not a fool- 
ish fancy for a uniform that led Brummell to join 
the Tenth Hussars, they differ as to his reasons for 
leaving the corps. Mr. Beerbohm says it was be- 
cause of a reprimand for appearing on parade in a 
blue tunic: Barkey D'Aurevilly says that it was 
because the regiment was ordered to Birmingham. 
Let not such differences seem insignificant Where 
facts differ, theories will differ, at least they ought 
to. The real difference between these two thinkers 
may perhaps be traced to some such variation in 
fact as this. Of the two, it is obvious that Mr. Beer^ 
bohm upholds the esthetic doctrine, while Barkey 
D*Aurevilly is distinctly ethical in his treatment. 
One thinks of Dandyism as an exquisite art, the 
other conceives it as an exquisite way of life. Hie 
difference is of course fundamental, and our readers 
will wish to pursue it and to decide for themselves. 
We recommend to them this translation with confi- 
dence. Its appearance, in type, paper, and binding, 
is worthy of its topic, and its topic is worthy of those 
who can appreciate it. 

The late Professor Palgrave set for 
himself so high a standard of taste 
and discernment in that ^'Grolden 
Treasury" (Macmillan) which has by common 
acclaim been received as the best of English an- 
thologies that we were prepared to find in his 
<* second series" of the publication, covering the 
period since 1850, a work somewhat less satisfactory 
than its predecessor. But we did not anticipate so 
marked a fallingp-off, or a selection distinguished by 
so much unevenness, as the new anthology reveals. 
It was not Professor Palgrave's fault that copyright 
considerations prevented the inclusion of anything 
by Morris or Mr. Swinburne — although a Victorian 
anthology without these poets seems hardly worth 
making, so unrepresentative must it be — but the 
judgment was surely at fault that exalted such 
minor poets as 0*Shaughnessy and William Barnes 
as we find them exalted in this volume. These 
writers have seventeen and twelve poems, respect- 
ively, in the collection, as against one each from 


Lander, Peacock, and Mr. Aubrey De Vere. The 
lapses from a balanced critical judgment in the 
selections from such men as Kingsley, Arnold, and 
Patmore seem to us also very noticeable. Of course, 
the contents of the volume are still <' choicely good," 
but we expected more than that from the editor of 
the first << Gk>lden Treasury." — Mr. Frederic Law- 
rence Knowles, in his << Grolden Treasury of Amer- 
ican Songs and Lyrics" (Page), has brought together 
one hundred and forty-seven poems by sixty-one 
writers from Freneau to Mr. Lloyd Mifflin. Fre- 
neau's '< The Wild Honeysuckle " fitly ushers in such 
a collection as this, but Mr. Mifflin's pretentious 
sonnets have by no means won for him a deserved 
place among our poets. Poe has no less than nine 
lyrics, the largest representation given to any poet 
Whitman is excluded, with regret, for reasons that 
we must respect, although the canon is questionable 
that cannot overlook considerations of form in a 
case like his. Mr. Knowles has done his work 
with taste and discretion, for the most part, although 
it may hardly be taken as more than a tentative 
effort toward that definitive anthology which we 
hope for in the future. The volume is exceptionally 
charming from the mechanical point of view, and 
does gpreat credit to the new house whose imprint it 

and Jiethodi,** 

Mr. W. S. B. Mathews has recently 
brought together into a sizable vol- 
ume nearly two score brief essays 
upon various aspects of the art of music, both theo- 
retical and practical. These articles are reprinted 
from the periodicals to which Mr. Mathews has been 
a contributor of late years — largely, in fact, from 
the excellent monthly magazine " Music " of which 
he is the editor — and are now published by Mr. 
Theodore Pressor, of Philadelphia. Mr. Mathews 
is one of the few American writers about music who 
really have something substantial to say. Over- 
much journalism has set its mark upon his style, 
and his manner of writing often degenerates into a 
slapdash utterance that is anything but commend- 
able ; yet there is always a serious reflective basis 
for what he says, and he not infrequently has at his 
command the felicitous phrase and the symmetri- 
cally crystallized expression of his thought F^w 
writers with whom we are acquainted have come as 
near as Mr. Mathews comes, when in his best and 
most serious moods, to finding adequate words for 
the expression of what is essential about musical art 
in general, or about some form or illustration of 
that art in particular. He never gets far away from 
the fundamental thought that music provides men 
with one of the deepest forms of culture, and that 
all questions of technique and pedagogical method 
should be held strictly subordinate to that idea. The 
root of the matter is in such a passage as the fol- 
lowing : '< For by just so much as music says some- 
thing to those who g^ve themselves up to it, by just 
so much it becomes a force ¥rith infiuence upon their 
lives, and upon their doing and being. And so we 



[Jan. 16, 

may look for a time when this force will he onder- 
ttood and intelligently employed in edaeation, as it 
Bometimee hegins to he now ; hnt opon wider and 
higher scale, ontil many things which have not 
yielded to the pnlpit nor yet to the press, will soften 
themselves to mosic Who knows? The Pytha- 
gorean toning of mind hy means of tones will he- 
come a reali^ ; and it will sometime he found that 
the intellect is sharpened and the imagination 
kindled hy tonal fantasy, not merely for itself, hat 
for great and nohle deeds." We may fairly call 
this the langnage of prophecy, for few even among 
professional musicians have yet conceived of their 
art in this significant sense, the sense in which it 
offers not merely entertainment or heguilement, hat 
rather education in the truest and hest meaning of 
the term. We do not always agree with Mr. Mathews 
in his special dicta. Sometimes we disagree with 
him so vehemently that words could hardly express 
our feeling. How eon a man say that *< there is not 
an element of the ideal " in << Tnstan und Isolde " ? 
But we are in the deepest accord with a writer who 
can speak words like these : '* With steady step music 
has progressed towards the art of saying something 
to human souls. Out of the vast inner world of the 
Unseen, the Blest, and the Eternal, the prophetic 
seer hrings in tones his living and moving message. 
We do not need a story ; we do not need an expla- 
nation. Simply to hear and hear again, and to he 
silent and hear again — this is the road and the 
only road. These great works are written like the 
messages of inspiration * for those who have ears to 
hear.' The inner message of music, like the inner 
tone of the creation, is for him who listens within." 

''Dnroh alle Tooe tonet, 
Im bnnten Lebenttranm, 
Sin leiser Ton gexogen 
Fiir den, der heimUoh lanaohet." 

These words, which Schumann took as a text for 

his wonderful '< Fantaisie, Op. 17," helong, in a wider 

sense, to all great music, and this is the truth that 

Mr. Mathews emhodies in many a chapter of his 

stimulating book. 

We believe that the nature of a man's 
mind gives the form to his style. We 
even believe that, given the technical 
characteristics of any piece of writing, one should 
be able to infer the character of the author's mode 
of thought. It must be allowed that literary criti- 
cism is not quite as far advanced on this line as 
might be desired. Still, we feel quite sure that 
there are a number of our readers who can gauge 
pretty exactly the mental calibre of a man who 
writes sentences which are, on the average, from 
eleven to fourteen words long, whose work has a 
distinctly staccato movement due to the constant 
unconnected and direct statements, and who con- 
veys his doctrine one half in epigrammatic generali- 
zations and the other half in metaphors. Such is 
the way Mr. W. A. Quayle expresses his ideas in 
«The Poet's Poet and Other Essays" (Curts & 
Jennings). It is also, we believe, a matter of ex- 

pression rather than of idea that he should regard 
the " New Arabian Nights " as << a piece of enchant- 
ing verbiage"; that he should hint that Greorge 
Eliot entertained '< nugatory theories of Hebrew 
history"; that he should assert that a particular 
line of *' In Memoriam " *^ keys the music of this 
elegy "; that he should note the place where Haw- 
thorne and Poe " quit company," or that he should 
hold that Hawthorne's *< treatment of a theme is 
essentially spirituelle." These are technical points 
of style, and yet we feel sure that they are the ex- 
pression of a particular mode of thought, if we may 
so call it. It is to be remarked, however, that Mr. 
Quayle nowhere makes any claim to the power of 
criticism. He says distinctly that he has loved 
literature, and therefore has written, more doubtless 
with a view ** to stimulate affection for the men and 
works he loves " than with any idea of pronouncing 
sound critical judgments. And that is no mean 
desire. We cannot but think well of the man who 
entertains it, or of the city which seeks these essays 
more eagerly than the latest works of Richard 
Harding Davis or James Lane Allen. Still, we 
cannot quite agree with Mr. Quayle's publishers 
that '< seldom have such personalities as Browning 
... or such epochal characters as Cromwell . • . 
been more vividly reproduced by human pen." We 
are inclined to think that what Mr. Qaayle has 
vividly reproduced is the current of his own ideas. 
This is not an especially easy thing to do, but we 
think that in this book it is very effectively done. 

A eompaet Readers of the •* Century Magazine " 

popuiar iif9 of need not be reminded of the graphic 
MoHe Ani9t0ietf, quality and choice pictorial attrac- 
tions of Miss Anna L. Bicknell's << Story of Marie 
Antoinette." The work recently formed a leading 
feature of successive numbers of that periodical, and 
it now appears in book form (Century Co.), and a 
very worthy and attractive volume it makes. Miss 
Bicknell has given us the best popularly written life of 
the ill-starred Qaeen — at least we can point to none 
better. She is a good narrator, and wastes no time 
in pointing a moral or adorning a tale that assuredly 
needs neither pointing nor adornment. She shows 
sensibility, widiout drenching her recital with tears 
— like the lachrymose M. de la Rochterie, for ex- 
ample, in whose watery elegiacs over his *' mar- 
tyred queen " — now over a century dead — there is 
just a touch of <* Sergeant Buzfuz." One is reminded 
of Mark Twain at the tomb of Adam. Miss Bicknell 
is accurate as to facts, and her judgments are tem- 
perate. She adheres mostly to the generally accepted 
versions of leading incidents. She respects the 
statement that Marie Antoinette, in ascending the 
scaffold, struck the executioner's foot, and apolo- 
gized quickly, with a polite ^< Fardony Monsieur." 
The story seems improbable enough, and it has 
lately been again denied, on the authority of a credi- 
ble eye-witness of the queen's execution. A lady 
(the grandmother of M. de Rochefort) who was 
seated on a cart near the scaffold, testified that *' the 


THE DIAL [Jm.16, 




•Fkrmdise Lost'" (Heath), edited by Mr. Albert 
Ferry Walker; and Carlyle'e " Hero-Worahip " (Mao- 
millan), edited by Mrs. Annie Rossell Marble. 

** The Westminster " is the title of a weekly religions 
pi^r, published at Toronto, and formed by the amal- 
gamation of an older paper bearing the same name 
with « The Canada Presbyterian " and « The Presbyter." 
The result is a periodical, half newspaper and half 
magazine, with forty-eight pages to the number. 

Four new volumes have lately been added to the hand- 
some ** Illustrated English Library " (imported by Put- 
nam). These consist of Charlotte BronUS's " Shirley," 
Scott's " Rob Roy," and Thackeray's *< Pendennis " and 
M Vanity Fair." Mr. F. H. Townsend is the illustrator 
of the first two yolumes, and Miss Chris. Hammond of 
the other two. 

** Pictures in the National Gktllery " is the title of an 
important art work announced for early publication by 
Mr. Franz Hanfstaengl of New Tork. In addition to 
a number of text illustrations, the work will contain 
one hundred large photograyure plates, with descriptive 
text by Mr. Charles Locke Eastgate, Keeper and Sec- 
retary of the National Gallery. 

** A Century of American Statesmen " is the title of a 
forthcoming work by Professor Moses Coit Tyler, of 
which the Messrs. Putnam will be the publishers. It 
will provide a four-volume biographical survey of 
American politics, passing in rapid review the careers 
and politi<Md ideas of about forty men, from Jefferson 
and Hamilton down to President McSLinley. 

*< Lessons in Elementary Botany for Secondary 
Schools," by Professor Thomas H. Macbride, is a text- 
book just published by Messrs. AUyn & Bacon. It deals 
chiefly with familiar ph»nogamous forms in their more 
striking aspects, although ferns, mosses, and fungi are 
reached before the end. It is a very practical sort of 
book for beginners, and we take pleasure in conunend- 
ing it to teachers. 

Practical aid to mothers in the selection of the best 
books for their children to read is offered, in a profes- 
sional way, by Miss Helene L. Dickey, who has given 
much special study to this now important subject, and, 
through her connection with the house of Houghton, 
Mifflin & Co., has acquired a valuable knowledge of its 
bibliography. Miss Dickey may be addressed in the 
care ^ this firm, at 378 Wabash avenue, Chicago. 

The death of William J. Linton at his New Haven 
home, on the 29th of December, evokes a good many 
memories in the mind of a student of nineteenth-century 
art, literature, and politics. As an artist, he was one of 
the greatest of the fast dying race of wood-engravers, 
a member of many societies, an editor of art journals, 
and an authoritative writer upon his special subject. 
As a man of letters, he produced, besides his technical 
works, several volumes of poems and translations, and 
collaborated with Mr. R. H. Stoddard in the editing of 
one of our best anthologies of English poetry. Litera- 
ture claims him also in an indirect way as the husband 
of Mrs. Lynn Linton. In politics, his activity began 
with the Chartists, among whom he was a leader, and 
continued to exert itself through the various under- 
ground channels controlled by Mazzini, Garibaldi, and 
Lonif Blanc, all of whom were his friends. His emigra- 
tion to this country in 1867 removed him from further 
active participation in the European revolutionary move- 
ment. Bom in London in 1812, he was eighty-five 
years old when he died. 

liisT OF Nbw Books. 

[The foUowing /ttf, eonfatmiii^ 71 tidett indudn hook9 
received by Ths Dial eince its last issue,] 


Audubon and his Journals. By Maria R. Audubon ; with 
Notes by Elliott Cones. In 2 vols., illns., large 8vo, gilt 
tops, uncut. Charles Soribner's Sons. $7.60. 

Falklands. By the author of "The life of Sir Eenehn 
Digby." Illns. in photogravure, etc., 8vo, uncut, pp. 193. 
Longmans, Green, A Co. $3.00. 


The History of South Carolina under the Fhmiietaiy 

Government, 1670-1719. By Edward MoC^ady. Svo, gilt 

top, pp. 762. liaomillan Co. $3.50. 
The History of the Pequot War: The Contemporary Ao- 

oounts of Mason, Underhill, Vincent, and Gardener. 

Edited bv Charles Orr. 8vo, gilt top, unont, pp. 149. 

Cleveland : The Helman-Taylor Co. $2.50. 
Studies in Buroi>ean and American History. By F^ed 

Morrow FUng, Ph.D., and Howard W. Caldwell, A.B(. 

12mo, pp. 336. Unooln, Nebr.: J. H. Miller. 


The Pamphlet Library. Edited by Arthur Waudb. Krst 
vols.: Literary Pamphlets, edited by Ernest nhys, in 
2 vols., $3.; Political Pamphlets, edited by A. F. PoUard^ 
in 1 vol., $1.75. Each 12mo, uncut. Henry Holt A Co. 

Old Lamps for New Ones, and Other Sketches and Eosays, 
hitherto uncollected. By Charles Dickens : edited by 
Frederic G. Kitton. 12mo, uncut, pp. 844. New Amster- 
dam Book Co. $1.25. 

Studies and Notes in Phllologry and Literature. Vol. V .» 
Child Memorial Volume. 8to, pp.282. GKnnACo. Paper, 

Leisure Hours in the Study. B^ James Maj^lTinnmi^ Fh*D» 
12mo, pp. 452. London : T. Fisher Unwin. 

The Odes of Keats. With Notes and Analyses and a lie- 
moir by Arthur C. Downer, M.A. Illns., 12mo, pp. 108. 
Oxford University Press. 

Works of Janoies Whitcomb Blley, ** Homestead" Edi- 
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The Flowers of Life. By Anthony J. Drexel Biddle. 12mo» 
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The Romances of Alexandre*Dtimas, New Series. Men- 
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Necklace, 1 vol.; and The Horoscope, 1 vol. Each wiUi 

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The Poems of Ossian. Translated hj James Macpherson ; 
edited by William Sharp. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 417. 
Edinburgh : Patrick Geddes A Colleagues. 
The Works of Friedrich Nietzsche. Edited by Alexander 
Tille. Vol. X., A Genealogy of Morals, trans, by William 
A. Hansemann ; and Poems, trans, by John Gray. 12mo, 
uncut, pp. 289. MacmiHan Co. $2. 


Tuscan Son^s. Collected and trans, by Fraacesca Alexander. 

With 108 photogrsTures from designs by the author. Lsrge 

4to, gilt top, uncut, pp. 300. Houghton, Mifflin A Co. 

Boxed, $26. 
From the Hills of Dream: Mountun Songs and Island 

Runes. By Fiona Maoleod. 12mo, gUt top, uncut, pp. 149. 

Edinburgh : Patrick Gkddes A Collesgues. 
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gilt top, pp. 330. San Francisco: Whitaker A Ray Co. 

The Trumpeters, and Other Poems. Bv Andrew Downing. 

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A Son of Israel. By '* Rachel Penn." 12mo, pp.306. J.B. 
Lippincott Co. $1.25. 



[Jan. 16, 

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draaiatla poaallimtlaa ot tha Ufa oE tba aatlpodaa wblA urn naa mown 

MEMORY AND ITS CULTIVATION. ^jJ^l;^tla2_*ojofladd««.a«UM.»ly,l..««l la.arl.talo 

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THB DIAL, 315 Wabash Ave,, Chieago, 

No. 979. FEBRUARY 1, 1898. Vol, XXIV. 





Somaof Amold'sQiialitiMMaCritio. Henry Barrett 

ShakMpewiaBPUyBAetedbyCollaKeMeii. WiUiam 

Xwury Smyter. 
Am laterwting and Lniradent Bit of Pbgiioiini. 

M. O. T. 


IN OLD VIRGINIA. Ira M. Price 73 


CHCatUraU • • 74 

DENTS. Shailer Mathewe 76 

RECENT FICTION. WiUiam Morton Payne ... 77 
"John (HiT«r Hobbet's" The School for Sainti.— 
*' Sarah Grand's'* The Beth Book. — '' Benjamin 
Swift's" The Tormentor. — Piokerin^'s Margot.— 
Mmb Coleridge's The King with Two Faces. — HiU's 
By a Hair's Breadth. — Crockett's Lochinyar. — 
Hamilton's The Outlaws of the Marches.—'' Charles 
%bert Craddock's " The Juggler. — Miss Wilkins's 
Jerome, a Poor lian. — Fox's The Eentnckians. — 
Lash's The Federal Jadge. — Chambers's Lotraine. 
— Taylor's An Imperial Loyer. — Biatthews's Oot- 
fines in Local Color. — Wister's lin McLean. — Miss 
White's ABrowningConrtship.—*' OotayeThanet's" 
A Book ai True Loyers. — Chambers's The Mystery 
of Choioe. — Herrick's Literary Loye-Letters. 


Some American contributions to ciyilization. — The 
dawn of astronomy. — GKrlish yiews on things in 
general. — An up-to-date Theology. — The truth of 
elayemess. — '' Song-lore." — A book of eyidence in 
the Cabot case. — Literary and other statesmen. — 
Stories of horses and war. — The Paradise of the 
Paoifio. — A new edition of ** Ossian." — A fireman's 
life in a great city. — The Talmud. 







** There is saoh a thing as noiuieiise," says 
Walter Bagehot in one of his essays, *^ and 
when a man has once attained to that deep con- 
ception, you may be sure of him ever liter/' 
This is no doubt a true saying, but it needs to 
be supplemented. To attain to the conception 
in question is only the b^inning of wisdom, for 
there should go with the realization that non* 
sense exists a healthy instinct for its enjoyment 
when it is of the innocuous sort, and for its 
vigorous repudiation when it assumes a perni- 
cious form. There is in most human nature a 
streak of irrationality which makes people an 
easy mark for certain forms of very dangerous 
nonsense — for the pseudo-scientific jargon of 
palmistry or theosophy, let us say — and hope- 
less indeed is his case who becomes entrapped 
by these pitfalls. Yet the irrational instincts 
that find such vent belong to the normal psy- 
chological make-up of mankind ; they are sur- 
vivals, probably, although a neo-Schopenhauer- 
ianism might claim for them a deeper cause 
than that, but in any case they have to be reck- 
oned with. Most people chafe, consciously or 
unconsciously, under the limitations of a world 
rigidly subjected to the principle of casuality, 
and seek at times to escape into some world in 
which fancy may rove untrammeled, in which 
life may seem less strenuous than science makes 
it out to be. 

This is a somewhat ponderous exordium for 
a few observations about the work of that gentle 
*^ maker " of nonsense whose recent death has 
made childhood of all ages the poorer wherever 
the English language is spoken, but it was 
peculiarly the gift of ^^ Lewis Carroll " to open 
our eyes to just such a ^^land of wonder- 
wander " as we all need to see at times, and 
need all the more in proportion as our habitual 
outlook is uncompromisingly logical and matter- 
of-fact. If we cannot take refuge in some such 
world of transparent impossibilities we are in 
danger of gratifying our deep-seated irrational 
instincts by straying off into delusions of the 
sort that paralyze the powers of thought, of 
confusing vagaries with realities, and of dissi- 
pating our intellectual substance in specula- 
tions that cannot possibly lead to anything; 
whereas we may give ourselves up to the charm 




of Alice and her Wonderland without the least 
compunction, and do not run the slightest dan- 
ger of taking too seriously the doings of the 
Mad filatter, the March Hare, or the Queen of 
Hearts. If these things are *^ to the Greeks 
foolishness," we are sorry for the Greeks, and 
remain unshaken in our loyalty to the imagin- 
ings of the chronicler of Alice, the poet of the 
Boojum and the Jabberwock. 

'* A little noDMiDM now and then 
Ib relished by the wiaest men," 

SO runs the old saw, and to ** Lewis Carroll," 
purveyor of the most delightful nonsense in 
our language, a debt of the deepest gratitude 
is due. 

Of that eminent clergyman and distinguished 
mathematician, the Rev. Charles Lutwidge 
Dodgson, the public knows little beyond an 
occasional amusing anecdote, like that which 
relates how the Queen, charmed with the story 
of Alice, requested the author to send her his 
other works, and was not a little surprised when 
she received a collection of mathematical treat- 
ises. He was born about sixty-five years ago, 
took his degree at Christ Church, Oxford, and 
remained a college don for the greater part of 
his life. ^* Alice's Adventures in Wonderland " 
was published in 1865, ^^ Through the Looking- 
Glass " in 1872, and '' The Hunting of the 
Snark " in 1876. Among his other books that 
belong to literature, we may mention *^ Phan- 
tasmagoria," ** Doublets," ^^ Bhyme ? and Rea- 
son ? " '' Euclid and His Modem Rivals," '« A 
Tangled Tale," and '' Sylvie and Bruno." The 
three books first mentioned have not only be- 
come classics of the nursery, but have also won 
a place among the books with which every cul- 
tivated reader is expected to have some ac- 
quaintance. Their characters and incidents are 
quoted *^ to point a moral and adorn a tale " 
almost as frequently as the characters and inci- 
dents that appear in the novels of Dickens or 
the poems of Tennyson. They have added new 
words to the common English vocabulary, and 
people make use of ^* beamish," and '^ galumph- 
ing " and ** chortling " as of familiar concepts. 
Such verses as ^* The Walrus and the Carpen- 
ter " and *^ How doth the little crocodile " are 
as well known as the best lyrics of the more 
serious poets ; while the story of the slaying of 
the Jabberwock rivals in its haunting mystery 
the story of Childe Roland and the Dark Tower, 
besides being rather more intelligible. It is no 
ordinary triumph to have thus imposed a new 
literary genre upon the consciousness of the 
reading public, and the extent of the achieve- 

ment is best realiied when we compare the suc- 
cess of ^^ Lewis Carroll " with the comparative 
failure of even the best of his many imitators. 
The books that are concerned with childhood 
may be divided into three classes. The first 
and largest of these classes includes the books 
that are written for children alone, that have 
no message at all for the adult reader. The 
second class includes those few books that state 
things from the childish point of view, but are 
really intended for the delight of children of a 
larger gprowth. ^^ A Child's Garden of Verses " 
and *^ The Golden Age " are the two matchless 
examples of this kind of literature. Here we 
have the freshness of feeling that remembers 
what being a chUd was like, conjoined with an 
exquisite literary art which revives that feeling 
in the grown-up reader, who could not possibly 
summon it back into consciousness unless thus 
aided. But the child, although he may take 
some interest in these books, cannot possibly 
enjoy them as the *^ Olympians " do. The 
books of the third class, to which belong those 
which we owe to the creator of *^ Alice," are 
equally appreciated by young and old (although 
of course in different ways), and make for a 
better understanding between the ages, because 
they create a new bond of sympathy, setting 
the child and the man for the time being upon 
a common ground of interest. 


There is a story of a young lady seated beside 
Tennyson at dinner, and all intent for oracles, who 
was rewarded at last by having the poet remark to 
her, <* I like my mutton in hunks." The stoiy is 
not hprapos^ but the phrase is apt for my purpose. 
The most of as like our critioism in hunks. Funda- 
mental distinctions, fine discriminations, exquisite 
tests for parity or alloy, — these are not for as. 
Bather we like the one-sided, the lop-sided, and the 
factional. We like to have one eritio tell us that 
all good literatare springs from contemporary life ; 
and another, that chisracter is best stadied from the 
outside ; and yet another, thai it is useless to kick 
against the pricks of the sordid and vulgar, and that 
majorities coant in literatare as in elections. Even 
among oar brothers across the sea, criticism in hunks 
prevails. Mr. Pater, the subtle and elaborate, had 
eyes only for style. He conceived literatare to con- 
sist mainly of phrases. Swathed in his rhetoric, his 
Greek and Italian idols are as indistinguishable as 
the mammies of Egyptian kings. Mr. Raskin has 
been a great maker of critical hunks, and although 
those of his right hand differ from those of his Icit, 
this does not prove his comjffehensiveness. The 




totel of ireey disinterested, eomprehensiye eritioism 
has been, at all times, smalL Critieal opinion has 
alwajTS been in great measare the expression of 
personal feeling, — the propaganda of a party, or 
the polemie of a fad. Literature itself is a conflict 
of ideas ; bat the jadgment of it ought to have more 
unity than a Donnybrook Fair. 

Tlie bom reader, the man who lives in the serene 
air of good literature, rarely, perhaps, writes criti- 
eism. He is like a dog who has found a bone, and 
proeeeds to dig a hole and bury it, and then eomes 
and looks in your face and wags his tail as though 
to say, *^ I know where there is a most excellent 
bone, but I am not going to let on." Some of the 
best criticism we have is in the letters of men of 
genius, like Gray and Keats and Fitzgerald and 
Lowell. In their correspondence the minds of these 
men are in undress ease, and judgments that are 
the essence of good taste and good sense come from 
them as naturiJly as gum oozes from a tree. But 
formal criticism is a necessary thing. If people 
read, they must have opinions, and opinion expressed 
is criticism, and the bsst informed opinion is good 

The things that are abiding underlie all litera- 
tures ; but the fashions in thought and expression 
change as do the fashions in clothes. The eigh- 
teenth century conceived poetry to be a kind of 
transported prose — prose with a ball and chun 
about its ankles ; and it called all its writers, indif- 
ferently, wits. The nineteenth century has tried to 
bring prose and poetry together, by a species of ar- 
terial transfusion, and, in France at least, all imag- 
iuatiTe writers are allowed to be poets. Again, the 
first great literary critic, Aristotle, defined poetry 
to be a '< making," and in his " Poetics " he ignores 
lyric, satiric, and philosophical poetry. The pen- 
dulum has swung to the other extreme to-day, and 
Uie lyric is the overwhelmingly dominate form of 

Not only the tendencies of that entity we call an 
age, but national peculiarities and prejudices, pre- 
vent a steady assessment of literature. Shakespeare, 
who sank into the Gterman mind like rain on a mel- 
law woSlf has always run off from the hard-surfaced 
glittering French intellect. The attitude of England 
to American literature is a case in point. The cul- 
tivated Englishman is an unassuming enough per- 
son within his own gates, but when he goes abroad 
be seems to be possessed with the idea that he wrote 
die plays of Shakespeare with his own hand, and 
paid for building the cathedrals out of his own 
pocket. He comes to or looks at this country, and 
be sees nothing as good as Shakespeare or the 
cathedrals, and he condemns our art in mass. He 
fsffgets that modem England has nothing so good as 
Shakespeare or the cathedrals either. 

A main cause of critical confusion is our inability 
to get the forms and qualities of literature ranked 
in the order of their importance. Nearly every 
critic has a prepossession for some one quality or 

of manifestation of genius. Victor 

Hugo, in his great essay on Shakespeare, asserts 
that all masterpieces are equal. The saying is a 
fine one, but must be taken with limitations. When 
Dante begins the ascent of heaven, he is surprised 
to find sphere rising above sphere and order upon 
order of superhuman beings superimposed. He in- 
quires wheUier there is not, then, equidity in heaven, 
and is told. No ; those nearest Qod absorb most of 
His light, which in turn they emit to those farther 
off. But this, he is assured, does not trouble any- 
one, for << in His will is our peace." Something 
like this may be said of human genius. ** Shine, 
poet, in your place, and be content," is Words- 
worth's version of the idea. The great writers are 
modest among their peers. Dante took the sixth 
place in the company of poets ; and Groethe, speak- 
ing of Moli^re, said, *' It is good for us little men 
to return often to the masters." But readers and 
critics, captivated by some gift that appeals to them 
personally, are always for oversetting the hierarchy 
of genius. We have all our idols of illusion. For 
myself I have such an admiration for the <* Hype- 
rion " of Keats that I have to put force on myself 
to keep from calling it the finest piece of verse in 
existence. It is the supreme of outward poetry — 
the poetry of form and color and sound. There is 
enough emotion in it to flush its statues with life, 
enough intellect to make them lift their lofty heads 
and utter elemental things. But I know that, com- 
pared with the great world-poems which furnish 
ideab for action and materials for meditation, it is 
an empty thing. Keats never gave better proof of 
his keen critical instinct than in the revised version, 
which, done as it is with an almost utter failure of 
verbal charm, shows an attempt to get humanity 
into the poem. 

If the personality of a critic is a translucent or 
opaque medium for genius to shine through, the 
personality of an author may dim or heighten the 
light he emits. Byron rebels, and draws after him 
the third part of our human hosts ; and admiration 
of his audacity and energy blinds us to his flaws of 
art Dante and Milton stand in mighty isolation, 
attractive to us as the magnetic mountain was to 
Sinbad's ship. When we study them we feel that 
to walk erect it is necessary to walk aloof. Their 
characters intensify their poetry as Shakespeare's 
and Groethe's do not 

Perhaps Lessing comes nearest to the ideal critic 
of all who have ever officiated Minos-wise. Yet 
even he coils his tail around him nine times, and 
Racine and Boileau are consigned to the lowest pit 
Aristotle, as I have said, seems to have been indif- 
ferent to the individual element in genius. Coming 
down to modem times, Sainte-Beuve was so much 
interested in the characters of his authors that he 
forgot to assess their talents. Every French soldier 
may carry a marshal's baton in his knapsack, but 
surely every French author has not immortality 
hidden in his baggage. When Nature or Fate for- 
got this present, Sainte-Beuve often slipped it in, as 
Joseph did the silver cup into Benjamin's sack. 


18»8.] THE DIAL 

THE DIAL |T6b.l, 

1898.] THE DIAIi 



[Feb. 1, 

my lips. I slowlj unbookled my portfolio, placed a 
ohair for him, and with my heart like a stone held up a 
drawing. Mr. Lizars rose from his seat, exclaiming : 
* My Grod I I never saw anything like this before.' " 

For two years Andubon was carrying his 
portfolio from city to city in England, Scot- 
land, and France, and from the presence of 
one rich man's door to another, to gather names 
enough on his list to sustain the costly publica- 
tion of his ^* Birds of America." It was the 
largest and most expensive work of the sort 
that had ever been undertaken, and only Au- 
dubon's enthusiasm and tenacity of purpose 
could have conceived and carried through the 
immense achievement. When he returned to 
America he had secured a hundred and forty- 
four subscribers, and the work was far advanced 
in the process of printing. It was published 
in parts of five plates each (*' elephant folio " 
in size), at two guineas a part ; and, when com- 
pleted, comprised eighty-seven parts, giving 
506 species and 1065 figures of birds. About 
one hundred and seventy-five copies are now 
known to be in existence, eighty of which are 
in America. It is one of the few illustrated 
works, if not the only one, an eminent orni- 
thologist has said, which steadily increases in 
price with the passage of time. The rare copies 
now occasionally thrown on the market com- 
mand from $1500 to $2000. The cost of 
printing the work was over $100,000. 

While managing the details of this large 
enterprise, Audubon was obliged to use the 
utmost diligence to keep himself and his print- 
ers in funds. He found a quick sale for single 
drawings at remunerative prices, and it was no 
unusuid occurrence for him to sit painting four- 
teen or even seventeen hours on a stretch. Four 
hours of sleep sufficed him, and he loved to be 
up and out for a long tramp, or settled to his 
day's labor, at three o'clock in the morning. 
It was hard to adapt himself to the habits of 
ordinary men, and he was restive and misera- 
ble in the gatherings where all eyes were sure 
to be riveted upon his striking person. His 
English friends besought him to have his hair 
cut and to put on a fashionable coat before he 
appeared in London. After one such earnest 
solicitation, he remarks, ^' I laughed, and he 
laughed, and my hair is yet as God made it." 
The importunity was urgent, however, and 
finally yielding to it, he thus noted the event in 
a black-bordered page of his journal : 

« March 19, 1827 This day my hair was saorifieed. 

. . . As the barber clipped my locks rapidly, it reminded 
me of the horrible French Revolntion, when the same 
operation was performed upon all the victims mordered 

at the goillotine; my heart sank low. ... I knew I 
was acting weakly, but, rather than render my good 
friend miserable about it, I suffered the loss patiently.** 

Audubon had been fond of dress and of lux- 
urious belongings in his youth, but all that was 
far in the past. It had been crowded out of 
his thought by more noble and absorbing aspi- 
rations ; and to renew the lost interest was 
not now possible. ^^ No dash, no glimmer or 
shine about him," was the comment of Sir 
Walter Scott, *^ but great simplicity of man- 
ners and behavior, slight in person and plainly 

The returns from the ^^ Birds of America," 
and later publications of a similar nature, en- 
sured Audubon a competence for his remaining 
years. He purchased a tract of twenty-four 
acres on the banks of the Hudson, now known 
as Audubon Park, within the present limits of 
New York City. Here, with wife, children, 
and grandchildren, in one happy household, 
his old age was supremely blessed. His indus- 
try continued undiminished, — his study of the 
birds, to which were now added the quadrupeds, 
his rambles in the forests, his delightful com- 
panionship with Nature. In 1883 t£ree months 
were consumed in a trip to Labrador, and in 
1843 he gave eight months to an investigation 
of the wild life in the forests bordering the 
Missouri. A venerable man at this latter date, 
he was still in possession of astonishing phy- 
sical powers. In his prime he had once said 
that, in a walking match, ^^ I think I could kill 
any horse in England in twenty days, taking 
the travel over rough and level ground." Until 
the last, his form was erect, his step like that 
of a deer, and his eye as keen as an Indian's. 
It is said by his sole surviving comrade of the 
tour to Labrador : 

« Tou had only to meet him to love him, and when 
you had conversed with him for a moment, you looked 
upon him as an old friend, rather than a stranger. . . . 
To this day I can see him, a magnificent g^y-haired 
man, child-like in his simplicity, kind-hei^ted, noble- 
souled, lover of nature and lover of youth, friend of 
humanity, and one whose religion was the golden rule.** 

A monument in old Trinity churchyard. 
New York, marks the spot where Audubon was 
buried. These two generous volumes of his 
journals, enriched by ten portraits of himself, 
with others of his wife and sons, and various 
miscellaneous engravings, give him back to us 
as he was in life, an honor to his country and 
his race. Dr. Elliott Coues has added to the 
scientific value of the present book by an abund- 
ance of painstaking and scholarly notes. 

Sara A. Hubbabd. 




In Ou> Virginia.* 

The oommonwealth of Virginia is fall of 
fascination for the historian of every type. 
The old aristocracy of its youth has now been 
replaced by the new democracy of its present 
maturity. Mr. Bradley's *^ Sketches from Old 
Virginia " are snap-shots of the transition pe- 
riod — the first fifteen years after the close of 
the Civil War (1861-65). He gives us ten 
little pictures, not always connected in thought, 
but all snatched from that memorable period, 
when the old conditions were present in mem- 
ory only, and the new in reality. *^ Parkin the 
Saddler," ''On the Old Bethel Pike," and 
''The ' Poor Whites ' of the Mountains," espe- 
cially, open the door into revelations of the old 
and the new, the past and the present. Told 
in a simple and often pathetic manner, the 
stories appeal to and take hold of the reader. 
They possess the reality which grows out of a 
personal acquaintance with, and knowledge of, 
the conditions described. Every such book 
adds to our mental picture of those stirring 
days, and, though not always written ideally, 
it should be made welcome by all lovers of 

Professor Fiske has produced the book of 
the year 1897 on American history. "Old 
Virginia and Her Neighbors" falls into its 
place in his well-planned series. These vol- 
umes fiU the gap between his " Discovery of 
America " and "Beginnings of New England." 
They take up the story of Virginia with Sir 
Walter Raleigh and the Bev. Richard Hakluyt, 
and follow it " until the year 1753, when the 
youthful George Washington sets forth upon 
his expedition to warn the approaching French- 
men from any further encroachments upon En- 
glish soil." The subsequent history of Virginia, 
beginning with the war of the Spanish Succes- 
sion which broke out during Nicholson's rule 
in Virginia, in 1758, remain to be treated in a 
later work. 

Raleigh's Virginia, extending from Florida 
to Canada, standing between France and Spain, 
first receives careful consideration from Mr. 
Fiske. The first charter of Virginia, issued by 
James I. in 1606, limited Virginia within the 
84th and 45th parallels of latitude and from 
the seashore a hundred miles inland. Three 
years thereafter, as if to cut ofiF all dispute re- 

*Skxtohx8 fbom Old Viboikia. By A. G. Bradley. 
New York : The MaomiUan Co. 

Old VotonoA aud Hxb Neiohbobs. By John Fiske. 
In two Tolnmaa. Boston : Houghton, Mifflin <& Co. 

garding the western wilderness, a second char- 
ter describes Virginia as extending ^^ from sea 
to sea" (Vol. I., p. 60). It is supposed that 
the King thought of the two limits ^^100 
miles inland " and ^^ from sea to sea " as prac- 
tically one and the same. This Virginia, cut 
into three zones, was open for colonization by 
two joint-stock companies with headquarters in 
London. In 1609 (Vol. I., p. 145) Virginia 
proper was cut off from North Virginia, which 
soon took the names of New England and New 
Netherlands, and was colonized by Puritans 
and Dutchmen. 

This remaining Virginia suffered further re- 
duction in 1632 when Maryland was carved 
from her north side, and in 1668 and in 1782 
when other slices were cut off to form Carolina 
and Georgia respectively. The author limits 
his account of Maryland to 107 pages, and of 
the Carolinas to 67 pages. Thus with a firm 
hand he holds himself closely to the discussion 
of Virginia proper. 

The author's method is next to ideal. He 
endeavors ^^ to follow the main stream of causa- 
tion from the time of Raleigh to the time of 
Dinwiddie, from its sources down to its absorp- 
tion into a mightier stream." This plan gives 
the narrative a movement, a life, which is very 
attractive and engaging to the reader. It re- 
veals a large amount of careful sifting on the 
part of the author, so that only the essential, 
the vital, facts may find place in his work. The 
temptation to lug in side-issues or striking 
details is firmly resisted. Professor Fiske's 
breadth and discernment are apparent on every 
page. His survey of events penetrates at once 
to the underlying currents, and so locates them 
as to define the fixed relations of the events. 

It is a relief to all who delight in the ro- 
mantic of American history to see that the 
authenticity of the story of Captain John Smith 
and Pocahontas is critically defended by Pro- 
fessor Fiske. Some of the breeziest reading, 
especially for the boys, in these two volumes 
will be found in the chapter which opens Vol- 
ume I., on *' The Sea Kings "; also, ^^ A Sem- 
inary of Sedition " (Vol. I., p. 191 ff.), and 
" The Golden Age of Pirates " (Vol. II., p. 388 
ff.). The directness of the author's style and 
his clearness of statement — one always under- 
stands him — set before one a vivid word- 
picture, such as many another ¥rriter could not 
do with twice the space. The whole work is 
admirably done, revealing at once a command- 
ing knowledge of the situations, a power of 
analysis equal to every emergency, and a genius 



[Feb. 1, 

in grouping causes and effects. This is now 
our star work on the period of Old Virginia. 

The volumes are illustrated with a half dozen 
good maps of those Virginia days. And the 
printer's art is very creditable. These living 
records arouse our avidity for their successors, 
soon to follow, on **The Dutch and Quaker 



Ira M. Pbice. 

Ths Hope of the IjAboring Max.* 

The pleasing assumption that by legislative 
process we can give to the poor a greater share 
of the produce of capital and labor, while not 
diminishing the aggregate production, ought to 
reveal its inherent absurdi^ in the mere state- 
ment. Nevertheless, the belief that this can 
be done is very prevalent. It is Mr. Means's 
object, in his work on *^ Industrial Freedom," 
to show that no taxation of capital, no legisk- 
tion compelling a new division of the shares of 
labor and capital, no socialistic device, can 
accomplish the end desired. These attempts 
can only diminish the total from which both 
profit and wages are paid, and so inflict further 
injury upon die laborer. 

A grievance does indeed exist. Everyone 
admits that the majority of mankind must re- 
main obscure, poor, and without the great means 
of development and culture. Yet, while this 
is true, the material condition of such men is so 
infinitely better than it was a hundred years 
ago, and their eyes have been so opened to the 
possibilities of this life, its opportunities for 
development, its ease and comforts, so much 
the more desirable when unpossessed, that a 
feeling of revolt is almost universal. This 
feeling is intensified by what seems to be the 
injustice of their lot. Hence the demand that 
the injustice shall be rectified by law ; that the 
rich shall give of their fulness to the poor, and 
that by a new arrangement of the social system 
aU men may enjoy the blessings and rewards 
of material prosperity. 

But what is this injustice ? Certainly, if the 
conditions complained of are due to natural 
means, and not to the acts of men, we cannot 
speak of any injustice which has a possible 
meaning in this connection. The injustice 
complained of must be the remediable injustice 
of man to man. If such exists, then it is, in- 
deed, the duty of the legislator to correct it. 

*hn>UBTBiAL Fbxxdom. By Dayid MaoGregor Means. 
With an Introdnotion by the Hon. Dayid A. Wells. New 
York : D. Appleton A Go. 

So much is willingly admitted. But let no man 
out of the depth of hb bitterness accuse the 
social system because there is a necessary strug- 
gle for existence ; or because natural conditions 
are hostile to the physically and mentally weak ; 
or because machinerir and inventions have dia- 
turbed the temporary organization of the in- 
dustrial world for its lasting benefit ; or because 
many laboring men are improvident ; or because 
the earth is so constituted that the means of 
subsistence have a tendency to increase in a 
different ratio to the increase of population. 
If these things are injustices, there is an end 
to the argument, and the laboring man is more 
than vindicated in his rebellion. 

Conceding that these conditions are neces- 
sary, we are confined to an inquiry into the ac- 
tual relations between employer and employed, 
an inquiry which has for its object the deter- 
mination of the province of legislative inter- 
ference between the two. What is the actual 
status? It is presumably one of free, open, 
and complete competition, with the power on 
both sides of making contracts. This being 
the case, the advocate of legislative interference 
declares that the laboring man is a slave, and 
his condition that of ^^ industrial slavery." The 
truth is not in accordance with this assertion. 
In the matter of law, for instance, the employed 
is less a slave than the employer, for the law 
permits workingmen to combine to raise wages, 
while it prohibits capitelists from combining 
to raise prices ; the workingman can break his 
contract with impunity, while the law vrill hold 
the employer to the strict letter of the same 
contract. Nor is the position of the laborer 
harsher in other respects. Capital can as little 
afford to lie idle as can labor. In fact, it 
sometimes cannot so well afford this, since the 
loss to capital is not only the loss of profit, but 
of rent and interest as well, — a loss on the 
machinery and buildings which are lying idle. 
Moreover, the capitalist may have contracts 
which he is bound under heavy penalties to fill. 
In such a case, he is at the mercy of the work- 
ingman. At the best, he is often compelled to 
pay wages which are above the rate that would 
be paid if competition were indeed free and 
open, for a strong trades-union will have con- 
siderable power to raise wages, and even greater 
power in hindering the capitalist from hiring 
non-union men. 

It has been held that the relations existing 
between employer and employed are materially 
changed when a corporation is the employer. 
But there is no good ground for this assertion. 




Competition still exists, and has to be taken 
into account. Much as the corporation might 
like to secure its labor for half price, it cannot 
do so, but mnst pay for it what other competi- 
tors engaged in the same industry pay ; just as 
it must pay equal prices for the lumber and 
coal and iron that it buys. It has no choice, 
and to speak of industrial slavery in such a 
case is nonsense. Isolated instances of reduced 
wages will occur, but they cannot last, for the 
tendency on the one hand is to cut down all 
expenses, on the other hand to compel a rise 
in wages. Hence other corporations will try 
to reduce wages, while the laborers will strive 
for an advance which will make their wages 
equal to those of other workers in the same 
industry. Consequently wages are bound to 
reach a common level. 

Notwithstanding these facts, it is particularly 
upon corporations that war is waged ; it is upon 
them that many people feel there lies the duty 
of raising wages ; of being forced by law to *^ dis- 
gorge." The injustice of these demands is ap- 
parent, and becomes even more apparent when 
we examine into the real nature of a corpora- 
tion. A corporation consists of a body of 
stockholders and their agents, the officials who 
manage its affairs ; the acts of a corporation 
are the acts either of the stockholders or of the 
agents ; the property of a corporation is un- 
doubtedly that of the stockholders ; the ^^ crimes " 
of a corporation are the ** crimes " of its agents ; 
the ^^ disgorging " demanded must be done by 
the stockholders ; if the corporation must pay 
higher wages, these must come from the same 
source. And who are the stockholders ? In 
thousands of cases they are men of moderate 
means. Stock is often held by charitable in- 
stitutions, or by widows and orphans who can- 
not manage their own property, and so invest 
it in corporate stock. When we have stated 
these simple and well-known facts, the injustice 
of the demand that corporations should pay 
higher wages and have fewer rights than other 
employers becomes evident. And when we 
examine statistics it is found that the stock- 
holders rarely receive large profits. Many of 
them receive none whatever. Seven-tenths of 
the railroad stock in the United States pay no 
dividends, and other corporations in the same 
plight are numbered by the thousand. 

The difficulty here is two-fold. In the first 
place, most people are so ignorant of the facts 
that they confound the agents of the corpora- 
tion with the owners of the property, while 
the former are primarily the managers only. 

The second error lies in drawing a hard-and- 
fast line between capitalists and employees. 
No such line exists. The workingman who is 
thrifty and saves his money is also a capitalist, 
and in many instances he is a stockholder. In 
the year 1898 the deposits in the savings banks 
of the United States were $1,800,000,000, and 
the depositors numbered 4,880,000. These 
savings were capital, and these depositors were 
capitalists. Looked at in this light, the propo- 
sition to tax corporations because they are cor- 
porations resolves itself into a very simple 
scheme to tax thrift and sobriety for the benefit 
of those who possess neither of these qualities. 

When these truths dawn upon the labor 
agitator and the socialistic thinker, the demand 
is instantly made that the manager be taxed, or 
at least that the rich man be taxed because he 
is rich. Perhaps there is more justice in this 
demand. Certain it is that the man who gets 
rich by his managerial ability — the well-known 
but somewhat indefinable ^^ captain of indus- 
try " — can be taxed without appreciably dimin- 
ishing the amount he will produce, so long as 
the law stops short of taking all that he pro- 
duces. This is so, because to refuse to produce 
all that he can will be more harmful to himseU 
than to anyone else. Mr. Means thinks that 
such a tax on profits, if it could be levied, would 
be objectionable because the smaller dealers, the 
men who produce just at the margin of profit, 
would be forced out of business ; and this, he 
seems to think, would be calamitous. Cer- 
tainly it would not. The result would be analo- 
gous to the introduction of labor-saving ma- 
chines, hard on a present generation of laborers 
and tradesmen, but finally beneficial to all. 

A tax on incomes would be more certain than 
a tax on profits, and as just as any tax can be, 
though Mr. Means does not think so. A tax 
on the ^^ unearned increment " would also be 
just, but is less easily applied, and pretty cer- 
tain in its incidence to fall upon the man who 
pays the rent instead of upon the owner. Hence 
this is not at present a possible form of taxa- 
tion. We may say the same of many forms of 
tax upon bonds and stocks of corporations, 
such as railroads, breweries, mining companies, 
etc. The consumer pays the tax. Hence taxes 
upon capital are sure to fail. The alternative 
proposition that the government shall take all 
great corporate enterprises into its own hands 
is met by Mr. Means with a reference to the 
failures of the government so far, and to the 
extravagance and corruption at present inherent 
in government methods and government agents. 



[Feb. 1, 

The Pablio Printing-oflEice is one illastration ; 
-the annaal deficit in the Poet-offioe department 
is another; the Philadelphia experiment in 
•owning gas-works is a third. The enthusiast 
who advocates government ownership in the 
United States must be gently but firmly re- 
pressed until the advent of the millennium jus- 
tifies his hopes. 

When all is said, it remains true that com- 
petition, full, free, and open, is the best hope 
of the laboring man. But there is a domain 
in which law should and must be active. For 
instance, the law should see that the employer 
does not suffer from rampant trades-unionism ; 
that the non-union man is not oppressed by the 
same means ; that the employer is kept from 
^^ inducing" the laborer to buy land from him, 
or to rent from him alone, or to trade at his 
store exclusively. Any man acquainted with 
the conditions of the life of the laborer in many 
parts of the Union will know how serious these 
questions are, and how essential the use of 
legal restraint has become. The law can dis- 
pense justice here, precisely as it has already 
done in England and America in respect to the 
employment of women and children in mines 
and factories. And such legislation would in- 
crease the real wages of laborers, and would 
not in general reduce the aggregate production. 

It seems to the reviewer that there is in 
Mr. Means's book a failure to point out a very 
real difficulty in the industrial situation, and 
one apparently inseparable from it under the 
regime of freedom, — the fact that the welfare 
of the individual is too often opposed to the 
general welfare. For example, it is a benefit 
to glass-blowers to have glassware broken ; to 
printers to have type set by hand ; to small 
retail dealers to have department stores abol- 
ished ; to carpenters that fires should be numer- 
ous ; to smart financiers that superfluous rail- 
roads should be constructed and unnecessary 
buildings erected. Yet all these things are 
opposed to the general welfare. The man who 
builds an unnecessary railroad is g^lty of an 
act that is destructive to the interests of capital 
and labor alike. What is to be done with such 
an one? How are we to reconcile the conflict- 
ing interests of individuals with the interests 
of all the people ? This is in fact the great 
problem, and the man who solves it will deserve 
eternal honor. 

A general criticism of Mr. Means's method 
may be offered. What he says is true enough, 
but only when the conditions specified are all 
present. But these conditions never are all 

present ; and hence the conclusions point only 
to a general policy to be pursued. Again, 
while Mr. Means defines his terms strictly, he 
uses them loosely ; occasionally, too, he omits 
some element of the problem which would put 
a very different face on the argument. Thus, 
on page 42 he reasons as if tiie entrepreneur 
did not exist, while in his chapter on the nature 
of profits the great manager is very prominent 
indeed ; he declares that railroads which are 
not able to declare dividends pay their em- 
ployees ^^ not only all that their services are 
worth, but more than they are worth " (page 
46), while on page 99 he declares that ^^ We 
must maintain as our standard of justice the 
equality of reward with sacrifice." If this is 
the true principle, certainly the services of a 
brakeman on a railroad are not to be measured 
by the corporation's ability to pay dividends. 
He also fails to note that frequently the rail- 
roads have only themselves to blame if they 
cannot pay dividends (page 46), while later he 
clearly points this out (page 116). He holds 
that the rate of profits may be measured to some 
extent by the rate of interest (page 156), and 
yet he shows that this is not so, ^* since the 
decline of interest . • . has taken place be- 
cause property has been protected and profits 
increased under modem methods of govern- 
ment " (page 189). 

When all exceptions are taken, however, it 
must be said that Mr. Means has g^ven us a 
very helpful and very readable book, and one 
which is well calculated to convince the man we 
all wish to convince, the honest third man who 
is in doubt and is willing to be set right. 

Ralph C. H. Catteraix. 

A Monumental Wobk fob Bibijs 


Volume I. of «' The Expositor's Greek Testa- 
ment " gives us the first instalment of a monu- 
mental work, under the general editorial super- 
vision of Dr. W. Robertson NicoU, which is 
intended to do for Bible students of to-day 
what was done for those of a former generation 
by Alford. In point of size the work bids fair 
to surpass its ambition, and in mechanical exe- 
cution it cannot fail of such good fortune. In 

*Ths EzposiToa'B Gbxxk Tk8TAXs»t. VolnmeL The 
Synoptio Gkispels, by the Rer. Alexander Balmain Bmoe, 
D.D., Piofeesor of Apokvetioe, Free Ghnroh Golleffe, Glas- 
gow ; The Gkispel of St. John, by the Rer. Marous Dodi, D.D., 
Profeesor of Exegetioal Theology, New College, Edinbugh. 
New York: Dodd. Blead A Co. 




all the improvemeDt seen in the manaf acture 
of theological works, there is none more marked 
than that which distingoishes this sumptnons 
Yolome from its literary ancestry. 

In reality, the present volume contains two 
separate commentaries, each by as eminent a 
biblical student as Scotland can boast. Between 
the two treatises there is naturally a general 
similarity in method. Each has ito Introduc- 
tion, and each its interpretative portion. To 
examine any one of these four portions in de- 
tail is quite impossible ; but each has its excel- 
lences and its insufficiences. Chief among the 
latter is that which is common to both — the 
use of the Textus Receptus. Why this aston- 
ishing relapse of scholarship is permitted, is 
very lamely explained. It is true that critical 
readings are inserted below the text ; but why, 
in this stage of the textual criticism of the New 
Testament, it is necessary to force every stu- 
dent to make his own critical text, is hard to see. 

So far as the Introductions go, there is a 
surprising conservatism in that of Professor 
Dods, who devotes over twenty-three pages to 
a learned and elaborate establishing of the un- 
modified Johannine authorship of the gospel, of 
which space only a page and a half deal with 
the hypothesis that the book as it stands is of 
Johannine origin but written by one of John's 
disciples. It is disappointing to see the off- 
hand fashion in which this position is pushed 
aside in what seems a sort of postscript to the 
real discussion. In Professor Bruce's Intro- 
duction we have a characteristically graphic 
presentation of the synoptic problem, which is 
admirably brought down to date. In fact, it 
would be difficult to find elsewhere so good a 
statement of the entire matter in the same space. 

In the exegesis, it will perhaps be found that 
the relative worth of the two parts will be 
higher. Professor Dods is thoroughly at home 
in working as an exegete within the limits set 
him in a brief running commentary, and the 
work of Professor Bruce has preserved, even in 
its conciseness, much of its attractive literary 
quality. Neither author could be guilty of 
unscholarly writing, though there is a decided 
difference between the somewhat formal exe- 
getical studies of the one and the flowing com- 
ment of the other. There may be some ques- 
tion whether in either case the compression of 
Alford has been equalled, and one cannot help 
r^pretting occasionally that the perspective of 
interpretation has not been better kept, and 
that Professor Brace's critical positions have 
not been of greater service in exegesb. But, 

taken all in all, if we are to have Alford re- 
divivus it is probable that the present volume 
is as good as we could expect. Certainly it is 
eminently usable, and much of its exposition is 
stimulating and illuminating ; while, apart from 
the matters above indicated, its insufficiencies 
are due to the endeavor to get text and comment 
within certain fixed limits of space. At all 
events, it is no small advantage to have the 
opinions of two such men as the present authors 
upon the four gospels, even though we may not 
be able to know all the data upon which these 
opinions are based. Shailer Mathews. 

Becsnt Fiction.* 

When a writer who has had relative saeeess in 
the byways of fiction boldly sets forth to plunge 
into the heart of life, and either win or miss alto- 
gether the reward that waits for serious work trium- 
phantly performed, those who have been interested 
in the slight earlier achievement await with con- 
siderable apprehension the outcome of the new eonr- 
ageoos ventare. In the case of the writer now under 

* Thx SoBOOL FOB Saints. By John Oliyer Hobbai. New 
York : Frederick A. Stokes Co. 

Ths Bbth Book. By Swah Grand. New York : D. Apple- 
ton A Co. 

Tme ToBMUiTOB. By Benjamin Swift. New York: 
Charles Soribner*s Sons. 

Maboot. By Sidney Pickering. New York: G. P. Put- 
nam's Sons. 

Thb Knra WITH Two Faobs. By M. B. Coleridge. New 
York : Edward Arnold. 

Bt a Haib*8 Bbbai>th. By Headon HilL New York: 
Dodd, Mead A Co. 

LocmKYAB. A NoTcl. By S. R. Crockett. New York : 
Harper A Brothers. 

Ths OuTiiAWB OF THB Mabohbs. By Lord Ernest Hamil- 
ton. New York : Dodd, BCead A Co. 

Thb Jvqolkr, By Charles Egbert Craddock. Boston: 
Honghton, Mifflin A Co. 

Jbboicb, a Poob Man. A Noyel. By Biary B. Wilkins. 
New York : Harper A Brothers. 

Thb Kbntuokianb. A Norel. By John Fox, Jr. New 
York : Harper A Brothers. 

Thb Fbdbbaii Judqb. By Charles E. Losh. Boston : 
Honghton, Biifflin A Co. 

LoBBAiKB. A Romance. By Robert W. Chambers. New 
York : Harper A Brothers. 

An Impbbial Lovkb. By M. Imlay Taylor. Chicago: 
A. C. MoClnrg A Co. 

Outlinbs in Local Colob. By Brander Matthews. New 
York : Harper A Brothers. 

Lin MoLban. By Owen Wister. New York : Harper A 

A Bbownino Coubtship, and Other Stories. By Eliza 
Ome White. Boston : Houghton, Mifflin A Co. 

A Book of Tbub Loyebs. By Octaye Thanet. Chicago : 
Way A Williams. 

Thb Mtbtebt of Choicb. By Robert W. Chambers. 
New York : D. Appleton A Co. 

LiTBBABT Loyb-Lbttbbs, and Other Stories. By Robert 
Herrick. New York : Charles Soribner's Sons. 



[Feb. 1, 

consideration, the <<John Oliyer Hobbes," known 
to her friends as Mrs. Craigie, the interest is pecu- 
liarly marked, for the striking qaalities displayed in 
her first two or three books were of a sort which 
might give distinction to a social sketch or a draw- 
ing-room comedy, bat which could not be counted 
upon to give distinction to work done upon a large 
canvas or having the world for a stage. In other 
words, it takes more than cleverness to produce seri- 
ous ficUon, and the sparkle and caustic wit that 
sufficed for such hooks as ^ Some Emotions and a 
Moral " offered no promise of such a hook as " The 
School for Saints." Moreover, Mrs. Craigie had 
produced one hook of ampler dimensions which could 
be regarded as only a failure, and her later work 
had seemed to offer indications that a rather thin 
vein of observation was about exhausted. *<The 
School for Saints," then, comes to us as an agree- 
able surprise, for it shows an unexpected growth of 
the powers of the writer, and a g^asp of the deeper 
problems of life for which her earlier efforts had 
done little to prepare the public. It is a full-grown 
novel in itself, and at the end we learn that it is hut 
the first part of a still larger work, the continuation 
of which we shall await with impatience. The hook 
is essentially a picture of European society in the 
last days of the Third Empire. It deals with polit- 
ical and social life in England, France, and Spain, 
— as well as the mythical Duchy of Alberia, — and 
gives us hold presentations of such public men as 
Disraeli, such events as the Carlist uprising of 1869, 
and such tendencies of thought as the rising tide of 
the reaction against liheraUsm. It is, moreover, 
made intensely vital hy the strong personality of 
Bohert Orange, who is a part of all these things — 
a friend of Disraeli, a knight-errant of Spanish 
legitimacy, and a type of the conservative temper 
that can find rest only in the acceptance of authority 
in religious, and of consecrated tnulition in political, 
matters. The point of view is one which cannot he 
ours, or that of any purely rational student of affairs, 
and it is a noteworthy tribute to the author's success 
to acknowledge that she compels our sympathy for 
the outworn ideals that are hers ; investing them 
with both dignity and moral attractiveness. To 
sum up, << The School for Saints " is a book based 
upon much reflective knowledge, and having both 
strength and distinction of manner. Per contra^ it 
retains a little too much of the << pointed " epigram- 
matic style that served so well to introduce the 
writer into literature, and its idealism now and 
then skirts the regions of sentimental absurdity. 
The hero at times barely escapes the imputation of 
priggishness, and the heroine usually speaks in a 
language better fitted to a woman of sixty than to 
a girl of sixteen. 

"The Beth Book," by Mrs. "Sarah Grand," offers 
us no such development of power as is illustrated 
by the volume last under discussion. Every dis- 
cerning reader of "The Heavenly Twins" must 
have realized that chaotic performance to be the 
work of a woman for whom, no matter how many 

books she might produce, no intellectaal growth 
possible, and nothing like artistic success ever attain- 
able. Accumulation, not selection, is her method, 
and her paragraphs are chunks of verbiage rather 
than polished instruments of expression. Her book 
is an attempt to do for a girl what Mr. Barrie did 
for a boy in " Sentimental Tommy " — that is, to 
describe the development of a child of genius. If 
she had left off where Mr. Barrie did, leaving us to 
imagine the years of ripened power instead of at- 
tempting to characterize them, we should have had 
a different verdict to record from that which the 
book as a whole makes necessary. For the story 
of Beth's childhood is told with no little insight and 
charm, and she is too winsome a creature for the 
fate that awaits her in the later chapters. " The 
Beth Book" is clearly a book with a purpose, 
although it is difficult to state just what purpose. 
It might be described as a tract directed against a 
certain class of hospitals for women, although even 
on this point the writer's logic is painfully to seek. 
To assume that the sex is degraded by the provision 
of such hospitals is an utterly impossible thesis, yet 
it seems to be maintained in all seriousness by this 
writer. In a larger view, her purpose is to pro- 
claim the wrongs of downtrodden woman, which 
is done by placing Beth in contrast with the uncon- 
vincing domestic tyrant who figures as her father, 
and the utterly unimaginable brute who makes her 
his wife. The working out of this contrast, together 
with much railing at the wickedness of man in gen- 
eral, and at the social ideals of the mid-Victorian 
period, serves to keep the story going for many long 
chapters after it has ceased to have any human in- 
terest. There are many touches of vitality and 
glimpses of sincere feeling in the book, a fact which 
makes its shapelessness and bad temper and lack of 
artistic restraint only the more exasperating. 

A considerable but somewhat perverse power is 
displayed in " The Tormentor," which again directs 
attention to the author of " Nancy Noon." The 
chief character in this book is a young man whose 
conduct is uncontrolled by any apparent ethical 
motive, and who, conscious of the possession of in- 
tellectual powers much out of the common, applies 
them to the moral vivisection of his neighbors. He 
thus becomes, in pure wantonness, the " tormentor " 
of a considerable number of his fellow-beings, and 
the recital of his experiments is anything but edify- 
ing. The book has a certain distinction of style and 
phrase which gives it a remotely Meredithian flavor, 
but it is not pleasant either to peruse or to think 
about afterwards. 

" Margot " is a pretty story of love and suffering, 
which links in strange fashion the fortunes of an 
English gentleman, a g^rl of unfortunate parentage, 
and a Siberian exile. The scene is laid partly in 
England and partly in France. There are some 
amateurish features about the book, and more of 
sentiment than passion, although the author has 
evidently sought to introduce the latter quality into 
his book. The sections of the story are not very 




deftly artieoUted, bat it all comee somehow to a 
eoDelasioDy and a reasonably bappy one at that. 

Mies M. £. Coleridge is the author of <« The King 
with Two Faces,'' a Idstorical romance of Sweden 
at the eloee of the last century. The striking figore 
of Gnstaviis III. occapies a central position in the 
narratiye, and the episode of the siege of Grothen- 
borg is made the subject of some descriptive pas- 
sages that are viyid and almost brilliant. After 
this, we witness the efforts of the King to establish 
himself as an absolute monarch, and finally his end 
at the hands of an assassin. With all this historical 
matter there is interwoven a tragic tale of private 
love, and a great diversity of incidental matter. 
The book is of considerable interest, although it 
drags in the closing chapters. 

** By a Hair's Breadth " is a novel of nihilist con- 
spiracy, and deals with certain imagined attempts 
upon the life of the present Tsar upon the occasion 
of his unperial progress through Austria, France, 
and England. The material of the plot is all so 
hackneyed that a more talented romancer than Mr. 
Headon Hill could hardly have hoped to invest it 
with any fresh interest. The agent of the Third 
Section is not a convincing sort of person, and the 
nihilists whom he tracks are all figures taken from 
the melodramatic stage. Even his Englishman cuts 
a poor figure, although all that could be expected of 
a man betrothed to as slangy a sort of girl as the 
English heroine. 

The sort of romance that Mr. Crockett weaves 
out of the materials afforded by Scottish history is 
pretty well known by this time, and little need be 
said of ^ Lochinvar " beyond recording the fact that 
its scene is laid partly in Scotland and partly in 
Holland, and that it dates from the eventful year 
1688. The Prince of Orange himself figures in two 
or three episodes, and the book is filled with ro- 
mantic adventures of the most exciting sort. It is 
one of Mr. Crockett's best books, and is written 
largely in the English language. 

We wish that we might say also of Lord Ernest 
Hamilton's border romance, <* The Outlaws of the 
Marches," that it is written in the English lan- 
guage, for we are sure that it would be interesting 
if it were intelligible. But when a single page, 
taken almost at random, yields such linguistic nug- 
gets as *'prein-head," "ongains," "mirdin'," <<gau- 
kieing," "snoick," "mim," "meeth," "whitter," 
" pake," « tynd," " cow-dynks," " shamie," " flea- 
loggit," '' dushets," << daidling," and << quey," be- 
sides the more familiar forms of the Scots dialect, 
we feel bound to protest. Nor does the glossary at 
the end of the book relieve our feelings ; we cannot 
escape the suspicion, moreover, that some of this is 
bad language. As for the story, we have made out 
its general trend, and find the gist of it to be a ro- 
mance of the Scottish border in the sixteenth cen- 
tury. It tells how the mighty race of the Armstrongs 
(a clan suggestive of Mr. Blackmore's Doones) long 
defied both Grod and man, but met their deserved 
fate in the end. The love-story is a pretty one, and 

the illustrations, which are all plates of scenery 
reproduced from photographs, are not only a joy in 
themselves, but offer a valuable hint to those iUns- 
trators who design groups of puppets more wooden 
even than the descriptions to wUch they are fitted. 
The average illustration of the average novel is a 
most distressing thing, and the expenditure which it 
involves is something worse than waste. 

*< The Juggler " is not a particularly well-made 
story, nor is the figure of its chief character an 
attractive one. But it has the two unfailing ele- 
ments of Miss Murfree's streng^th — clear insight 
into the character of the Tennessee mountaineer and 
a marvellous power of poetical interpretation when 
it deals with the natural aspects of the region which 
he inhabits. When inspired by her beloved moun- 
tains, the powers of the author become, as it were, 
transfigured, the utterance is so large, so free from 
the trammels of her individuality, so finely conso- 
nant with the mystery and the majesty of the scenes 
she describes. This one thing Miss Murfree has 
done for American literature so supremely well that 
she stands almost without a rival. It is as far as 
possible removed from fine writing; it seems to 
have the inevitable quality, and bears no mark of 
the self-conscious rhetorician. 

Nothing could be more sharply contrasted with 
such work than the photographic realism of Miss 
Wilkins, exhibited already in so many studies of 
New England character. Here nature counts for 
little, and life for nearly everything, a life, more- 
over, that is pictured with touches whose delicacy 
suggests Jane Austen or Meissonnier. <* Jerome, a 
Poor Man " is the most ambitious of Miss Wilkins's 
books, and its realism is not so uncompromising as 
to refuse absolutely admission of the elements of 
romance. Although the hero is ** a poor man," and 
although we are spared no detail of his grim strug- 
gle with poverty, he is allowed the good fortune of 
a windf aU in the shape of a legacy, and his toil leads 
in the end to prosperity and happiness. The story 
of this legacy involves the one questionable point in 
the whole scheme of the book. As a boy, impelled 
by a great desire to help those who are, like himself, 
struggling for the means of subsistence, Jerome 
makes a vow that if he ever becomes possessed of 
any large sum of money he will distribute it indis- 
criminately among the poor of his township. The 
leg^y permits fulfilment of this rash vow, and we 
are not sure that the author does not believe such 
indiscriminate charity to be desirable and really 
helpful to its beneficiaries. Her main object is, of 
course, to illustrate the effect of this conduct upon 
two other men, who are shamed into something like 
emulation of it, and to close the book in a sort of 
Christmas atmosphere of good will toward men. 
But the moral is still questionable from the stand- 
point of a sound sociology, and we wish that the 
main result might have been achieved by some other 
means. The heroine, appropriately named Lucina, 
is not a success, and we can hardly wish Jerome joy 
in the possession of so insipid and doll-like a creature. 



[Feb. 1, 

Bat men in love do not always know what is best 
for them, and a familiar moral is thus pointed once 

We go once more to the mountains in the com- 
pany of Mr. John Fox, Jr., whose story of <' The 
Kentnckians " is the most serious piece of work thos 
far attempted by this grrowing writer. There is 
little here to suggest Miss MuHree, for to Mr. Fox 
the mountains hardly exist as natural phenomena, 
but are merely the physical environment of a hardy 
human stock kept out of the march of civilization by 
their barriers, and relapsed into something like har- 
barism. The core of this hook is the story of a feud 
between two mountain clans, a feud as grim as those 
of the sixteenth century borderers described in " The 
Outlaws of the Marches." When we read in the 
newspapers of two Kentuckians who meet in the 
streets of some town, and try to kill each other at 
sight, we read only of the efflorescence of an antag^ 
onism whose roots and trunk are likely to be hidden 
in some fastness of the wilderness. Hence our edi- 
torial sermonizing is apt to fall wide of the mark, 
mistaking what is accidental for what is essential. 
Mr. Fox does not sermonize overmuch, but he ex- 
plains, thereby doing far better service to the stu- 
dent of these social phenomena. His standpoint b 
right ; these things are a part of savagery, but they 
are not to be done away with by appeals to a social 
ideal that simply does not exist in the mental make- 
up of those concerned, that must, in fact, first be 
created by a laborious educational process before it 
may be appealed to effectively. Mr. Fox has given 
us in this book a virile presentation of his theme, 
and we are grateful to him for it. 

Mr. Charles K. Lush is a new writer, and if he 
has it in him to produce more books of the quality 
of '' The Federal Judge " he is not likely to lack 
encouragement from the critics. His story takes us 
straight into the heart of present-day politics and 
involves one of the burning social problems of the 
hour. It is, briefly, the story of a railway king and 
an incorruptible judge. The former is a man of the 
keen, forceful, unscrupulous type who figures so 
largely in the industrial life of the present ; 5ie latter 
is a man of simple straightforward character, who 
becomes, without in the least suspecting it, the mere 
tool of the other. The manner in which Judge 
Dunn, the sworn foe of monopolies and corporate 
wealth, is raised from the obscurity of his country 
circuit to the federal bench by the designing Gard- 
well, and the way in which his very simplicity is 
wrought upon to his undoing, is described in a skil- 
ful way, and is to a considerable extent typical of 
actual conditions. The lesson that no man may 
entirely escape being affected by his environment, 
and that the best-intentioned of judges will be influ- 
enced by the subtle forces that electrify the atmos- 
phere in which the money-getters of a great city 
have their being, is admirably presented in this 
book, and there is no need of pointing the moral. 
Thus it comes about that our judge, in spite of his 
natural bent, is persuaded to join hands with the 

schemer who has gained his confidence, and to issnoy 
at a critical juncture in the affairs of a great rail- 
way system for the control of which two equally 
unscrupidous factions are contending, one of the 
famous strike injunctions that made so great a stir 
two or three years ago. Here is the burning ques- 
tion raised by the novel, and we are bound to say 
that both sides of the argument that rages about sudi 
injunctions are presented with fairness, although the 
bidance of the author's sympathies does not seem to 
incline in the direction in which we would have it. 
And we must confess that to Grardwell, who is also 
in a way the product of an unwholesome environ- 
ment, the author seems to have meted out too harsh 
a fate. Unscrupulous as the man is, there are as- 
pects of his character that excite admiration and 
even respect, and when he dies, we have something 
of the feeling of the boy-reader who follows his 
favorite pirate to execution. 

One is much prepossessed in favor of ^' Lorraine," 
the new romance of Mr. Robert W. Chambers, by 
the poem that serves as a preface. It is so charming 
that we must reproduce it entire. 

** When Yesterday sliall dawn again, 
And the long line athwart the hill 
Shan quicken with the bugle's thrill. 
Thine own shall come to thee, Lonraine I 

** Then in each vineyard, vale, and plain. 
The quiet dead shall stir the earth 
And rise, reborn, in thy new birth^ 
Thou holy martyr-maid, Lorraine I 

" Is it in Tain thy sweet tears stain 
Thy mother's breast ? Her oasUed orsat 
Is lifted now I GkKl guide her quest I 
She seeks thine own for thee, Lorraine ! 

*' So Yesterday shall liye again. 
And the steel line along the Rhine 
Shall cuirass thee and all that's thine. 
Franoelives— thy France — divine Lorraine 1 " 

Unless we are much mistaken, this lyric will be pre- 
served in the anthologies. The story which it intro- 
duces is much the best piece of work that Mr. 
Chambers has given us, and the best story of the 
Franco-Prussian War, with the possible exception 
of Herr Spielhagen's << Allseit Voran," that has ever 
come to our notice. By an ingenious conceit, the 
name of the French province is also the name of 
the heroine of the book, and one of the sweetest 
creations of recent romance is thus linked by both 
verbal and actual association with the fair province 
which might but not right wrested from the boeom 
of the mother-country a quarter of a century ago. 
The story is delightful from beginning to end, ten- 
der and pathetic, at one moment the embodiment 
of delicate feeling, at another stirred with war's 
alarums and vivid dramatic action. The only his- 
torical figure of any consequence is that of the Man 
of Sedan, viewed in the hour of impending or accom- 
plished retribution, and the sketch is not one to be 
easily forgotten. We think, however, that the au- 
thor fell into an artistic fault when he made his 
heroine the daughter of the Emperor, stolen at birth 
I by a frensied sufferer from the ooup d'^toL And 




we wish that Mr. Chamben had refrained from 
▼entiiig 80 mach spleen upon Thiers and Gambetta, 
whom he cordially detests. Saeh matter as the fol- 
lowing is oot of place in a work like *^ Lorraine," 
and strikes a painfully false note : ^' Ghunbetta, that 
incabos of bombastic flabbiness, roaring prophecy 
and platitade through the dismayed city, kept his 
eye on the balcony of the particular edifice where, 
later, he should pose as an animated Jericho trum- 
pet. So, biding his time, he bellowed, but it was 
the Commie Fran^aise that was the loser, not the 
people, when he sailed away in his balloon, posed, 
majestically squatting as the god of war above the 
donds of battle. And little Thiers, furtive, timid, 
delighting in senile efforts to stir the ferment of 
chaos till it boiled, he, too, was there, owl-like, 
squeaky-voiced, a true * bombyx k lunettes.' There, 
too, was Hugo — often ridiculous in his terrible 
moods, egotistical, sloppy, roaring. The Empire 
pinched Hugo, and he roared ; and let the rest of 
the world judge whether, under such circumstances, 
there was majesty in the roar." Well, we should 
say that the world ?iad judged, and found a very 
different verdict from that brought by Mr. Chambers. 
Even Thiers by no means deserves such censure, for 
he was a patriot at heart, although he made terrible 
mistakes of judgment, and was of anything but heroic 
aspect. We are sorry that so good a piece of fiction 
as Mr. Chambers has here given us should be marred 
by the occasional introduction of such a screed as 
has been quoted. The writing is vigorous, but the 
criticism is both wrongheaded and misplaced. 

Encouraged by the success of his earlier novel, 
« On the Red Staircase," Mr. M. Imlay Taylor has 
undertaken, in ** An Imperial Lover," to produce 
what is to all intents and purposes a sequel to that 
interesting romance. Once more the hero, M. du 
Brousson, finds himself in Petersburg, this time as 
a grizzled marshal of France, sent on a diplomatic 
mission to the court in which he had won his own 
bride years before. In his suite is a young friend, 
who figures as the jeune premier of the present 
work, and whose love for the fair Najine meets with 
no less an obstacle than the rivalry of Peter the 
Great. The characterization of the Tsar is a fine 
piece of work, although his figure is given some- 
thing more of romantic coloring than the facts will 
warrant, and the series of plots and intrigues whereby 
his imperial will is thwarted and the lovers find the 
happiness that they deserve is devised with much 
ingenuity. The story is a clean and wholesome 
example of the sort of historical romance so much 
in vogue at present, and seems to us even better 
than its predecessor. 

The American short story seems to be increasingly 
given to studies in << local color." Mr. Brander 
Matthews, indeed, one of our adepts in the art of 
short-story telling, frankly styles his latest collection 
*^ Outlines in Local Color." The locality is, of 
course, the city of New York, and a dozen of the 
minor phases of its multifarious life are deftly pic- 
tured for us. We were a little startled when, open- 

ing the volume at random, we came upon the following 
remark : ** I could not stand the vulgarity of the 
DiaL I 'm an old woman now, and I've seen a 
good deal of the world, but the Dial was too much 
for me. It seemed to be written down to the taste 
of the half-naked inhabitants of an African kraal." 
But it soon appeared that the sheet thus referred to 
was the New York *< Journal" in an unhappily 
chosen disguise, and our feelings were relieved* 
These sketches by Mr. Matthews are extremely 
slight affairs, but they impress one with their truth- 
fulness, their fine sentiment, and the artistic quality 
of their style. 

Mr. Owen Wister's <<Lin McLean," although 
ostensibly a collection of short stories, is in reality 
a continuous narrative, having for its central figure 
a cowboy, and for its incidents a series of episodes 
in his free, impulsive, and checkered existence. It 
presents to us a vividly conceived and loveable per- 
son, whose native refinement of character is not 
concealed either by his swaggering mien or his 
illiterate speech. He is a <* type " in the artistic 
sense of that much-abused term, and he is drawn 
for us with knowledge and generous sympathy. 
Mr. Wister's book has both humor and pathos ; both 
are dry, but for that reason none the less effective, 
and our only wish is that the volume were twice as 

Back to the East — the provincial East this time 
— we go with Miss Eliza Orne White, who has pro- 
duced a volume of bright stories dealing with the 
social types and incidents of the New England vil- 
lage. They are not very sober sketches, any of 
them, and the minute study of her subjects has not 
prevented the writer from being broadly human, or 
from working a vein of quiet humor that seems to 
be a distinctive part of her nature. *< A Browning 
Courtship " is very amusing indeed, and << A Bis- 
marck Dinner " hardly less so. We may commend 
the stories for entertainment, at least, if not for any- 
thing more serious. 

Humor, also, is not lacking in Miss Alice French's 
collection of seven stories styled " A Book of True 
Lovers," but there is besides a touch of pathos some- 
thing deeper than Miss White offers her readers. 
Again we are in the West, — the meridian of Iowa 
and of Arkansas, — in the region and among the 
people of whom the author has so often written so 
lovingly, and whose homely ways she describes with 
so much insight into human nature. << Sir Guy the 
Neuter," which is a story of sixteenth century En- 
gland, offers the one exception to the above char- 
acterization, and seems rather out of place in the 
book, although it, too, is concerned with true lovers. 
The other six stories are of a piece in more respects 
than this, and exhibit a much more complete mas- 
tery of their material. 

Again we bring the name of Mr. Chambers into 
this review, for the purpose of saying a word or two 
of the charming qualities of the bits of romantic 
fiction which he has entitled, without the least ap- 
parent reason, << The Mystery of Choice." Perhaps 

THE DIAL [r«l>l. 




ealcolations of the location of the star at that period. 
Astronomer and arehnologist together can thus 
locate with great accuracy Uie age of a temple. It 
is ascertained as a fact that some of the stars were 
ohserred as early as 6000 B. C. These facts lead 
to the conclusion that the temples of Upper Egypt 
mark an age earlier than those in and near the delta. 
From Egypt, the Greeks borrowed the same method 
of temple-orientation. While much of the book is 
technical, it is brimful of interest, with its facts and 


Miss Lilian Bell is now furnishing 
the Western Continent with her im- 
pressions of Paris. She informs us 
that the city is <' a whited sepulchre," and adds a 
statement of the way the French view marriage. 
There is an originality and a brilliancy about these 
riews that may make some readers desire to read 
Miss Bell's << From a Girl's Point of View " (Har- 
per), even although they haye no idea of what the 
particular topics may be that are viewed from the 
Point in question. For such as hesitate to acquire 
at random any stray considerations by Miss Bell, 
we will say that the matters girlishly viewed are, 
for instance, Men as Lovers, The Philosophy of 
Clothee, Love-making as a Fine Art, Girls and 
Other Girls, and so forth. A broad sympathy may 
make one desirous, perhaps, of knowing what a girl's 
new on these subjects may be. We incline to think 
that it will be more satisfactory to the male reader, 
at least, to receive an oral exposition of these man- 
ners from whatever girl he happens to like best. Such 
presentations are not very hard to come by, and are 
said to be often of considerable interest. As for read- 
ers of the other sex, the younger ones will like this 
book, for it is always nice to see one's own ideas in 
print ; those past their first youth, however, will 
probably wish to avoid it as anyone avoids the 
recollection of any follies of earlier days. We fear 
that no one will believe that we can really appre- 
ciate better than Miss Bell so delicate a matter as a 
grirlish view of love or clothes. We shall not, there- 
fore, attempt to say whether the ideas of this book 
are or are not reidly from a girFs point of view. 
One thing we will venture to note. A characteristic 
element of girlhood (as of boyhood) is the appreci- 
ation of various matters very commonly and widely 
known, with the firm idea that they are now appre- 
ciated for the first time. This feeling is to be per- 
ceived in many of the remarks of Miss Bell, and 
we congratulate her on having herein so entirely 
assumed the position she had in mind. 


Dr. Lyman Abbott's « Theology of 
an Evolutionist" (Houghton) carries 
the distinction of being thoroughly 
up to date. It is primarily based on Professor Le 
Conte's definition of evolution : ^' A continuous pro- 
gressive change, according to certain laws, and by 
means of resident forces." This little volume (of 
191 pages) discusses only specific questions in the- 

ology ; some of these are, <' Creation by Evolution," 
<< Genesis of Sin," « Evolution of Bevehition," 
<< Place of Christ in Evolution," '< Redemption by 
Evolution," *< Evolution and Sacrifice, Propitiation, 
Miracles, and Immortality." These lectures are, 
in the main, a popularization and condensation of 
the latest utterances of Le Conte, Huxley, Romanes, 
and Drummond, on the relations of evolution and 
Christianity. At the outset, the author acknowl- 
edges that he is a radical, but at the same time a 
theistic evolutionist, who holds that religion ^is 
better comprehended, and will better be promoted, 
by the philosophy which regards all life as divine, 
and Gk>d's way of doing things as the way of a con- 
tinuous progressive change, according to certain 
laws and by means of one resident force," and that, 
God (p. 10). The application of the principles of 
evolution to the doctrines of theology is the real 
point at issue. In the first lecture, ** Creation by 
Evolution" was, if the author's reasoning holds, 
simply an initial dualism, where Grod and matter 
were two separate existences, combined only when 
matter began to revolve (p. 25). The lecture on 
*' The Grenesis of Sin " results in a non-committal 
statement by the author (p. 39), who says, never- 
theless, that *< every sin is a f aUing back into the 
animal condition " (p. 49). In the lecture on the 
*< Place of Christ in Evolution " the author adopts 
a kind of pantheism or monism (or is it dualism ? 
cf. p. 25), when he says, '< All life is Gkxi ; all force is 
Grod " (p. 76). The whole discussion, though very 
readable, and plun as a rule, yet suffers from con- 
densation. The vital problems — the genesis of 
matter, of the moral nature, of sin, of Christ — are 
no clearer at the conclusion of Dr. Abbott's book. 
Other questions named in the contents acquire a 
newer and richer meaning at his hand. 

Collections of epigrams should not 
^^^ ^ '®»d aU at one time. One cock- 

tail or a taste of caviare is very nice, 
but you cannot make a meal off either. Too many 
leave a bad taste. Mr. F. W. Morton's compilation 
of '^ Men in Epigram " (McClurg) is an interesting 
book, and a useful book too, in a way. Useful, we 
mean, to people who want epigrams ; for there is a 
double index, of subjects and of authors, so that 
one may easily get epigrams on the matter in hand 
or by the author in question. Interesting it is, too, 
or amusing if you will, because you may pick it up 
a dozen times a day and always find something new 
and smart If, however, you read much of it at a 
time, you not only become quickly satiated, but you 
come right up against this curious question : Why is 
it so much easier to say a disagreeable clever thing 
than one that is agreeable? Epigrams, as a rule, 
call attention to some folly, weakness, or failing. 
It is a great man who can make a clever comment 
on his kind that will lead you to think better of it. 
This book makes one rather ashamed of the species : 
if the epigrams be true, men are but poor things ; 
if they be false, the case is not much better, for what 



[Feb. 1, 

a pitiful spirit is shown in this affected knowledge 
of life and affected smartness and affected doubt of 
goodness. A book of epigrams is a most valuable 
commentary on the principle of realism. Every- 
thing may be true by itself alone, but the whole 
book is something of a f abity. '^ A man of maxims 
only," says Coleridge, on page 213, *< is like a Cy- 
clops with only one eye, and Uiat eye in the back of 
his head.*' Let us fortify ourselves with this con- 
solation, and we may for the moment smile even at 
La Bouchefoucauld. 

There is an immense amount of ma- 
"8ang-iore,» terial in Mr. Adair Fit^Gerald's 

'* Stories of Famous Songs" (Lippin- 
cott), although, as would be inferred from the title, 
it is presented in an easy and unconstrained fashion, 
and without much attempt at infusing order into 
what comes near being a chaos. To tell the truth, 
the subject of Famous Songs is hardly one with any 
really organic unity to be developed. It drifts on 
one side into a study of Ballad-poetry, which to-day 
is almost one of the learned professions ; on another 
it touches and overlaps parts of the history of Music 
and Literature ; and on another it becomes a sec- 
tion of what Stendhal would have called Folk- 
psychology, if such a matter still exist. From none of 
those points of view, however, does Mr. Fitz-Grerald 
contemplate the topic ; indeed, his work makes no 
claim to be a scientific treatise. He has for a long 
time collected material concerning well-known songs, 
and now orders it according to the simple and ex- 
cellent method of putting together those songs which 
seemed to him to be more or less connected. It is 
an interesting book to run through, and probably 
may also be of use as a book of reference, although 
the author often seems rather lenient in selecting 
authorities. It is very comprehensive; several times 
we thought that something important had been 
omitted, but sooner or later we came upon the object 
of search. It is always pleasant to read about old 
favorites, and here, as one turns the page, hundreds 
of half-forgotten melodies run through the mind and 
give pleasure additional. '* My true intent is all 
for your delight,'* says the author ; and we think 
that he may congratulate himself on a very fair 
measure of success. 

Sebastian Cabot appears to have had 
tJiSucaMeaM^ ^ better fortune than most men who 

have attempted to masquerade in the 
merits of others. Even as late as 1894 he was 
given the chief credit, in so authoritative a work 
as the Histoire OSnSrale of Lavisse and Ram- 
baud, for the discovery of North America, especially 
through the voyage of 1498. But during the last 
few years a more careful examination of documents 
long known, and of those recently unearthed, has 
led historians like Henry Harrisse to regard Sebas- 
tian as little better than an impostor, appropriating 
his father's work as his own. Nearly all the evi- 
dence in the case is to be found in Mr. G. E. Weare's 

volume on " Cabot's Discovery of North America " 
(Lippincott). Mr. Weare prints the original docu- 
ments, with translations, accompanied by the com- 
ments of other writers. His book is therefore 
particularly valuable to students. He is unhappily 
inclined to leave the general reader to wander about 
among these " sources " with very little in the way 
of consecutive guidance. Although less polemic 
than Harrisse, he is evidently as ready to deprive 
Sebastian of his stolen honors, and to return them 
to the real discoverer, John Cabot. 

<md other 


In his sheaf of essays in literary 
criticism entitled << Literary States- 
men and Others" (H. S. Stone & 
Co.), Mr. Norman Hapgood gives us some clever 
and suggestive appreciations of Messrs. John Mor- 
ley, Balfour, and Henry James. Other and slighter 
papers treat of Lord Rosebery, Stendhal, M^rim^, 
American Art Criticism, and American Cosmopol- 
itanism. Mr. Hapgood's touch is light and true, 
and his perception of the subtler individualities of 
style and method is keen. His essay on John Morley 
is a really clear-cut and effective piece of criticism. 
In one or two points, however, we are inclined to 
differ with Mr. Hapgood as to Mr. Morley — for 
instance, when he says that Mr. Morley's '* princi- 
ples" are '*not set in a style of distinction, but 
rather in one soured by monJism and dessicated by 
science." There is a certain leaven or nuance of truUi 
in the stricture; but it is certainly too sweeping. 
Perhaps a re-reading of, say, Mr. Morley's eloquent 
introduction to his ^^ Voltaire," or of his essay on 
Condoroet, would lead Mr. Hapgood to qualify his 
judgment. The publishers have issued this volume 
in their usual tasteful style. 

Colonel Greorge E. Waring's f ellow- 
t^^ war, citizens have long known him as an 

amiable man and a first-rate admin- 
istrator. A dainty booklet entitled <<Whip and 
Spur " (Doubleday & McClure Co.) now puts them 
in the way of knowing him as an author. Should 
they avail themselves of this chance they will not 
regret it, since Colonel Waring shows conclusively 
that in addition to his genius for street-cleaning he 
has a very pretty talent for story-telling. In this 
little book he teUs the stories and fondly paints the 
characters of horses that he has owned — " Vix," 
« Ruby," " Wellstein," " Max," and so on, — and 
recounts incidentally some campaigning experiences, 
amusing, pathetic, and exciting. There is a closing 
chapter on '< Fox-Hunting in England." The book 
is neatly made, and contains a frontispiece showing 
Colonel Waring as a dashing trooper in the early 

The personal narrative of a tourist's 
^foSpacSu. extended jaunt is to be found in Mr. 

John R. Musick's << Hawaii, our new 
Possessions " (Funk <& Wagnalls Co.). The book 
gives a very complete representation of the pictur- 
esque, complex, and varied life of the Islands, in 



1888.] THE DIAL 



[Feb. 1, 

Topics in IjEAding Psbiodical.s« 

Februcary, 1898. 

AmerioMM from Oronea. Kirk Mniiroe. Harptr, 
Aiohiteot, Ednoation of An. RusmU Stuvb. AUaniie. 
Arotie B^ploratkm« Walter Wellnuui. Bw.i^RwUwt, 
Andnbon and hit Joumala. Sara A. Hnbbaxd. Dial, 
** Aold LvBg Syne," MainMoript of. C. Reynolds. Cmiiwry, 
Bible Stodenti, Monnmental Work for. Shailer ICathewa. Did/ 
Britidi Problems for 1898. W. T. Stead. Eev. qfBeoitim. 
''Gbffioll, Lewis." Dial. 
Gritieism, Some Ideas on. G. L. Moore. Dial, 
Cammef Reforms. Robert S. Taylor. CefUwy, 
Doe d* Anmale and CSond^ Mnsenm. Henri Bonohot. Harper 
Fiotion, Reoent Books of. Wm. M. Payne. Dial, 
Florida. R. G. Robinson. LippincoU, 
Qoremment and Gommeroialinn. J. J. Chapman. Atlantic, 
Heroes Who Fight Fire. Jaoob A. Riis. Centurp, 
India, Politioal life in. F. H. Skrine. Harper, 
Insomnia. William T. Lamed. JUppineott, 
Isthmian Canal, Projects for an. I^Tid Torpie. Harper, 
Labor Unions and the Negro. J. S. Dorham. Atlantic, 
Laboring Man, Hope of the. R. C. H. Oatterall. Dial, 
Latin Quarter of New York. Tlieo. F. Wolfe. lAppincott, 
Letteia, Other Side of. M. A. De Wolfe Howe. LippineoU, 
Library, The T^yeling. Wm. B. Shaw. Bev, nf lUviewe, 
Lockwood, Wilton. T. R. Solliyan. Scribner, 
Loansbvry, Thos. Raynesford. Brander Matthews. Gentry, 
Mnsioal Cnltore in Chioago. G. P. Upton. Harper, 
NaTal Campaign on Lake Champlain. A. T. Mahan. Serih, 
Odors. Samnel M. Warns. LippineoU, 
Omaha Exposition, The. C. H. Walker. Century. 
Opportnnily. Ellen DoTall. LippineoU, 
Peaoe Morement, Adyanoe of the. ¥,Vnmf, Rev, <^ Rev, 
Poetry of Shelter. Charles C. Abbott. LippineoU, 
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Volume XXIV. 
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CHICAGO, FEB. 16, 1898. 

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TO THE TEACHER. {Extract.) 
Tke BeeUoHmi.—Tbfe pnrpoMfl of the redtattoD ahonld Indada 
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One of the most interesting as well as hopeful 
developments in the history of American public 
education is that offered by the schools of New 
York City under the enlightened regime of the 
past three years. Not so very long ago, the 
case of the public schools in the greatest of 
American cities seemed well-nigh hopeless. 
The inadequate provisions made for their sup- 
port, the dull routine into which their adminis- 
tration had fallen, the baleful influences of the 
pettiest sort of politics, and the seeming lack of 
public interest in the institution which should 
be the chief civic pride of every democratic 
community — these were the causes that com- 
bined to make of the New York system a by- 
word in educational discussion, to teach the 
educator that the work done in almost any 
inland city of moderate size was more likely to 
yield methods deserving of imitation and praise 
than the work done in the metropolitan city of 
the continent. Teachers might look for inspi- 
ration to Cleveland or Minneapolis, even to 
Peoria or Kansas City, with some reasonable 
prospect of finding it; to expect inspiration 
from the city of New York was only to suffer 
the most complete disillusionment. 

How these conditions have been changed 
under the reform administration of the past 
three years is a tale familiar enough to the few 
who make a business of keeping track of edu- 
cational movements, but to the many whose 
interest in education is general rather than pro- 
fessional the facts are as yet little known. They 
are set forth in summarized form by the editor 
of '^ The Educational Review " in the January 
issue of that invaluable periodical, and we make 
no apology for calling them to the attention of 
our readers. 

« Three yean ago New York was governed by an 
antiquated and cumbrous school law. Divided respon- 
sibility, wheels within wheels, and a series of political 
catch-basins made the schools a splendid drill ground 
for inefficiency, jobbery, and personal 'pulls.' No 
administrative reform was possible until this system 
was abolished. To abolish it required not only a legis- 
lative enactment, but the support and approval of 
Mayor Strong. Everything that misrepresentation, 
political influence, and even threats, could do was done 
to change the Mayor's purpose. But he stood firm, 
and the reform school bill became a law. That, of 
itself, was a public service of the first magnitude. A 



[Feb. 16, 

second serrioe, of equal importance, was performed by 
the Major in the high character and ability of nearly 
all of his appointments to the Board of Education. The 
result has been the summoning together of the most 
earnest, intelligent, and courageous body of men that 
has ever served the cause of public education in New 

This is the substance of what has been done 
in three years, largely throngh the instrumen- 
tality of the executive, and we doubt if a finer 
tribute has ever been paid to the retiring 
mayor of any great American city than is 
embodied in this richly-deserved praise of 
Mayor Strong for the performance of the 
most important part of his ofBicial duties. 
When will the American public recognize and 
take to heart the fact that absolutely nothing 
else that a mayor has to do is as important as 
the performance of his duties with relation to 
public education, that the surest test of a 
mayor's deserts is supplied by an examination 
of that part of his policy which is concerned 
with the schools of the city which he governs? 

The summary of Dr. Butler from which we 
have already quoted proceeds to specify, under 
fifteen heads, the distinctive achievements of 
three years of enlightened educational admin- 
istration in New York. All of these achieve- 
ments are important, but three or four of them 
so overshadow the others that they must have 
nearly all of the space that we can give to the 
discussion. For this reason, we merely note in 
passing the extension of the kindergarten sys- 
tem, the establishment of truant and vacation 
schools, the preparation of a scientific course of 
study, the plans adopted for protection against 
contagious diseases, the reorganization of the 
study of music, and the introduction of manual 
training into all the schools. Important as 
these things all are, they are less deserving of 
our admiration than the work that has been 
done for secondary education, the ample pro- 
vision of new buildings, and the framing of 
a schedule of salaries that is at once rational 
and generous. It is because these three mat- 
ters are those which most press for attention in 
Chicago, besides being of the greatest intrinsic 
importance, that our remarks are entitled *^ A 
Tale of Two Cities," and that we have sought 
to draw a lesson from the example of our East- 
ern neighbors. 

The establishment of a series of high schools 
of the best modern type in New York removes 
the chief reproach under which that munici- 
pality has hitherto suffered. It has at last 
supplied itself with what every self-respecting 
civilized town having one per cent of the pop- 

ulation of New York has always regarded as a 
prime necessity of the public school system. 
And not only have these schools been estab- 
lished, but they have been so generously pro- 
vided for that they have been able to secure 
the services of able and experienced faculties, 
and may reasonably be expected to do the work 
proper to high schools in an efficient way. In 
Chicago, on the other hand, although the high 
schools have for forty years been a part of the 
educational system, they have tended to suffer 
more and more of late years from a newspaper 
criticism either ignorant or malicious, or both, 
which has resulted in the formation of a con- 
siderable body of public opinion either adverse 
to them altogether, or willing to accord them 
only a grudging support. The inducements 
which they offer to trained educators are much 
less than were offered twenty years ago, whereas 
the inducements offered in all other departments 
of the system have been materially increased 
during the period in question. The result has 
been the only possible one : the men of the type 
most needed in the high schools have left them, 
attracted by the larger inducements offered 
elsewhere, the general character of the work 
has declined, and the teaching force in the 
lower schools, which is mainly recruited from 
the young women who get their education in 
the secondary schools, has suffered to an extent 
not easily to be measured, but none the less 
unquestionable. The bare fact that an educator 
in the high schools of New York and Boston 
may receive a salary fifty per cent higher than 
is paid him in Chicago carries its own implica- 
tion. It seems a sordid way of looking at the 
situation, but the view is one that must be 
reckoned with. 

The question of salaries is, after all, one of 
the fundamental questions of educational ad- 
ministration, and the efficiency of any system 
must depend largely upon the way in which 
this question is settled. It is not solely a ques- 
tion of liberality, although in education, as else- 
where, it is possible to preach such effective 
sermons on ^' The Economy of High Wages " 
as we find, for example, in the last ^^ Educa- 
tional Review." But quite as important as 
mere liberality, is the adoption of some rational 
plan for promotion, some plan which shall make 
it an object for teachers to do the best work of 
which they are capable, some plan which shall 
insure to merit its due reward and to incom- 
petency its just reproof. The question of the 
salaries paid to teachers in the lower grades in 
the Chicago schools has been violently agitated 




[Feb. 16, 

eighteen yean, and it ifl stated that a majority of 
pnpib in these continaation sehools are girls. This 
is in brief the education which England gives the 
daughters of the people. 

The Secondary schools are not pablic in the 
American sense. They are the old endowed schools, 
like Eton and Harrow, and scores of others less re- 
nowned. The pious founders and benefactors of 
these schools, in many cases women, made no pro- 
vision for girls. In the Middle Ages, when most 
of these schools were founded, the education of girls 
was confined to the nunneries, although Miss Brem- 
ner, in her recent book entitled ^* Education of 
Women and Girls in Great Britain," tries to show 
that girls were not originally excluded from some 
of the endowments. According to her, they were 
shut out of the Secondary schools after the Refor- 
mation, which was unfriendly to female education. 
During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, 
and the first half of the present century, the educa- 
tion of girls was in the hands of the <^ ladies' schools," 
where they received flimsy instruction in the ^' ac- 
complishments." In 1865 a royal commission, ap- 
pointed to examine boys' Secondary schools, inquired 
also into the condition of the girls' schools. The 
oommission reported a lamentable state of affairs in 
these so-called finishing schools. 

About the time that the report of the commission 
appeared, several forces began to work toward the 
raising of the character of girls' secondary education. 
First among these forces are the Cambridge and 
Oxford local examinations, which, mainly through 
the efforts of a number of pioneer women, were 
opened to girls, the Cambridge examinations in 
1865 and the Oxford in 1870. The best schools 
entered into these examinations with enthusiasm, 
and were soon followed by many others that were 
obliged to improve their curricula and methods in 
order to keep the pace. The second force that con- 
tributed to this reformation was the work of the 
Endowed Schools Commission. Many of the old 
endowments that had been diverted from their origi- 
nal purposes were divided, and a part applied to the 
founding of girls' schools. Many of the wealthy 
city companies were induced to spend some of their 
accumulated funds on the education of girls, and 
many of the best girls' schools owe their existence 
to the generosity of these guilds. 

Almost simultaneously with the beginning of these 
reforms, several associations of women were formed 
throughout England, whose chief object was the 
improvement of women's education. The Girls' 
Public Day School Company was the outcome of 
one of these unions. This is an interesting example 
of the application of commercial methods to educa- 
tion, llie company has been from the first a pay- 
ing concern, yielding to its stockholders a yearly 
dividend of five per cent Profits above this amount 
are applied to the improvement of the schools. The 
company has thirty-six schools in different parts of 
the kingdom, which have as head mistresses and 
teachers excellent women of the new type. The 

buildings and equipment are up to the highest 
standard. The Church Schools Company, with 
definite Church teaching as a part of its constitution, 
is a similar institution. These Public Day schools, 
or EUgh schools as they are often called, are demo- 
cratic in their tone, while many of the others are 
<< class " schools in the English sense. The Ladies' 
College at Cheltenham, one of the pioneer schools 
for girls' secondary education, makes it a point that 
all pupils shall be daughters of professional men, or 
those who hold a certain social position. The fees 
of the Public Day schools range from £5 15s to 
£9 9s, which closes them practically to the lower 
middle classes. For them there is no secondary 
education beyond what the Higher Grade Board 
schools offer. The beet girls' secondary schools 
prepare for the university colleges, the pupils leav- 
ing when about eighteen or nineteen years old. 

We come now to Higher Education. What En- 
gland is doing in this field for women is of most 
interest to the foreigner, especially at the present 
time, when the recent events at Cambridge are 
still fresh in the mind. To the casual reader this 
agitation might give the impression that England, 
like Germany, is just awakening to the higher in- 
tellectual needs of women ; but such is not the case. 
The Birkbeck Literary and Scientific Institution, a 
great evening college in London, opened its doors 
to women in 1833, the same year that Oberlin sent 
out from the wilds of Ohio its call to young women. 
Fifteen years later. Queen's College, London, was 
founded, and was followed the next year by Bed- 
ford College, an undenominational institution. 

Miss Emily Davies, one of the chief pioneers in 
the cause, conceived the idea of founding a woman's 
college in connection with one of the old universi- 
ties, and in 1869 opened a house with six students 
at Hitchin, a country town not far from Cambridge. 
This was the humble beginning of Girton College, 
which in 1873 was removed to Girton, a village near 
Cambridge, from which it takes its name. With 
Newnham, it is the best known of all the English 
women's colleges. A visit to Girton is a part of the 
Cambridge visitor's programme. The college is 
situated two miles from the town, a wise preeaution 
as its founders thought, but now a serious incon- 
venience. Flies are furnished to convey the stu- 
dents to and from the university lectures. The 
handsome building of red brick is situated in the 
midst of ample grounds, large enough for numerous 
tennis courts and a small golf course. The lawns 
are as carefully kept as the university "quads." 
There are accommodations for one hundred stu- 
dents, each girl having a study and a small bedroom. 
These little studies present as many aspects as there 
are different girls. The large pieces of furniture 
provided by the college are supplemented according 
to the taste of the occupant The tea table is a 
prominent feature of each apartment. Girton has 
had in all 575 students, 370 of whom hold the 
« equivalent of a degree." Among the honor scholars 
are Miss Charlotte Scott, who took high rank among 




the wnuagleTS, and ifl now professor of mathematies 
afc Bryn Mawr, and Miss Ramsay, the first classicist 
in 1887} who afterwards married the Master of 
Trinity College, the man who set her questions. 

Newnham College, close hy Cambridge, was 
opened in 1871 by Miss Cloagh, a sister of the poet 
CSoogh, with six stadents. It has now grown to 
three halls, with rooms for 158 stadents. Newnham 
is ondenominational, whereas Girton provides relig- 
ions services in accordance with the principles of 
the Church of England. The fees are also less, 
being seventy-fiye guineas at Newnham and a hun- 
dred at Girton. Newnham has also had her share 
of honors. In 1890 Miss Philippa Fawcett, daughter 
of the blind Postmaster>General of England, made 
herself famous by excelling the Senior Wrangler ; 
and since then Miss A. M. Johnson was, one year, 
the only person who passed the highest mathemati- 
cal examination given by the university. The per 
eent of honors at both Newnham and Girton is fully 
as high as at the men's colleges, while the average 
work of the women is on a higher level than that of 
the men. The two colleges have the same mode of 
goTemment. They are presided over by a princi- 
pal, assisted by vice-principals, ladies of culture and 
soeial pontion, who do not, as a rule, take part in 
the instruction. Miss Helen Gladstone, daughter 
of the ex-premier, was until recently one of the 
presiding ladies at Newnham. The colleges undei^ 
take to furnish all the instruction necessary in fitting 
for the university examinations. This instruction 
is given by resident women lecturers and men from 
the university. Eleven out of the seventeen coUeges 
which compose the University of Cambridge admit 
the women students to their lectures and laboratories. 

What is the relation between the women's col- 
leges and the university? An undergraduate is 
legally a member of the university before he takes 
hie degree. The women never become members of 
the university. They have no rights whatever ; the 
privileges they now enjoy are mere favors granted 
by courtesy. In 1880 a great effort was made to 
have the university degrees opened to women. The 
result was the formal permission to women to take 
the honor examinations. Thus they are excluded 
from the mere pass examinations, which the ma- 
jority of the men choose. In 1887 the attempt was 
renewed, and the university refused even to con- 
sider the question. But the women insisted, and in 
1896 the matter came up again. The university 
i^ypointed a committee of fourteen members to 
investigate the subject and report the next year. 
This is the famous Syndicate whose report stirred 
up such a hornets' nest in Cambridge circles last 
year. The Syndicate took great pains to gather evi- 
dence from different sources, and presented a volum- 
inous report to the University Senate. This report, 
which was signed by nine of the fourteen members 
of the Syndicate, was a compromise between the two 
Actions. It recommended that the IWab of the dif- 
ferent degrees of the University be conferred upon 
women who had fulfilled the required conditions. 

The word tMe was of the greatest significance; 
women graduates were not to be made members of 
the University. The report called forth a storm of 
discussion. The intensity of <^ undergrad " feeling 
is shown by the fact that the students oondemned the 
proposal by a vote of 1723 eon to 446 jpro. The final 
voting occurred May 21, 1897. Everybody knows 
the result — a refusal by three votes to one, said to 
be largely the work of country clergymen who 
flocked to Cambridge from all quarters to show their 
disapproval of this new sign of progress. Here it 
is to be observed that all graduates of the Univer- 
sity who have taken the degree of Master of Arts 
compose, eoD-officiiSf the Senate, and have the right 
to vote on ail subjects submitted to that body. 
Among the reasons for refusal, two are prominent: 
Cambridge is a university for men^ the admission of 
women would spoil its unique character, — senti* 
mental reason ; opening the degrees to women would 
lead eventually to their sharing in the endowments, 
— practical reason. 

As a balm for the wound thus inflicted, a number 
of prominent opposers have suggested a women's 
university with powers to grant specific women's 
degrees. One proposition is that the existing royal 
Holloway College, at Egham, be incorporated as the 
Queen Victoria University for Women. But the 
women do not want this ; they wish to enjoy the 
peculiar advantages of the two great universities. 
They also wish a degree in recognition of their work, 
and this is all they ask. 

The situation at Oxford is much the same as at 
Cambridge. The women have their halls of resi- 
dence, and are allowed to take the examinations, 
but the University grants them no certificates. The 
proposal to admit women to the B.A. degree was 
brought before the authorities in 1896, and rejected 
by a vote of 215 to 140. The new universities have 
been more liberal than the two ancient foundations. 
The University of London makes no distinction be- 
tween men and women. Victoria University follows 
the example of London. Durham excludes women 
from divinity. The University of Wales, all the uni- 
versities of Scotland and the Royal University of Ire- 
land grant degrees to women. Dublin refuses them. 

Coeducation in England deserves a word. The 
Voluntary and Board schools separate the boys and 
girls, and all private schools do the same as a matter 
of course. A very few secondary schools are trying 
the experiment of co^ucation. The university col- 
leges — that is, those colleges in different parts of the 
kingdom which prepare for the London, Durham, 
and Victoria examinations — are using the joint- 
class system. University College, London, and a few 
others, exclude women from the medical department. 

This brief sketch sufficiently shows that England 
has not been illiberal in meeting the demands of 
women for the higher education. Cambridge and 
Oxford refuse to share with them, but there are still 
several institutions in the United States which show 
the same spirit. Ellen C. Hinsdalb. 

Mount Holyoke^ Mmm, 



[Feb. 16, 



(To the Editor of Tmc DiAi..) 
In a review, by Mr. R. C. H. Catterall, of the book on 
<< Industrial Freedom/' printed in yonr last issue, I find 
the following: 

** The pleasing aasumption that by legialatiTe prooe« we 
oan give to the poor a greater share of the product of capital 
and labor, while not diminishing the aggregate production, 
ought to reveal its inherent absurdity in the mere statement.*' 

I suppose I am warranted in assuming that by the 
term <* the poor ^ is here meant, not the pauper nor the 
chronic unemployed, but the class that economists call 
the *< proletariat"; and I think I can show, if I may, 
one or two reasons why the inherent absurdity of the 
pleasing assumption referred to has not yet forced itself 
upon legislators and others. 

Mr. Thorold Rogers, in his <* Six Centuries of Work 
and Wages," pays particular attention to a certain law, 
enacted during the reig^ of Edward III., called the 
Statute of Laborers. It remained, we are told, prac- 
tically a dead letter until the time of Elizabeth, when 
the justices in Quarter Session were empowered to fix, 
at stated periods, the rate of wages in husbandry and 
the handicrafts. This law was enforced, and, in the 
opinion of Mr. Thorold Rogers, it was one of the three 
great causes which induced pauperism in England, and 
brought the laborer down from the position where he 
could earn a year's stock of food in fifteen weeks to the 
position where a year's labor, Sundays included, would 
hardly do it. Even allowing for Mr. Rogers's well- 
known radicalism, it is hardly to be denied, by readers 
of his book, that the legislative process which resulted in 
abolishing this method of fixing wages resulted also in 
giving to the laborer a greater share than before of the 
product of capital and labor, and, instead of diminishing 
the aggregate production, actually increased it. 

Legislative process in England has also resulted in 
the freedom of laboring men to organize for the purpose 
of collective bargaining with their employers; and there 
are those who will claim that trades unionism, which 
has undeniably given the laborer a greater share of the 
proceeds of industry, has not diminished the aggregate 

Finally, if we may (economically) class the writers of 
philosophic books as members of the proletariat, I should 
like to call attention to certain « Views Concerning 
Copyright," promulgated by Mr. Herbert Spencer, and 
recently printed in a book called <* Various Fragments," 
issued by Messrs. D. Appleton & Co. Mr. Spencer was 
then, and apparently is still, of the opinion that the leg- 
islative process called the Copyright Law has resulted 
in reducing the prices of such books as his own, and has 
given to the writers of such books a better return in 
money for their labors, increasing the agg^gate pro- 
duction at the same time by encouraging philosophers to 
still more superhuman efforts to get readers. 

Those, therefore, who persist in the *< inherent ab- 
surdity " of assuming that legislation may, under certain 
circumstances, beneficially influence the relations be- 
tween capitalist and laborer, are not to be harshly con- 
demned, but gently labored with, to the end that they 
may abandon the heresies of Mr. Thorold Rogers and 
Mr. Herbert Spencer. 

Paul M. Pautb. 

Sjrracuie, N, F., Feb, 9, 1898. 

(To the Edited of Thb Dial.) 

In your issue of January 16, a correspondent asks for 
information in regard to the word " tote "; and in re- 
sponse I beg to submit the following. 

In 1781 President Witherspoon remarked upon the 
use of the word in this country. In 1806 Webster ad- 
mitted it to his " Compendius Dictionary," labelling it 
•<Virg. &c." In 1809 a writer believed it to be of 
Massachusetts origin, but gave no evidence in support 
of such a belief. In « The Nation " of February 16, 
1894, Mr. P. A. Bruce cited (under date of 1677) the 
earliest example of the word yet adduced, and pointed 
out that the smallness of the negro population at that 
time '< would render improbable the supposition which 
has been sometimes advanced that the word had its 
origin with the negro race in this country " (p. 121). 
In the same paper a correspondent asserted that the 
word was « used in middle England, southern Yorkshire, 
and Lincolnshire, in exactly the same way that it is used 
in eastern Virginia." In 1894 Mr. Edward Eggleston 
called attention to the term ** tote road," employed in 
Maine. The citations which follow prove for the first 
time, so far as the present writer is aware, that ** tote " 
has had at least a casual use in New England for over 
a century and a quarter. 

** A complaint against Major Robert Beverly, that when this 
conntry had (according to order) raised 60 men to be an out- 
guard for the Qovemor : who not finding the Governor nor 
their appointed Commander they were by Bererly commanded 
to goe to work, fall trees and mawl and toat railee." — 1677, 
"Virginia Magazine of History and Biography " (1894), IL 168. 

** On Monday Evening the Baronet [t. 6. Qovemor Bernard] 
. . . sneaked down to Castle- William, where he lay that 
Night. The next Morning he was toated on board the Rippon^ 
in a Canoe, or Tom-Cod Catcher, or some other small Boat." 

— 1769, " Boston Gasette," 7 Aognst, 3. 

" The fourth class of improprieties consist of local phratei 
or terms. By these I mean such vulgarisms as prevail in one 
part of a country and not in another. ... 7. Tot is used for 
cany^ in some of the southern states." — 1781, J. Witherspoon, 
** Works" (1802), IV. 469-470. 

*' We had taken the wrong road, and the Indian had lost us. 
He had very wisely gone back to the Canadian's camp, and 
asked him which way we had probably gone, since he could 
better understand the ways of white men, and he told him 
correctly that we had undoubtedly taken the supply road to 
Chamberlain Lake (slender supplies they would get over such 
a road at this season). The Indian was greatly surprised that 
we should have taken what he called a ' tow ' (i.e., tote or 
toting or supply) road, instead of a carry path, — that we had 
not followed his tracks, — and said it was * strange,' and evi- 
dently thought little of our woodcraft."— 1857, H. D. Thoreau, 
"Maine Woods" (1894), 296-297. 

'' Will the Atlantic Club have Dom Pedro as its guest? It 
has occurred to me that he would like it better than being 
toted about, looking at Boston public bmldings." — 1876, J. G. 
WhitUer, in ''life and Letters" (1894), II. 621. 

** * Tote ' has long been regarded as a word of African ori- 
gin, confined to certain regions where negroes abound. A few 
years ago Bir. C. A. Stephens, in a story, mentioned an * old 
tote road ' in Maine. I wrote to inquire, and he told me that 
oertun old portage roads, now abandoned, bore that name. 
[Here is cited the quotation above dated 1677.] . . . ' Tote ' 
appears to have been a well-understood English word in the 
seventeenth century. It meant then, as now, to bear. Bur- 
lesque writers who represent a negro as * toting a horse to 
water ' betray their ignorance. In Virginia English, the negro 
* carries ' the horse to water by making the horse * tote ' him." 

— 1894, E. Eggleston, in *' Century Biagazine," October, 
XLVm. 874. 

Albert Matthews. 

BoMton, Mas$., Feb. 10, 1898. 




9^\lt ^tk $00kd. 

Thx Bmithsonian Institution.* 

In a noble quarto volume, conceived upon 
a plan and executed in a method commensurate 
with its own character and dignity, the Smith- 
sonian Institution presents the history of its 
inception and organization, and of its achieve- 
ments during the first half-century of its life. 
While engaged in the preparation of this vol- 
ume, two of its editors in succession. Dr. James 
C. Welling, a Regent, and Dr. O. Brown Groode, 
Assistant Secretary of the Institution, passed 
into the silent land ; but the work which one 
had planned the other so nearly completed that 
it is issued almost without change as he left the 
manuscript. The thirty chapters which make 
up the history bear the signatures of leading 
specialists who have builded their own fame 
while serving ** in the increase and diffusion of 
knowledge among men." 

In all respects the Smithsonian Institution 
has a peculiar history. James Smithson, its 
founder, bom in 1765, was the son of Elizabeth 
Keate Macie, a widow, a kinswoman of the 
Duke of Somerset, through whom she was 
descended from Henry Seventh of England. 
His father, Hugh Smithson, failing in his 
pledges to her, married her coqsin, Elizabeth 
Percy, and became the Duke of Northumber- 
land. Permission to assume the name of 
Smithson was granted to the son by Parlia- 
ment, after the death of his mother. He in- 
herited the most of his property through his 
mother, from her son by a former marriage. 
The circumstauces of his birth were bitterly 
remembered by James Smithson. He wrote : 

** The best blood of England flows in my veins. On 
my father's side I am a Northumberland, on my moth- 
er's I am related to kings; bat this avails me not. My 
name shall live in the memory of man when the titles of 
the Northomberlands and the Percys are extinct and 

Smithson was graduated as Master of Arts 
from Pembroke College, Oxford, in 1786, and 
was admitted a Fellow of the Royal Society in 
1787, as ^* a gentleman well versed in natural 
philosophy, and particularly in chemistry and 
mineralogy," Cavendish being one of his spon- 
sors. He contributed freely to the Philosoph- 
ical Transactions and to the Annals of Phil- 
osophy. Two hundred manuscripts of his, with 
a liurge mass of detached notes and memoranda, 

*Tiix SiOTHSONiAir IirsTiTUTiON : 184(>-1896. The History 
of ite Fust Half Century. Edited by George Brown Qoode. 
WashinstoB, D. C: Published by the Institation. 

were brought to the United States and deposited 
at the Smithsonian Institution, where all the 
originals were destroyed by fire in 1865. 

He died in Genoa, Italy, June 27, 1829. He 
was never married. He bequeathed his estate 
to his nephew, and to the children of his nephew 
if there should be any. Should the nephew die 
without children and intestate, then the estate 
should revert to ^^the United States of America, 
to found at Washington, under the name of 
the Smithsonian Institution, an Establishment 
for the increase and diffusion of knowledge 
among men." The nephew died without issue 
in 1885. 

The proposed gift of Smithson was first pub- 
licly announced in the United States by Presi- 
dent Jackson, in a message to Congress, dated 
December 17, 1835. It was formally accepted 
by an act of Congress, approved July 1, 1886. 
Ten years later the corporation or Establish- 
ment of the Smithsonian Institution was created 
by an act approved August 10, 1846. The 
act confided the management to prominent 
officers of the national government. The statu- 
tory members of the corporation are the Presi- 
dent of the United States, the Vice-President, 
the Chief Justice, and the eight secretaries who 
form the President's cabinet. Subordinate to 
this corporation is the active Board of Regents, 
charged with the duty of conducting the busi- 
ness of the Institution. This Board consists of 
the Vice-President and the Chief Justice, with 
three members of the Senate, three of the House 
of Representatives, and six citizens, no two of 
whom may be citizens of the same State, but 
two must be residents of the city of Washing- 
ton. The list of those who have served as 
Regents in the fifty years which have passed 
includes representative and distinguished men 
from every section of the nation, and their 
character is a sufficient explanation of the In- 
stitution's success. 

The Regents elect a Secretary and clothe 
him with authority as their executive officer. 
He is charged with the disbursement of the 
funds of the Institution, is the custodian of its 
property, its librarian, and the curator of its 
museum. The office of Secretary of the Smith- 
sonian Institution is doubtless the most dis- 
tinguished and responsible position to which an 
American scientist may aspire. Three persons 
have occupied this position in the half-century. 

The first Secretary, serving from 1846 to 
1878, in fact the organizer of the Institution, 
was Joseph Henry. Bom in 1799, Henry be- 
came first known in 1827 by investigations 



[Feb. 16, 

which he pursued while a teacher in an academy 
at Albany, N. Y. His first great gift to science 
was the electro-magnet, made by winding a 
conducting wire about a core of soft iron, and 
available at places remote from the source of 
excitement. This discovery, made in 1829 or 
1880, was the one step needed to make tele- 
graphy possible. By the consensus of scien- 
tists, American and foreign, Henry was declared 
to be the one man to whom the organization of 
the new Institution should be committed. In 
1860, Spencer Fullerton Baird was appointed 
to aid Henry as Assistant Secretary. Henry 
was distinctively a physicist ; Baird was a natu- 
ralist. In those days Congress was sending 
numerous parties to explore the but partiaUy 
known areas which lay between the Mississippi 
Biver and the Pacific. All such parties were 
accompanied by naturalists, who returned laden 
with collections in every scientific specialty, 
and these collections were by law deposited with 
the Smithsonian Institution for examination, 
classification, and report. For the supervision 
of this work Professor Baird was eminently 
fitted, as was shown in his own work upon the 
birds of the United States, a quarto volume of 
more than a thousand pages. In 1871 the 
Fish Commission was organized, and Professor 
Baird was placed at its head. In 1878 he 
was elected to succeed Professor Henry as 
Secretary. Dr. O. Brown Goode, who had 
assisted in both offices, was appointed Fish 
Commissioner, the two offices thus being sepa- 

Through the agency of Professor Baird, a 
large part of tixe scientific material exhibited 
in 1876 at Philadelphia was transferred to the 
National Museum. To house this collection 
properly, a building of large capacity, although 
not architecturaUy pretentious, was erected upon 
a site adjacent to that of the Smithsonian In- 
stitution ; and the two enterprises, though nomi- 
nally distinct, have for spme years been under 
the same management. Professor Baird passed 
away in 1887. He had already appointed 
Samuel Pierpont Langley, then director of the 
Allegheny Observatory, to be First Assistant 
Secretary, and during the same year Professor 
Langley became the third Secretary of the 
Smithsonian Institution. 

Professor Langley's fame rested chiefiy upon 
the progress which he had made in astrophysical 
research directed especially to solar phenomena. 
His bolometer, an instrument of infinite deli- 
cacy, measured the minutest variations of tem- 
perature by their influence upon an electrical 

current indicated by a galvanometer. To this 
was added the holograph, which photographi- 
cally recorded the movements of the galvan- 
ometer needle. By means of this apparatus 
knowledge of the solar spectrum, and particu- 
larly of its invisible portions, has been greatly 
increased. Professor Langley has also studied 
with great care the phenomena of aerial loco- 

The funds received from the Smithson estate 
amounted originally to $550,000. By the ad- 
dition of accrued interest and savings, this sum 
has been increased to more than seven hundred 
thousand dollars. Within a few years, dona- 
tions amounting to more than a quarter of a 
million dollars have been added directly, so that 
the sum now lying to the credit of the endow- 
ment fund, mostly in the treasury of the United 
States, amounts to nearly one million dollars. 
With the proceeds of this fund the operations 
of the Institution are mainly supported. It has 
also been the recipient, indirectly, of large na- 
tional subsidies, and of abundant favors at the 
hands of railway, steamship, and other corpo- 
rations, and it has secured the aid of an army 
of professors and students, who have given 
freely their labor, looking for no compensation 
beyond the honor of its recognition and their 
own love for science. 

The will of Smithson directed that the pro- 
ceeds of his bequest should be used ^* for the 
increase and diffusion of knowledge among 
men." In his ^' Plan of Organization " Pro- 
fessor Henry noted clearly that the terms *' in- 
crease " and ^^ diffusion " are logically distinct, 
and he urged that each should receive its literal 
interpretation; and — 

*< That the inorease of knowledge should be effected 
by the enoouragement of original researches of the 
highest character, and its diffusion by the publication of 
the results of original research. . . . That if preference 
be given to any branches of research, they should be to 
the higher and more abstract, to the discovery of new 
principles rather than of isolated facts." 

He would have the Institution do nothing 
which could be equally well done through other 
agencies. He believed that local objects, as 
museums, libraries, and lectures, should not be 
supported by the Institution, and strongly op- 
posed the erection of a costly building. He 
was not satisfied until the money which had 
been so used was by careful economy restored 
to the fund. He had the satisfaction, before 
he died, of seeing the library, which was becom- 
ing cumbersome, transferred to the Congres- 
sional Library ; the Weather Bureau transferred 
to the War Department; the National Museum 




supported by direct appropriations, and the 
resources of the Institution left comparatively 
free to be used for what he conceived to be its 
exclusive purpose. 

The series of papers included in this History, 
prepared by specialists in the various fields cul- 
tivated under the auspices of the Smithsonian 
Institution, show with what broi^d catholicity 
the fundamental principles laid down by Henry 
have been interpreted and applied by the suc- 
cessive secretaries. The work of research is 
necessarily complemented by that of diffusion. 
Something must be learned before it can be 
told ; when thoroughly known, it cannot be told 
too soon nor distributed too widely. Hence 
the Smithsonian motto, Peb Obbem. Its fields 
of investigation have been world wide ; its sub- 
sidies have been granted whenever there has 
been reasonable assurance that they would aid 
in extending the boundaries of human knowl- 
edge. The realm of pure science was one of the 
earliest to be occupied, in mathematics, physics, 
and their applications in astronomy, geography, 
and especially in the development of electrical 
science. The public generally, and men of 
science too frequently,. in view of the later and 
more brilliant achievements of Morse and Bell 
and Edison, forget that the prolific source of 
all this subsequent progress was opened by the 
discoveries which Henry made or fostered. 

But the first two secretaries were not slow 
to discern that a special opportunity lay before 
the new Institution, one which must be seized 
promptly and pursued vigorously, or it would 
forever vanish. A vast area of virgin country 
lay between the great river and the western 
sea. Its surface had not been carefully ex- 
plored, even geographically. Beneath it were 
unknown stores of minerals, precious and econo- 
mic. Above it plant and animal life adapted 
to horizons and conditions indefinitely varied. 
From one boundary to its opposite, this land 
was strewed with the relics of one people sup- 
posed to have quite faded away, and with the 
scanty possessions of another race whose dis- 
appearance could not be remote. Over this 
country the wave of settlement was already 
rising with a resistless surge. In a few decades, 
the Indian, with his customs, his homes, and 
his implements, the buffalo and the grizzly, the 
seal and the salmon, the forest and the prairie 
flower, would have vanished before the white 
man's constructive and destructive march. The 
decade beginning with 1850 showed great ac- 
tivity in explorations. These were usually un- 
dertaken for some purpose of national economy, 

as the determination of a boundary, the location 
of a railway, or the fixing of geodetic positions ; 
but the Smithsonian Secretary took care that 
each should be accompanied by an efficient 
corps of scientific observers and collectors, and 
that the abundant harvests which these gath- 
ered should be discussed by competent experts. 
Thus were these explorations made to assist the 
increase of knowledge. 

To make this knowledge effective and endur- 
ing, two further movements were necessary. 
The first provided for the preservation of the 
material thus carefully investigated, and essen- 
tially correlated to the knowledge acquired. 
Hence arose the necessity for a Museum whidb 
shQuld be national, both as to the source from 
which its contents should be gathered, and as 
to the completeness of its accumulations. A 
real museum is not a mere curiosity shop, but 
is a mass of carefully chosen material, scientifi- 
cally determined and systematically arranged. 
It is a means of giving to knowledge a concrete 
and crystalized identity, freed from the jug- 
glery of phrases. It is a conservator of science. 
As it must have a local habitation, its utility is 
localized, yet its infiuence extends j^er orbem. 
In this view the National Museum must be 
recognized as the coadjutor to and the supple- 
ment of the legitimate Smithsonian work. The 
National Park is only a department of the 
Museum, adapted to living exhibits. A library, 
properly selected, becomes part of the appa- 
ratus of scientific investigation. What more 
than this had once been accumulated has found 
a more suitable home with the National Library. 
So, also, have some elements of an Art Gallery 
been transferred to the Corcoran collection. 

The duty of the diffusion of knowledge is 
fulfilled in the varied issues of Smithsonian 
publications. Beginning with 1846, the Insti- 
tution issued an annual report showing its con- 
ditions and operations, and from 1849 these 
reports gave account of the progress of knowl- 
edge in the world. Since 1889 the issue of these 
reports has been discontinued. The ^^ Smith- 
sonian Contributions to Knowledge " con- 
sist of thirty-two volumes of quarto form. To 
these volumes nothing may be admitted ^^ which 
does not furnish a positive addition to human 
knowledge resting on original research; all 
unverified speculation to be rejected." A third 
series in octavo, now of thir^-eight volumes, 
bears the title ^^ Smithsonian Miscellaneous 
Collections." Much of the material so issued 
has been recast into forms especially useful to 
scientists who are making collections or con- 



[Feb. 16, 

ducting inyestigations. A series of proceedings 
issued by the National Museum is now in its 
nineteenth volume. The Museum has also 
issued many bulletins and circulars of instruc- 
tion. The Bureau of American Ethnology 
issues separate series of publications. 

As another means of distribution of knowl- 
edge, the Smithsonian Institution has estab- 
lished within itself a bureau of exchanges, by 
means of which American scientific materials 
may be distributed to European societies, and 
foreign books, instruments, etc., may be dis- 
tributed in this country, usually without cost. 

In conclusion, it may be asserted that, con- 
sidering the character of those who at all times 
have been the managers or the administrators of 
the Smithsonian bequest ; the variety, breadth, 
and scope of the interests fostered thereby ; the 
amount of the work accomplished as well as its 
preeminent quality — the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion reflects the highest honor upon its donor, 
upon science, and upon the American people. 

Selim H. Peabodt. 

A Noble Woman's Work for 
Woman's Education.* 

Perhaps no social movement of the time has 
made such rapid strides as the higher educa- 
tion of women. So closely has achievement 
pressed upon the heels of effort that even those 
who are to the manner born find it difficult to 
keep the pace. Necessarily the history is varied 
and complicated, so that a clear presentation 
of one phase of it, such as Miss B. A. Clough 
has given in her pleasing Memoir of her aunt, 
late Principal of Newnham College, is most 

Anne Jemima Clough was bom January 20, 
1820, in Liverpool, where her father, of an old 
Welsh county family, had established himself 
as a cotton merchant. This business brought 
him to the United States, and in 1822 he 
removed his family to Charleston, which was 
their home for the next fourteen years. 
Anne's childhood was thus passed in an Ameri- 
can Southern city ; and a happy childhood it 
was, as she described it in the reminiscences 
contributed, in 1869, to the memoir of her 
brother, Arthur Hugh Clough. Their home 
was an ugly red brick house on the East Bay, 
from whose nursery windows the children could 

* A Mkmoib of Anns Jemima Clouoh, Late PrmoiiMd of 
Newnham College, Gambridse. By her nieoe, B. A. Clough. 
New York: Bdward Arnold. 

see the ships sailing in and out of the harbor. 
Below stairs was their father's office, where 
they played among the heaps of cotton. 
'* Arthur used to do sums in the office lying on 
the piled-up pieces of cotton bagging.*' Miss 
Clough retained the liveliest memories of her 
early years in the South, and a striking trait 
of character is shown by the fact that she cor- 
responded with one of her Charleston friends 
for the rest of her life, a period of fifty-six 

The Cloughs were too English to let their 
children go to school in Charleston, so the 
three boys were sent to England to be edu- 
cated; but beyond lessons from her mother, 
Anne Clough had no instruction. She never 
went to school. Upon her return to England, 
in 1886, Miss Clough eagerly sought every 
means of acquiring knowledge. A journal 
kept at this time describes vividly the difficul- 
ties and disappointments she met with. There 
were then few opportunities of education for 
girls except in incoherent lessons from masters, 
and Miss Clough's father was not able to pro- 
vide private tuition for her. Indeed, it is 
clear that she felt thus early the necessity of 
doing something for herself, for she seems to 
have begun, in her seventeenth year, to visit 
and teach in a Welsh National School which her 
father had helped to found. The Journal tells 
of her ups and downs in teaching, of the books 
she read, and of her relations to her brother 
Arthur. At one time she is getting up at six 
o'clock to study before going to her school ; she 
had stinted herself to do in a month, — 

« One book of Euclid, as far as the 80th page, in the 
Greek grammar, translate book ii. of Virgil from the 
German, read 2nd and drd volumes of Milman's ^£9- 
iory of the Jews, Milton over again, and the second vol- 
nme of Wordsworth." 

Another entry, January, 1844, is : 

"Have been reading Trench's poems, which are 
beautiful, also in the last year Moultrie's and Tenny- 
son's, some of Shakspere's plays, The L€ut of £A« 
Barons (a disagreeable book). The Hour and the Man^ 
Lives of Celebrated Scotchmen, some of Cowper, a few 
of Newman's sermons, and Arnold's; the last, the new 
volume, are beautiful." 

It was Arthur Clough who had brought to 
her from Oxford the poems of Moultrie and 
Tennyson. She had a quite special affection 
and admiration for this brother, whom she 
calls her ^^ best friend and adviser." He dis- 
cussed with her questions large and small, now 
disestablishment or eternal punishment, and 
now the best way to treat a case of pilfering 
among her poor children. He realized the nn- 




rest of her life, her longing for some adequate 
oadet for her pent-up energies ; and for this 
reason he enoouraged her work among the 
poor. But he thought her ardor in this direc- 
tion excessive, and he seems to have had little or 
no conception of her peculiar ability. This is 
what he wrote to her about her studies : 

**1 will consider the snbjeot yoa speak of, my dear. 
On the whole, I shonld incline to study arithmetic and 
grammar^ perhaps; but you mast remember that a 
great advantage is given by any sort of cuhivatian 
(music, drawing, dancing, German, French, etc.) for 
ioterooarse with the poor." 

It was happily said during the recent contest 
for degrees for women in Oxford, ^^ if there 
is any peculiar affinity between French and 
music, often badly taught, and the minds of 
women, it has never been demonstrated by the 
advocates of the fine-lady type of education." 
Miss Clough continued to grope about for an 
opportunity of giving practical shape to her 
ideas. Of her own education she writes : '^ I 
always feel the defects of my education most 
painfully when I go out." Her lack of train- 
ing for her work she sought to correct by 
attending one or two different training schools 
in London. Among her brother's friends 
whom she met there was Francis Turner Pal- 
grave, of whom she says : 

"I wondered to hear Mr. Palgrave talk about 
women as if only those like Lady Maria in Arthur's 
story are to be admired. I don't much fancy men 
often understand women; they don't know how restless 
and weary they get." 

The result of Miss Clough's studies in teach- 
ing was the establishment, at Ambleside, West- 
moreland, of a school for the children of trades- 
people and farmers. This school she conducted 
successfully for the ten years from 1852 to 
1862 ; and it was what she learned here of the 
defects of Middle-Class Education, especially 
for girls, that led finally to her great achieve- 
ments in advancing education for women in 
England. Her thoughts began to take definite 
form in a remarkable paper, entitled ^^ Hints 
on the Organization of Girls' Schools," which 
she contributed to ^^ Macmillan's Magazine," in 
October, 1866. This short paper contains in 
germ much that has since been done in England 
for the secondary and higher education of 
women. It described the inadequate state of 
girls' schools of all kinds, and attributed the 
evil in large measure to the fact that there was 
no standard by which schools for girls could be 
tested. A plan of improvement was then 
sketched out, which, curiously enough, has 
developed into two widely different results. 

It is not generally known that the whole 
scheme of University Extension originated 
with Miss Clough in a modest **hint" towards 
the betterment of girls' schools. The most 
striking idea in the paper was the suggestion 
of courses of lectures in large towns for girls 
and women, to be given by University men, 
with syUabuses and examinations. This sug- 
gestion was the origin of the association known 
as the North of England Council for Promot- 
ing the Higher Education of Women, which, 
in 1867, started courses of lectures for women 
in Liverpool, Manchester, Sheffield, and 
Leeds. The lectures succeeded from the first, 
and their establishment in the two University 
towns was the practical beginning of the 
women's colleges there. University Extension 
is the popularization of the movement. 

Another matter to which the North of 
England Council gave its attention turned out 
also to be of wider import than was at first 
intended. This was the establishment of a 
satisfactory examination for women over 
eighteen years of age, with the view especially 
of testing teachers. The University of Cam- 
bridge received favorably the memorial of the 
Council on this subject, and appointed a syn- 
dicate which drew up a scheme of examina- 
tions, to last provisionally for three years. At 
the end of that time the examinations were 
made permanent ; and when, two years later, 
men applied for admission to them, the name 
was changed from Women's Examinations to 
the Higher Local Examinations. Since then 
the Higher Local has alternated with the his- 
toric Little Go as an entrance examination to 
the University, and it is considered the better 
test of the two, as based on modem conditions 
in education. 

With the growth of the University idea in 
this country, the affiliated college, whether as 
a school of medicine or law, or a school for 
women, has become familiar. It is not neces- 
sary to trace the history of Newnham College, 
from its small beginning, in 1871, as a rented 
house of residence for fine women attending 
private lectures, to its present commanding 
position. Women were first admitted of right 
to the Tripos Examinations in 1881 ; the 
Principal's Report for 1894, thirteen years 
later, states that Newnham College stood third 
in the University in the number of students 
who took honors. It was outranked only by 
St. John's and Trinity, the two largest colleges 
for men, both old and wealthy foundations. 

This is a great achievement ; but the unique 



[Feb. 16, 

personality of the woman who brought it 
about was even greater. In the first place, 
paradoxical as it may seem. Miss Clough was 
not naturally a student, nor even an intellec- 
tual woman. Though she had a strong sense 
of humor, her niece notes her insensibility to 
its intellectual forms, to humorous fancy, or to 
wit. She had great respect for learning, and 
sometimes expressed it in a wholly unexpected 
way, — as when she said of a student who had 
been disappointed in not obtaining a high 
class in the Mathematical Tripos, ^'Mathe- 
matics is a deceiving subject." She was most 
of all interested in human life, and her devo- 
tion to education grew out of that. She looked 
upon education as the best possible preparation 
for life, and she saw no reason why women 
should not be prepared for the world's work as 
well as men. That was so simple to her own 
mind as to be axiomatic. 

Those who knew her sometimes wondered 
how a woman so practical and so optimistic 
could have been the sister of a poet who, with 
all his tenderness and humor, is commonly 
regarded as being introspective, sad, and skep- 
tical. While Arthur Clough seems to have 
been asking himself, doubtfully, whether there 
was '^ aught that was worth the doing," or the 
saying either, for that matter, her life was a 
continual assertion of the worth of doing, even 
in small things. But there was far more 
spiritual kinship between them than at first 
appears. Clough's mind ran mainly on moral 
and social questions. Mr. Humphry Ward 
says of him, that *' it was the warmth of his 
feelings, the width of his sympathies, the fine- 
ness of his physical sensibilities that made him 
a poet," and that it was *' his extraordinary 
union of sincerity and sympathy that most 
endeared him to his friends." Sympathy and 
sincerity were marked traits of character in 
Miss Clough. But hers was undoubtedly the 
stronger spirit. The *' Ambarvalia," the 
** Amours de Voyage," all are pierced with the 
pain and mystery of life, for which the poet 
offers no idleviation and no solution. The 
passion that stirred the sister's life to rich 
fruition was the narrovmess of the lives of 
women. She often spoke of the many new 
openings for women, and referred pathetically 
to what the young women of her own time had 
suffered from lack of training and opportunity. 
To a friend who was impatient for happiness, 
she said gently : ''You should not expect hap- 
piness, my dear ; I had to wait for mine till I 
was fifty." She was nearly fifty-two when she 

began her work at Newnham. Twenty-five 

years before, in 1846, her Journal records: 

'< We [Arthur and Anne] had a great deal of con- 
versation about various things, principally about our 
future plans; the necessity, or rather the great benefit, 
of women finding work, and considering it a duty to do 
so, and also whether they are at liberty to choose their 
own paths in some cases (I mean single women), with- 
out reference to their fainilies/' 

And again: 

<' Had yarious discussions about married and single 
life, and one long talk with Jane Claude about work- 
ing. Told her some of my notions about its being 
right in certain cases to quit even one's father and 
mother and family for work as well as for a husband." 

The quarter of a century during which 
these ideas had been revolving in her mind 
was one of gpreat awakening in thought, and 
women had shared perforce the inheritance of 
men. Mary Carpenter and Florence Nightin- 
gale had opened up new lines of social activity 
for women ; Mrs. Browning and Greorge Eliot 
had shown with renewed vigor that there is no 
sex in literature ; those women, like Charlotte 
Bronte and Mrs. Jameson and Harriet Mar^ 
tineau and Mary Somerville, who advocated 
the political enfranchisement of women, had 
found a parliamentary leader of the first rank 
in John Stuart Mill. There could be no 
longer any doubt that a sound education is a 
good thing for a woman to have. What 
remained was to prove the feasibility of get- 
ting it ; and that, in England, involved bring- 
ing over the great universities to the novel 
idea that it is the business of a university to 
educate the human race. The selection of 
Miss Clough to perform this delicate and 
difficult task at Cambridge was due to the 
wisdom and foresight of Professor Henry 
Sidgwick, who knew the situation and the 
woman. Miss Clough disarmed criticism from 
the start. She was not learned, she was not 
aggressive; she was so afraid of saying too 
much that she said very little; she was an 
entirely inoffensive person. On the other 
hand, she had prestige, a quick intelligence, 
great powers of organization, unfailing tact, 
and an indomitable persistence. She gained 
no point by direct assault, but when an advan- 
tage fell in her way she was always ready to 
make the most of it, and she never lost g^und. 
She herself expressed, with singular poetic in- 
sight, her own manner of working : 

** It seems to me that to be quiet and to be active, 
or, rather, to be quietly active, constantly going on 
with untiriDg energy, and yet so softly as scarcely to 
be perceptible, this seems to me to be an approach 
towards perfection. And this lesson we learn from 

1898.] THE T> TAT. 



[Feb. 16, 

so many a pedagogical periodical. These things 
make one look iMick longingly to a time when 
edacation was more human because less scien- 
tific, when it was conceived of as the contact of 
mind with mind rather than as the mechanical 
application of a system of pedagogy. 

The name of Thomas Arnold is deservedly 
famous in the history of education, but many 
of our modern educators are so ** advanced " 
in their own conceit, so excited over the pos- 
session of the new toy which they call psychology, 
that they would doubtless find it surprising to 
be told, in all seriousness, that Arnold's atti- 
tude toward the fundamental problems of edu- 
cation was a more enlightened one than is easily 
to be found among educators of the present day. 
We do not express this opinion outright, but 
we assert that it is at least an arguable matter. 
Who in our own time, for example, has formu- 
lated a finer expression of the pedagogical ideal 
than may be found in this passage from a letter 
written by Arnold in 1886 to Mr. Justice 
Coleridge ? 

" I am sure that the more active mj own mind is, and 
the more it works upon great moral and political points, 
the better for the school; not, of coarse, for the folly 
of proselytizing the boys, but because education is a 
dynamical, not a mechanical, process, and the more 
powerful and vigorous the mind of the teacher, the more 
clearly and readily he can grasp things, the better fitted 
he is to cultivate the mind of another. And to this I 
find myself coming more and more : I care less and 
less for information, more and more for the pure exer- 
cise of the mind; for answering a question concisely 
and comprehensiyely, for showing a command of lan- 
guage, a delicacy of taste, and a comprehensiveness of 
thought and power of combination." 

We have made this extract from a volume 
recently edited by Mr. J. J. Findlay, a volume 
which ought to find its way into the hands of 
every teacher. It is entitled ^^ Arnold of Sugby : 
His School Life and Contributions to Educa- 
tion." It contains, besides the editorial pre- 
face, an introductory chapter by the Bishop of 
Hereford, a biographical notice with extracts 
from Arnold's letters, a reprint of those sections 
of Stanley's '^Life" which deal with the school 
work at Laleham and Bugby, a selection from 
the sermons preached by Arnold at Bugby 
Chapel, Arnold's miscellaneous essays on edu- 
cational topics, and a bibliography. In other 
words, the work supplies, within the compass 
of a single volume of moderate dimensions, the 
material for a very thorough knowledge of Ar- 
nold's educational methods and ideals. Narrow 
as Arnold was in some ways, and almost fanat- 
ical as he was in his insistence upon the injec- 
tion of dogmatic theology into his system of 

discipline, the study of his life-work cannot be 
other than inspiring, and it is easy to separate 
the dross of his pedagogical doctrine from its 
pure gold. In a famous passage, he once spoke 
of physical science in the following terms: 
*^ Bather than have it the principal thing in 
my son's mind, I would gladly have him think 
that the sun went round the earth, and that the 
stars were so many spangles set in the bright 
blue firmament." This is an extreme form of 
statement, but it embodies a fundamental prin- 
ciple of sound educational theory, and, what is 
just now more to the point, it illustrates the 
tenacity with which Arnold held to the essen- 
tials of his system. His conviction was abso- 
lute that some subjects are of more importance 
than others, and the case for the classics was 
never put more cogently than in the following 
sentences from an article written by Arnold in 
1884 for «' The Quarterly Journal of Educa- 
tion ": 

*< Expel Greek and Latin from your schools, and yon 
confine the views of the existing generation to them- 
selves and their immediate predecessors: you will cut 
off so many centaries of the world's experience, and 
place ns in the same state as if the human race had first 
come into existence in the year 1500. . . . The mind 
of the Greek and of the Roman is in all the essential 
points of its constitution our own; and not only so, but 
it is our own mind developed to an extraordinary deg^ree 
of perfection. Aristotle, and Plato, and Thucydides, 
and Cicero, and Tacitus, are most untruly called ancient 
writers; they are virtually our own countrymen and 
contemporaries, but have the advantage which is en- 
joyed by intelligent travellers, that their observation 
has been exercised in a field out of the reach of com- 
mon men; and that having thus seen in a manner with 
our eyes what we cannot see for ourselves, their con- 
clusions are such as bear upon our own circumstances, 
while their information has all the charm of novelty, 
and all the value of a mass of new and pertinent facts, 
illustrative of the great science of the nature of civil- 
ized man." 

Essentially sound as were the chief positions 
maintained by Thomas Arnold during his career 
as an educator, they had, of course, accidental 
features that it would not be well to insist upon 
overmuch after the lapse of half a century. 
Fortunately, however, the name of Arnold was 
destined to be bound up with the history of 
English education for another generation, and 
the more famous son of the famous Master of 
Kugby was an example of the rare type of man 
who can recognize, with exquisite discernment, 
the legitimate demands of the Zeitgeist^ while 
holding, in the main, to a well-approved con- 
servative ideal. Matthew Arnold's position in 
English literature was so distinguished that his 
admirers are apt to forget that the poet and 
critic was also an educator of the first rank. 




and that a large share of his best activities was 
given to the inspection of schools, the marking 
of examination papers, and the preparation of 
those official reports which, while omitted from 
the uniform editions of his works, are never- 
theless to be reckoned among the classics of 
pedagogical literature. It is for calling re- 
newed attention to these writings that we are 
chiefly thankful to Sir Joshua Fitch, who has 
prepared for the ^^ Great Educators " series a 
volume entitled ^^ Thomas and Matthew Arnold 
and Their Influence on English Education." 
The book is written in a spirit of generous 
sympathy, and is pleasant reading from flrst to 
last. The chapters devoted to Arnold pere 
duplicate the substance of Mr. Findlay's com- 
pilation, and emphasize much the same aspects 
of Arnold's activity. The chapters that take 
up the work of Arnold fih afford a well-con- 
sidered and judicial estimate of the poet who 
was also an inspector of schools, and whet the 
appetite for his educational books by making 
many happy extracts from their pages. 

The spirit in which Arnold did his official 
work is made clear by such a statement as this : 

*< If be saw little children looking good and happj, 
and under the oare of a kindly and sjmpathetie teacher, 
be would give a fayourable report, without inqairing 
too curiously into the percentage of scholars who could 
pass the ' standard ' examination. He valued the elemen- 
tary schools rather as centres of civilization and refin- 
ing influence than as places for enabling the maximum 
number of children to spell and write, and to do a giyen 
number of sums without a mistake." 

Of peculiar interest is Arnold's reported opin- 
ion concerning the ^'Tom Brown" view of 
school life at Bugby. 

*< As Matthew Arnold once said to me, the story has 
been praised quite enough, for it g^yes only one side, 
and that not the best side, of Rugby school life, or of 
Arnold's character. It gives the reader the impression 
that it is the chief business of a public school to produce 
a healthy animal, to supply him with pleasant companions 
and faithful friends, to foster in him courage and truth- 
fulness, and for the rest to teach as much as the regu- 
lations of the school enforce, but no more. It is to be 
feared that Hughes's own boyhood was not spent with 
the best set at Rugby. . . . His typical school-boy is 
seen delighting in wanton mischief, in sport, in a fight, 
and even in a theft from a farm-yard, distinguished 
frequently by insolence to inferiors, and even by coarse- 
ness and brutality, but not by love of work or by any 
strong interest in intellectual pursuits. . . . This pic- 
ture of a public school, in spite of its attractive features 
and of its unquestionable power and reality, will prob- 
ably be quoted in future years as illustrating the low 
standard of civilization, the false ideal of manliness, and 
the deep-seated indifference to learning for its own sake 
which characterized the upper classes of our youth in 
the early half of the nineteenth century." 

This is a somewhat unusual view to take of the 

famous schoolboy classic, but it is not without 
justification, and has peculiar interest from the 
fact that it is presented, in a way, as reflecting 
Matthew Arnold's own opinion. 

Sir Joshua quotes one passage from Matthew 
Arnold which has a pathetic personal interest. 
It is from the preface to the little volume of 
*^ Bible Reading for Schools," which was never 
used, as far as the writer knows, in any school 

<* For anyone who believes in the civilizing power of 
letters, and often talks of this belief, to think that he 
has for more than twenty years got his living by inspect- 
ing schools for the people, has gone in and out among 
them, has seen that the power of letters never reaches 
them at all, and that the whole study of letters is thereby 
discredited, and its power called in question,* and yet 
has attempted nothing to remedy this state of things, 
cannot but be vexing and disquieting. He may truly 
say, like the Israel of the prophet, * We have not wrought 
any deliverance in the earth 1 ' and he may well desire 
to do something to pay his debt to popular education 
before he finally departs, and to serve it, if he can, in 
that point where its need is sorest, where he has always 
said its need was sorest, and where, nevertheless, it is as 
sore still as when he began saying this twenty years ago. 
Even if what he does cannot be of service at once, owing 
to special prejudices and difficulties, yet these prejs* 
dices and cUfficulties years are almost sure to dissipate, 
and the work may be of service hereafter." 

** Of service hereafter.' Yes, in many ways 
of which a man can himself hardly conceive, 
work done for education in Matthew Arnold's 
spirit is sure to make its influence felt. That 
spirit, embodied in Arnold's many volumes of 
poetry and prose, is working like a leaven in 
thousands of generous minds, each of them in 
turn bringing others into its beneficent contact. 
Hence we welcome to the educational workshop 
such books as the two already discussed in this 
article, as well as the small volume of *^ Selec- 
tions from the Prose Writings of Matthew 
Arnold," which Professor Lewis E. Gates has 
just edited for school use. The selections em- 
brace '^ what is most characteristic in Arnold's 
criticism of literature and life," his best 
thoughts on style, translation, the function of 
criticism, the place of science in education, the 
antithesis of Hebraism and Helenism, the doc- 
trine of ^^ sweetness and light," and the argu- 
ment for ^^ the not ourselves " as the basis of a 
rational religious belief. There are about a 
score of selections altogether, filling nearly three 
hundred pages, and followed by some fifty pages 
of notes. The book is a companion to the ed- 
itor's similar volume devoted to Newman, and 
is provided, like its predecessor, with an elabo- 
rate introductory essay. This essay is deserv- 
ing of very high praise. It is artfully contrived 



pFebw 16, 

to present a oonspectos of the whole circle of 
Amoldian ideas, yet there is no suggestion of 
pedantic formalism in the treatment ; it is grace- 
ful, acute, subtle in suggestion, full of delicate 
felicities of expression, and altogether the most 
satisfactory critical discussion of Arnold with 
which we are acquainted. A part of the closing 
paragraph may be copied here to illustrate the 
quality of the whole. 

<*He accepts — with some sadness, it is tme, and 
yet genuinely and generonsly — the modem a^, with 
its scientific bias and its worldly preoccupations; hu- 
manist as he is, half-romantic loyer of an elder time, he 
yet masters his regret oyer what is disappearing and 
welcomes the present loyally. Belieying, howeyer, in 
the continuity of human experience, and aboye all in 
the transcendent worth to mankind of its spiritual ac- 
quisitions, won largely through the past domination of 
Christian ideals, he deyotes Jumself to presenring the 
quintessence of this ideal life of former generations, and 
insinuating it into the hearts and imaginations of men of 
a ruder age. He conyerts himself into a patient medi- 
ator between the old and the new. Herein he contrasts 
with Newman on the one hand, and with the modern 
deyotees of esthetioism on the oUier hand. . . . Arnold, 
with a temperament perhaps as exacting as either of 
tiiese other temperaments, takes life as it offers itself 
BMd does his best with it He sees and feels its cmde- 
ness and disorderliness; but he has faith in the instincts 
that ciyilized men haye deyeloped in common, and finds 
in the working of these instincts the continuous, if irreg- 
ular, realization of the ideal." 

William Mobton Payne. 

The Poltchbome Bible.* 

The white light of Holy Writ has passed 
through a prism of «' eminent biblical scholars," 
and has been broken into the colors of the 
critical spectrum. This process has been an- 
nounced in laudatory terms through many chan- 
nels for the last five years. We have been told 
that this will be the focal point of modem bib- 
lical scholarship, and in these terms : ^^ The Poly- 
chrome Bible will have the unique distinction 
of representing the united Biblical scholarship 
of the civilized world." Of the civilized world I 
An examination of the staff of thirty-eight 

* Thb Saobbd Books of thb Old Ain> Nbw Tbstamskts : 
A New English Translation, with Bzplanatory Notes and 
Fiotorial lllostrations. Prepared by eminent Biblical Scholars 
of Europe and America, and edited, with the assistance of 
Horace Howard Famess, by Paul Hanpt, Professor in Johns 
Hopkins UniTendty, Baltimore. New York: Dodd, Mead 

. Thx Book of Judobs. By the Rot. G. F. Moore, D.D., 
Professor in AndoTcr Theological Seminary. 

Thb Book of Psalms : With an Appendix on The Mnsic of 
the Ancient Hebrews. By J. Wellhansen, D.D, Kngliih 
TkansUtion of the Psahns by H. H. Famess. 

Thb Book of thb Pbophbt Isal^h. By the Rot. T. K. 
Gheyne, D.D. 

editors reveals only English and German speak- 
ing scholars. Then *^ We are the people," and 
do other nationalities go for naught in biblical 
scholarship ? 

This spectmm Bible is to be a translation 
into modem English of a revised Hebrew text. 
It is to be so clear and intelligible as to do away 
with glossaries, commentaries, etc. It is to be 
a work not for scholars only, but ** for the peo- 
ple." To indicate to *^ the people," ^* the results 
of modem biblical criticism as to the different 
sources from which some of the Old Testament 
Books have been made up, the [English] text 
is printed on variously colored backgrounds 
exhibiting the composite structure of the books." 
To these visual delights are added illustrations 
of the monuments of Egypt and Assyria, of 
biblical sites, etc. If these predictions and 
pledges are all fulfilled we shall have the most 
marvellous and most welcome and most useful 
religious work of the century — the quintes- 
sence of modem biblical scholarship, modem 
literary English with ample explanatory notes 
and illustrations, and the banishment of com- 

The appearance of three volumes of this series 
is hailed with peculiar satisfaction. With a 
lively interest we dip into their pages. Their 
chromatic and pictorial character lightens the 
appearance of the task, and gives them at first 
sight an air of popularity. We discover that 
each volume has the same twelve pages of 
*^ Introductory Remarks," in which the reader 
is dazed by two full pages, and double columned 
at that, of abbreviations ; and ^^ the people " 
here ascertain, as they must if they are to read 
these volumes, the signification of J, E, JE, 
D, E, E2, H, and a lot of other alphabetic 

The volume on Judges uses a full set of seven 
colors, and also italics, to designate the different 
strata of documents originating from the ninth 
century down into post-exilic times. Chapter VI. 
alone exhibits six colors or backgrounds — six 
documents pieced together with amazing inge- 
nuity. Professor Cheyne's Isaiah, rather group 
of Isaiahs, is both a critical analysis by colors, 
and a tearing up and a new arrangement of the 
entire book. There is nothing like it in all the 
field of biblical criticism. It is subjective, eru- 
dite, and revolutionary. The volume on the 
Psalms is not polychrome at all. It is a straight- 
forward white-page translation of the Psalter. 

A translation into modem English is one 
great aim of this series. These three books are 
quite enough to test the results. Of course, 




[Feb. 16, 

coBsed, among others, as to whether we have too 
many colleges. The aathor decidedly thinks we 
haye too many, and that every effort should be 
made *' to prevent the f oondation of more colleges ; 
to unite, if it be possible, certain ones of those now 
existing; to strengthen the colleges already well 
endowed, well established, and well situated, — to 
make these not only great but the greatest possible." 
It is to be noted that President Thwing neither 
here nor elsewhere seems to consider the relation 
of college to university in reference to this question. 
Perhaps an ideal apportionment would be one 
high-school to every ten thousand population, one 
college to every hundred thousand, and one univer- 
sity to every million. Other chapters deal with 
such topics as college religion and morals, college 
expenses, difficulties and dangers of college life, 
etc. ; and finally there is an optimistic, chapter on 
the future of the American college. The volume is, 
as a whole, a good canspedus, and will be especi- 
ally serviceable to all who have to do with college 

The *' Teaching of Morality," by Sophie Bryant, 
D.Sc., is a brief but suggestive handbook for 
teachers and parents. The opening chapter is a 
close philosophical and psychological treatment of 
<< Moral Education in Greneral," followed by chap- 
ters on the ** Intellectual and Moralizing Processes 
Involved in the Study of Morality," on the << Prin- 
ciples of Teaching," and on <* Virtuous Character" 
and << Social Membership." Great stress is laid on 
initiative, on leading the pupil to a stage of rational 
self-activity. The whole book shows a clear insight, 
based on both experience and reflection ; and we 
regret that a large portion is so condensed, abstract, 
and dry, that it must fail of the widest service. A 
single sentence is worth quoting as giving some idea 
of the author's method and standpoint '<My 
experience — based on some teaching to school 
girls between the ages of twelve and eighteen — is, 
(1) that young people are much interested in the 
ideas of right and wrong; (2) that they are apt to 
be impressed and effectively moved by that strain 
of moral reflection which shows the unity of virtue 
in all variety of virtues ; and (3 ) that they acquire 
this kind of knowledge as naturally as any other, 
while they are apt to apply it with more interest 
and skiU." 

Dr. Francis Warner, who is already favorably 
known for his works on psychology, has given us a 
valuable manual on " The Study of Children and 
their School Training." It is distinctly a physio- 
logical study of the growth of the child from early 
years through adolescence, giving special attention 
to nerve-signs of all kinds. In a very definite, 
concrete way, and with illustrations, the reader is 
taught to observe in children such physical expres- 
sions as twitchings, '< fidgetiness," hand and head 
postures, etc., and to interpret them aright. This 
book seems to us an extremely suggestive and 
important one for teachers and parents ; and being 
simply written, and free from technicalities, it may 

be understood and applied with ease by any reader. 
As an example of Dr. Warner's method of expound- 
ing his subject, we quote a paragraph from the 
Introductory Chapter. ^< A boy, eight years of age, in 
preparatory school, was said to be so dull at learn- 
ing Latin Uiat it was thought impossible to continue 
the attempt to teach him. He was healthy and 
well made ; he showed no signs of mental defect, 
and was, otherwise, quick and bright. He bad 
learned to read well, and read story books for 
pleasure. I noticed that, in reading, he followed 
the words on the printed line by moving his head, 
not moving his eyes in their orbits ; this did well 
enough for story-reading, when he skipped much 
of the page. Moving the head in place of turning 
the eyes did not admit of sufficient accuracy for 
studying Latin. Some attention to eye-drill soon 
removed all the difficulty complained of, and the 
boy made good progress. This cause of mental 
duUness serves to illustrate the usefulness to teach- 
ers of personal observation." 

Another book on Child Study is Professor James 
Sully's *^ Children's Ways," an abridgment of his 
work on "Studies of Childhood," made to suit 
" the requirements of the general reader." This 
book consists mainly of anecdotes dealing with 
children who have attained some command of 
language. The work is a compilation, largely from 
Stanley Hall and other American observers; but it 
is not a very clear or well connected whole. In his 
efforts at popularizing, Professor Sully sometimes 
assumes a certain condescension which is uncalled 
for either by the subject or by the reader. Some 
of Professor Sully's remarks will doubtless seem 
questionable, both to the general reader and 
advanced student, — as when he assures us that 
animals have no imagination. While the book as a 
whole can hardly be regarded as adequate to the 
subject, it will undoubtedly be of considerable inter- 
est and value to parents and others. 

Bishop Spalding's latest volume, " Thoughts and 
Theories of Life and E^ducation," contains a series 
of addresses of a general character on the nature 
and spirit of education in relation to life. Theee 
discourses are not meant so much for information 
as for inspiration; but while the truth is mostly 
truism, it is always earnestly and often eloquently 
rehearsed with an Emersonian sententiousness. 
The last chapter, on <<The Teacher and the 
School," speaks bravely for the elevation of the 
common school above poliUes, and of teaching to a 
definite rank as a profession. 

Number XLII. of the International Educational 
Series is " Bibliography of Education," by Mr. W. 
S. Monroe. This is a selected list of 3,200 books 
printed in English, and mostly of recent date. In 
some instances a descriptive note is added. We 
find this list lacking in some points, as, for instance, 
it mentions neither Brodrick's " History of Oxford 
University " nor Charles Dickens's " Schools and 
Schoolmasters "; nor yet do we find notice of Emer- 
son's <' College Year Book," or of « Minerva." On 




tfi» odier hand, it incliidee many books whieh eer- 
Uinty do not belong in a bibliography of this scope, 
as Fanar's ''Life of Christ," and Kant's '' Critiqae 
<d Pore Reason," and others of like nature. Bat 
thoogh we do not think this list as good a one of 
its sixe as might be made« yet it will be found 
senrieeable, especially by reason of a very fall index. 

HiBAM M. Stanley. 


Bbhefs on Nisw Books. 

Mr. Theodore Roosevelt's '< Ameri- 
can Ideals, and Other Essays Social 
and Political " (Patnam) is in many 
respects an excellent book for yoang Americans 
especially to read. The best part of it is its tren- 
chant discussion of the problems and scandals of 
our municipal politics and of the duties of the citi- 
xen in reladon thereto. What Mr. Roosevelt says 
in this regard is so sound and patriotic that his oc- 
casionally rather <* bumptious " manner of saying it 
is the more regrettable. There is a certain something 
in Mr. Roosevelt's manner or personality that has 
led people to take a somewhat comic view of him, 
and to treat his pretensions as a social and political 
philosopher and teacher with some levity. But it 
<eannoi be denied that his own record is exception- 
ally Boch as to entitle him to a most respectful hear- 
ing on municipal questions, and even to warrant 
him in lecturing with some asperity the deplorably 
large class of people who shirk the performance of 
an such political duties as involve the prospect of 
risk or -inconvenience or unpleasantness to them- 
selves — in fact, of such duties as make a real de- 
mand on one's manhood and patriotism. Mr. Roose- 
vdt has himself gone down into the thick of the 
fray like a man, and done battle with the << boss " 
and the ^^ heeler " on his own ground ; and he nat- 
urally harbors a robust contempt for those whom 
he calls the *< timid good." He has no sort of pa- 
tience with the superfine folks who shun contact 
with their ruder and coarser fellow mortals, and 
■iince daintily through life much as a sleek house- 
cat picks its way over a gutter. In his opinion, the 
man who is too timid or too finical or too indifferent 
to take part in the often rough and disagreeable 
preliminary work that must be done at the caucuses 
sod primaries, if we are to have honest government 
and decent ofiBicials in this country, is out of place 
in a republic. Mr. Roosevelt's patriotic heat leads 
him into a little inconsistency now and then. He 
Molds, for instance, at the American who, electing 
to live abroad, makes his home in England or France 
er Germany, and tries to become an Englishman or 
a Frenchman or a Grerman, accordingly ; bat for 
the foreigneTy on the other hand, who expatriates 
himself, who abjures his native patriotism and the 
hold of his birth, who comes to us and tries by every 
msans in his power to divest himself of his own 
natioaality and become an American, Mr. Roose- 

velt has nothing but pnuse. But Mr. Roosevelt* s 
rule seems to be one of those poor ones that will 
not work both ways. The essays in the present 
volume are reprinted from leading periodicals, and 
they deserve for the most part their more durable 

In tracing the History of Oratory, 
^Srmrtciora^, Prof cssor Lorenzo Sears produced a 

book popular enough to be of general 
interest and yet careful enough in its plan and treat- 
ment to be of value to the student His later work, 
*<The Occasional Address" (Putnam), is of some- 
what similar character; it is founded upon material 
carefully gathered from many sources ; it is planned 
and developed carefully, and with sufficient par- 
ticularity ; it is written in a pleasant vein that makes 
it easy reading. As in the previous book, the man 
who searches for definite facts is often vexed at not 
finding them, or at sometimes, perhaps, finding de- 
batable matters stated in too confident a way. But 
these books do not affect to be works of deep eru- 
dition: they are rather, we should say, designed 
first for the college student, and we think Uiem 
well calculated to reach their audience. <<The 
Occasional Address " is the term chosen by Professor 
Sears to designate a form of demonstrative oratory 
very common here in America, and one which comes 
most readily within the reach of college students. 
The term denotes speeches, orations, addresses, 
made on special occasions, — commemorations, cele- 
brations, and the like. To be more exact, and to 
mention as examples the special forms discussed by 
Professor Sears in Part III., it includes such forms 
of speaking as- the Eulogy, the Commemorative 
Oration, the Expository Address or Lecture, the 
Commencement Oration, the Af ter-Dinner Speech. 
To such forms of speaking, we Americans, as has 
often been pointed out, are greatly inclined ; every 
one of us may therefore read Professor Sears's book 
with a sort of personal interest. It includes not 
only a discussion of the different forms noted above, 
but also of the different qualities necessary to such 
speaking, and also (indeed, the topic is treated 
first) an analysis of the elements of such an address, 
— as purpose, subject, particular parts. The topic 
is undoubtedly one of very considerable and very 
broad interest And although we regret in this 
book a sort of vagueness or even of inaccuracy 
which we sometimes perceive, we presume that these 
matters are almost of necessity incident to a mode 
of treatment which will put the topic in an attrac- 
tive manner before the large audience which will 
find interest in it. 

A certain catholicity of taste, if it be 
genuine, is generally earnest of power 
of mind as well as breadth. A man 
may be familiar with Leopardi and Senancour and 
the poetry of Matthew Arnold, and yet be a prig. 
He may be devoted to Browning and Shelley, and 
yet be merely following a current fashion. He may 
see great and wonderful things in Walt Whitman's 




[Feb. 1^ 

erery line, and yet be wbat be too often is. He may 
be intereeted in Haaptmanuy and yet bave no espe- 
eial eare for literatare beyond a sort of journalistic 
« modernity." Bat it is not easy to imagine a man 
to have bad all tbese interests witbont being, or at 
least becoming, bimself ratber an interesting per- 
sonality. There has also been held to be a certain 
sacramental effect in a great author ; so that a man 
who has read Balzac, for instance, most be different 
from a man who has not Sach an effect may not 
be inevitable with one or another, bat to some de- 
gree it is inevitable after sach broad reading as we 
have been speaking of. Here are two adequate 
reasons for looking at Mr. W. N. Guthrie's <^ Poet 
Prophets " (Robert Clarke Co.) Nor will the book 
disappoint confident expectation. As a rule, we 
distrust the criticism that takes as a fundamental 
position the view implied in that title, because that 
criticism is too apt to be a kneading-up of the whole- 
wheat flour of Carlyle with the water of book-club 
wisdom, — often without the yeast of individuality. 
But a follower of Carlyle is not apt to have tidings 
of Leopardi, nor is a book-club prophet apt to speaic 
intelligently of Mr. Swinburne. Mr. Guthrie's table 
of contents restored the equanimity shaken by his 
title. We recommend his book to the reader. From 
a good many of his opinions we dissent. But that 
minor matter is lost in the refreshing feeling which 
comes from a new volume of essays on literature, 
that is neither a bundle of clever enough aper9us 
dredged up from forgotten periodicals, nor a few 
pleasant revivals of current literary gossip. This 
is a volume of essays on literary topics, thought out 
coherently and in earnest, and put down seriously, 
although not with the heavy hand that allows notb- 
ing for the amenities of writing. We think that 
Mr. Guthrie on the whole takes a standpoint some- 
what too philosophical. We think that this pre- 
vents him from being a great critic, because it does 
not disclose some more purely literary values. It 
may also prevent some from reading him with 
pleasure, because he often gets beyond ^e easy com- 
prehension of the healthy general reader. Still, this 
is rather a small point, and perhaps also something 
of a matter of opinion. 

In the latest issue of the << Contem- 
porary Science Series" (Scribner) 
we have an admirable monograph 
upon an extremely important but neglected subject, 
the blessed gift of sleep. The book comes originally 
from Russia ; and its author, Marie de Manac^lne, 
exhibits an unusual power of judicious statement 
and orderly arrangement. The volume sums up in 
a very readable form our knowledge regarding the 
condition in which we pass a third of our lives. 
This knowledge is grouped about four headings, — 
the physiology of sleep, its pathology, its hygiene, 
and its psychology. What occurs within the body 
during sleep ; the intensity of sleep at various pe- 
riods of the night; the changes in the nature of 
sleep as we grow older ; the changes in the circula- 

€if Sleep. 

tion of the blood, in respiration, and, most signifi- 
cant of all, in the nenroos system, — these and many 
equally important factors that distingaish the con* 
dition of the body in sleep from that in waking boors 
are clearly described in Uie light of recent research^ 
The pathology is mainly given over to the nature 
and varieties of insomnia, and of its opposite, the 
excessive tendency to sleep, and also to sleep-like 
conditions, somnambulism, half-waking states, and 
the like. How we ought to sleep is told us in no 
pedantic or arbitrary strain, but in the light of ascer- 
tained principles judiciously applied with due refer- 
ence to age and health and habits and condition of 
life. The psychology is mainly concerned with the 
mental activities during sleep ; the direction of the 
attention; the subdued bat not perfectly passive 
senses ; the alert lower centres, and' the operation 
of the mind in dreams. The dream-world, however 
individual and fantastic, yet has its laws and prin- 
ciples. The light of psychological research has 
penetrated into the recesses of the sleeping soul, and 
to a certain extent has shown what stuff our dreams 
are made of. Perhaps the day is not distant when 
we shall pay as much attention to the formation of 
good habits of sleep as of good habits during our 
waking hours, and the determination of what is 
wholesome in the one case as in the other can come 
only as the result of a comprehensive study of our 
mental and bodily activities. A valuable introduc- 
tion to such study is furnished by this well-written 
volume. Its value is further enhanced for English 
readers by copious additions to the English edition, 
including mainly those due to the ingenuity and 
industry of E^nglisb and American workers. 

One of the most universal tendencies 
among clever people is a leaning 
toward private theatricals: almost 
everybody, indeed, has something of it It is true 
that in most cases the feeling never comes to any 
sort of realization ; but it comes to realization often 
enough to make it a little curious at first thought 
that there are not more good amateur plays than 
there are. Second thoughts, of course, inform one 
that the reason is that in this matter the universal 
desire of the amateur is to be professional. Ama- 
teur companies are apt to prefer rather difficult 
plays from the real stage, — society comedies of the 
day, for instance. At any rate, since half the fun 
lies in being professional, amateur plays are not 
much sought after. We think, however, that there 
are many who may find in << The Charm, and other 
Drawing-Room Plays," by Sir Walter Besant and 
Mr. Waiter H. Pollock, some little things that will 
be quite as g^od to give as many that are mach 
more ambitious. Drawing-room plays these are 
called, and they depend, therefore, more on costume 
than on scenery and more on dialogue than on 
situation. Two or three of them are costume plays 
which give excellent opportunity for exquisite and 
careful preparation. But there are half a dozen 
which need no more than the costume of the day 

Fer private 




and the opportunities of any drawing-room. They 
are all short and well within the reach of any set of 
amateurs who are not absolute beginners. Absolute 
bsginners shoold confine themselves to Shakespeare. 
We do not know that it is mach to the purpose to 
comment on the literary characteristics of these 
plays, bat it may not be out of place to remark that 
they have not the slightest reminiscence or flavor of 
present literary conditions. Ibsen, Hauptmann, 
Sudermann, Maeterlinck, Pinero, might never have 
existed so far as these sketches indicate. They 
continae the traditions of the British Drama of 
twenty-five years ago. The average amateur may 
not object to this point : technically, the plays are 
dever and suited to their purpose ; that may be 
enough for him. But we do not see why, in a period 
of oonsiderable dramatic ferment, the amateur as 
well as the professional should not be aware of cur- 
rent movement in his art 

ApkOoaopkteai ^^' ®* ^' Zenker's book on Anarch- 
««wiyo/ ism, published by Messrs. Futnams, 

'^"■'****^ deserves particular attention. The 

author has dealt with a very obscure and strange 
theory, and with conflicting phases of that theory, 
in a sane and orderly way. He gives sufficient 
Inographical, historical, and economic information 
to make the subject dear to any intelligent reader, 
and he has inserted authoritative statements from 
iffiginal sources at critical points, so that the book 
may be used as evidence. It can hardly be said 
that his discussion of the greatest leaders is adequate 
and final, though it is a good sketch. The condu- 
sim is moderate in tone and free from all dements 
of panic. The author thinks that a policy of sup- 
presnon of discussion and of unusuaJ and special 
penalties is not desirable. The criminal law is, as 
Lord Boseberry said, amply sufficient to cope with 
the ** party of action." Some phases of truth have 
been brought out by Anarchists, and the criticism 
of existing society can best be met by more compe- 
tent theory and by practical measures of ameliora- 
tion. *'We therefore demand for the Anarchist 
doctrine, as long as it does not incite to crime, the 
n^t of free discussion and the tolerance due to 
erery opinion, quite without regard to whether it is 
Bore dangerous, or more probable, or more practic- 
able than any other opinion." The social function 
of Anarchism is in its criticism of Socialism as the 
tjranny of the majority over the individual, and in 
its criticism of a social system which neglects the 
lesst influential members of society. 

We are not wholly in favor of col- 
V<^e«m^^' lections of already-published stories 

by wdl-known novelists, nor of the 
evays of by-gone years by well-known men of let- 
ters, nor, by anybody, of the weekly or monthly 
eontributions to some page or column. But when a 
man eminent in some other respects gathers together 
loeh work as he has had time to do in letters, the re- 
■dt is apt to be interesting. Thus, the president of 

a gpreat university makes a sdection from his occa- 
sional articles of twenty-five years, and the result 
has value ; or a great preacher publbhes the non- 
clerical addresses or essays he has had time to write, 
and the result again has value. In like manner 
Mr. Henry Cabot Lodge's " Certain Accepted He- 
roes " (Harper) is a book which stands a little adde 
from the oidinary collections of essays. Books of 
this character always have, besides the intrinsic 
value of their contents, a sort of additional value in 
the known position of their author. It is, however, 
rather interesting to look at this book without any 
recollection of what we really know of the author. 
Here are three or four essays on literary subjects, 
three which are chiefly political, and two which are 
historical. Or, again, we have two which would 
reverse current conceptions, two which would show 
that in some directions we are as good as the E<n- 
glish, two which have a full-blooded interest in 
public affairs, two which are the result of disinter- 
ested curiosity, and one other. The book is written 
by a man of wide range of interest, a man who 
believes in public life and in America too, a man 
who has the curiosity of the scholar, as well, per- 
haps, as a certain amount of the current pleasure in 
removing ancient landmarks. It may be that we 
have here enough criteria to identify at once the 
junior Senator from Massachusetts. Perhaps he 
will not thank us for having hinted that the field of 
literature is not that in which he is most at home. 
But he cannot find fault with us for considering his 
essays better than some work we have seen by 
writers who are more definitely thought of as men 
of letters. 

A notable "^^^ publication, by Messrs. D. C 

contribution to Heath & Co., of the second part of 
Ooethe study. Qoethe's " Faust," edited, with Intro- 
duction and Notes, by Professor Calvin Thomas of 
Columbia University, is a noteworthy event in the 
history of Groethe study in America. We had sev- 
eral editions of the First Part before that by Pro- 
fessor Thomas, though none so good ; and in the 
present volume he has been guided by the same 
idea that characterized his former work. He em- 
phasizes the value of '* Faust " as literature : not as 
didactics or philosophy or allegory, but as a work 
of art The editorial matter shows abundant evi- 
dence of sound linguistic scholarship and of thor- 
ough familiarity with the more immediate depart- 
ment of Goethe philology, bat it is the liteimry 
aspect of the work that renders it distinctive. In 
an Introduction of some seventy pages, Professor 
Thomas goes into a careful study of the genesis of 
the poem. He traces the idea of the division into 
two parts : the growth of the Helena episode, and 
its connection in completed form with the first and 
second and with the last two acts. More briefly, 
the Second Part as a whole is considered ; and fin- 
ally some critical observations are added. Professor 
Thomas has no occult interpretation to urge, is not 
even concerned to explain away the inconsistencies 



[Feb. 16, 

of the work or to argue a nnitj that the poet never 
imagined that he had given his work. His study 
has been, rather, a labor of love that has found its 
own highest reward in the spiritual assimilation of 
the master's thought, and that seeks to open to the 
student the same rich treasure. The hundred and 
twenty pages of notes discuss real difficulties, ex- 
plain allusions that might be unfamiliar to the ordi- 
nary reader, present the results of the best and most 
scholarly criticism, but do not pretend to be ex- 
haustive or to discuss the pros and cons of disputed 
interpretations. The work makes it possible for the 
student interested in Groethe's poetry to read and 
enjoy his greatest work. Its result should and 
doubtiess will be to promote the stody of <* Faust " 
in our colleges and by the intelligent and reading 

At first glance Mr. Arthur Hassall's 

^ " 476 to 1871 " (MacmiUan) seems 

superfluous, since there already existo the hand- 
book of Ploetz, with an English translation. But 
on examination one finds in Mr. Hassall*s work a 
much fuller and more complete array of facts, cov- 
ering a much less extended field. The book is 
therefore not without its reason for being. The 
arrangement is also an improvement, and a vast 
improvement, on that of Ploetz. If we could add 
that the work was perfecdy accurate, or even 
reasonably so, there could be no higher praise. But, 
unfortunately, it is not accurate ; and thus the one 
eminent virtue of a hand-book of dates is wanting. 
Opening the book at random, one discovers on care- 
f td examination that there are six errors on pages 
146 and 147. The Synod of Dort is said to have 
met in 1618, while the correct date is 1619 ; the 
deposition of Ferdinand of Bohemia is given as 
taking place in April, 1619, instead of August The 
battie of the White Hill is placed in 1621, while it 
was fought in 1620 ; the Protestant Union was dis- 
solved in April, but this compilation says the month 
was May ; it speaks of the Four Articles of Perth, 
but there were Five, and it gives the date of their 
enactment as August 25, 1618, instead of August 
27. Errors so numerous and so inexcusable render 
the work of but small value. 

A new Lift of 
William 9S Orangt, 

The world's interest in the great 
leader in the Dutch War for Inde- 
pendence, like that in our own 
Washington, seems to g^w rather than abate, and 
thus each has met successfully the final test of 
greatness. Last year we welcomed the scholarly 
and fascinating volumes of our American stodent. 
Miss Ruth Putnam ; now the veteran English 
scholar and author, Mr. Frederic Harrison, has put 
out another study of the great Duteh patriot in the 
<' Foreign Statesmen" series (MacmiUan). Mr. 
Harrison's life of Oliver Cromwell has been recog- 
nized as a model of ito kind : a brief political bi- 
ography that is clear and impartial, yet with the 

vitality and interest that come from deep interest 
in the subject and profound stody of it He has 
the ability to see the faults in his hero, and yet see 
them subordinate to that hero's great qualities. 
This new book is a worthy companion to the former, 
and portrays a character in many ways like that of 
the great Puritan. The author's knowledge of the 
sixteenth century is so intimate that he is able to 
put before the reader in brief compass the complex 
sitaation of European affairs, not attempting to fol- 
low its tangled threads, but to show the leading 
motives that shaped the conduct of English, French, 
German, and Spanish rulers in their r^ations to the 
desperate struggle of the Netherlands for political 
and religious liberty. And the frank disclosure of 
the weaknesses of William, his prevarications, sub- 
tiety, and occasional wrong-headedness, only fur- 
nishes the contrast that makes his steadfastness, his 
complete self-sacrifice, his far-seeing stetesmanship, 
and his broad religious toleration in an exceedingly 
narrow age, the more resplendent The busy man 
can come to know the real William through this 
littie book ; while the historical specialist will be 
grateful to the author, for it is a fresh stody from 
the sources. 

Plwuant ttttdies 
out 0/ doors. 

Mr. Charles M. Skinner's latest vol- 
ume gives a hint of his piquant way 
of putting things in its titie, ^' Witii 
Feet to the Earth " (Lippincott), by which is meant 
the attitude necessary to the pedestrian. Mr. Skin- 
ner is a lover of Nature, and is never in better mood 
than when he is with her or talking about her. She 
sets his thoughts at work, and the pen puts down 
the results in serious, humorous, and always choice 
phraseology. The ten sketehes which make up the 
present volume relate the author's experience in a 
series of rambles in the city and the country, at 
different seasons of the year and varying hours of 
the day and night. There b no particular stody of 
animal or plant life apparent, but there is a keen and 
broad appreciation of all that lives out of doors, and 
much apt and suggestive reflection upon the mani- 
fold phases of ewth and sky, and upon the human 
life which g^ves interest to the scenes of earth. 

jforau and Under the collective titie '< Ars Meets 

mannert/rom Vwendiy'* Messrs. Harper & Broth- 

IA*"J?«yCAair." ^^ ^p^Q,. ^^^j^^ ^£ ^^ QeorgO 

William Curtis's '<£lasy Chair " essays, each one 
dealing, as the titie of the volume imports, with a 
point of morals or manners. The tiUes are: << Ex- 
travagance at College," << Brains and Brawn, 
<< Hazing," '< Theatre Manners," '< Woman's Dress, 
<< Tobacco and Manners," << Newspaper Ethics," etc 
In point of precept, the book is an excellent one for 
young readers especially ; though we doubt if the 
college-bred youth of to-day will have much patience 
with the Queen-Anne mannerisms and old-time arti- 
ficialities and conceits of style generally with which 
Mr. Curtis thought fit to stucco over much of his 
** Easy Chair " moralizing. 







An aniuaally attractiye book for the 
novice in the stady of entomology is 
one by Professor Clarence Moores 
Weed, recently pablished under the title of << Life 
ffifltories of .American Insects " (Macmillan). Its 
entire aspect is engaging, from the large open type, 
handsome page, and abundant illustrations, to the 
enrioiisly pied cover besprinkled with bugs and 
beetles on an underground of leaves. Twenty-six 
spenes or groups of species are figured in the book, 
and their stories told in clear and explicit terms. 
In many respects the story of insect life is the story 
of human life on a diminutive scale. The instincts 
and i^ppetites are strong and crude, the sagacity 
and artifice manifested are astonishing, and the 
whole history, from egg to imago, shows the mani- 
fold resemblances between man and the lower grades 
of animal life. 


The student of classical archieology will find his ao- 
eoont in the handsome new volume of Signor Rodolfo 
Laneiani, entitled ** The Ruins and Excavations of An- 
cient Rome ^ (Houghton). It is " a companion book 
for students and travellers," running into upwards of 
rix hundred pages, and richly illustrated with maps, 
diagrams, and photographic plates. The work is made 
useful in every imaginable way, and has, of course, the 
additional advantage of being entirely up to date. We 
may at the same time mention the publication of ** The 
Christian Monuments of Rome " (Black), by H. M. and 
IL A. R. T., which is the first part of a « Handbook to 
Christian and Ecclesiastioal Rome," intended, when 
complete, to occnpy no less than four such volumes as 

Mr. Temple Scott's ** Book Sales of 1697," just pub- 
lished by the Macmillan Co., takes its place upon the 
ihelf with the similar volumes for previous years. 
American sales (to the number of three) are now for 
the first time included within the scope of this valuable 
bibliographical work. The entries run nearly up to six 
thousand, and are, of course, selected from a much 
larger possible number. Mr. Scott notes an advanced 
demand for French writers of the eighteenth century, 
and sustained values for works on English literature, 
iport, and early gardening, as well as for Americana, 
sod extra-illustrated volumes. On the other hand, 
Cmikshankiana and Kelmscott books show some signs 
of a tendency to go out of fashion. 

We notioed in these columns a few months ago a 
very helpful book on Latin Manuscripts. The same 
elan of readers to whom that book appeals — advanced 
itndents and teachers — will have reason to thank Mr. 
W. M. Lindsay, of Jesus College, Oxford, for his 
** Handbook of Latin Inscriptions " just issued from the 
press of AUyn & Bacon. After stating very lucidly, 
in the introductory paragraphs, some of the fundamen- 
tal principles of form changes in Latin, the author 
gives a collection of inscriptions in illustration of these 
ehanges from the earliest period down to *< Imperial 
sad Late Latin." For long years to come, as in the 
past, a large proportion of Latin teaching preparatory 
to college must be done by those who have not had the 

advantages of graduate study and have not the means 
to secnre for themselves the published results of classi- 
cal research. For these teachers, whose embarrassing 
position is their misfortune and not their fault, such 
handbooks as this are an inestimable boon, and the 
friends of classical study may well work and pray that 
their number may increase. 

« A Text-Book of General Botany " (Longmans), by 
Dr. Carlton C. Curtis, is a work of considerable dimen- 
sions, based upon the laboratory work required of begin- 
ners at Columbia University. It takes up a series of 
species, and provides material for a stiff year's course 
of two hours' daily work. The illustrations, although 
not as numerous as in many works of this description, 
are exceptionally well-chosen and carefully drawn. Mr. 
L. H. Bailey's ** Lessons with Plants " (Macmillan) is 
designed for very young students, and deals in simple 
style, not only with the elements of botanical science, 
but also with many practical matters of gardening. 
Mrs. Lucy L. W. Wilson's « Nature Study in Elemen- 
tary Schools " (Macmillan), is a manual for teachers, 
and comes highly recommended by Colonel F. W. Parker, 
who contributes a brief preface. 

In the way of modem language texts, the latest pub- 
lications sent us are the following: a volume of « Vol- 
taire's Prose " (Heath), edited by Professors Adolphe 
Cohn and B. D. Woodward; " An Elementary Soientifie 
French Reader" (Heath), by Dr. P. Mariotte-Daries; 
** La Guerre de I'lnd^pendanoe en Am^rique " (Ginn), 
by M. A. Morreao, edited by Professor A. N. Van 
Daell; SchiUer's «< WUhelm Tell" (Macmillan), edited 
by Professor W. H. Carruth; Herr Helbig^s «« Die 
Komadie auf der Hochschule " (Heath), edited by Pro- 
fessor B. W. Wells; Zschokke's «'Der Zerbrochene 
Krug " (Heath), edited by Professor E. S. Joynes; and 
Part II. of «* Faust" (Heath), in the scholarly edition 
of Professor Calvin Thonuis. In this connection, it may 
not be out of place to mention Dr. C. A. Buchheim's 
*< Golden Treasury " edition of « Heinrioh Heine's Lieder 
und Gediohte," published by the Macmillan Co. 

That the ** reader " still holds its own as an educa- 
tional device is evident from the many publications of 
this description that continue to issue from the press. 
But the crusade against the fragmentary reader of the 
traditional sort is having its effect, and some degree of 
unity is usually aimed at by the modern compiler. 
Dlustrations of this tendency are offered by Mr. J. H. 
Stickney's « Earth and Sky " (Ginn) ; « Australia and 
the Isles of the Sea" (Silver), edited by Mr. Larkin 
Dunton; and the volumes called << Stepping Stones to 
Literature" (Silver), edited by Miss Sarah L. Arnold 
and Charles B. Gilbert The older type of book ap- 
pears in « The ChUdren's Fourth Reader " (Ginn) of 
Miss Ellen M. Cyr, and the *< Lincoln Literary Collec- 
tion " (American Book Co.) of Mr. J. P. McCaskey. 

Covering in his public life the long period between 
the War of 1812 and the Civil War, twice a member 
of Congress, participating in Jackson's attack on the 
United States Bank, strongly opposed to the agitation 
of the Abolitionists, actively connected with the annex- 
ation of Texas, and always loyal to the Democratic 
party, Charles Jared Ingersoll is well worthy of a 
place among the public men of America, the memory 
of whose services too often passes away with them. 
His « Life and Letters " (Lippincott) at the hands of 
his g^randson, Mr. William M. Meigs, enables one to 
form a very fair estimate of his work and his attitude 
I toward the various questions of the day. 



[Feb. 16, 

English Correspondexcb. 

London, Feb. 5, 1898, 

Although the air and sky here are balmy and blue 
enough to make us hope for an early spring, the season 
of the new incoming of books shows, as ye^ no signs of 
approach. The hedges may be budding and the young 
plants shooting, but the ** Toice of the turtle " is not yet 
heard in the land. Here and there one hears whisper- 
ings and twitterings, but hardly any coherent statement 
of what we are to expect. That Mr. Le€rallienne has 
finished his " Romance of Zion Chapel " will be no news 
to you; indeed, by the time this reaches you the work 
may be already publbhed. Also, that Mr. E. F. Ben- 
son's new story, *' The Vintage," is to be issued imme- 
diately will not be fresh. Yon will, probably, haye heard 
that Mr. Frank Mathew, the author of «< The Wood of 
the Brambles," has been engaged on a novel, and that 
it is to be called «« A Lady's Sword "; that the title of 
" George Egerton's " long story is to be « The Wheels 
of God"; that M6nie Muriel Dowie has written a rival 
to her ** Gallia"; and that Mrs. Grertrude Atherton, 
whose « American Wives and English Husbands" is 
almost delivered by the binders, has ready another novel, 
a sort of companion to this, to be entitled << The Great 
Black Oxen." Mr. S. R. Crockett's new romance will 
deal with the suppression of brigandage in Apulia. I 
find that Blr. Haggard's story is to be called " Elissa," 
and Sir Walter Besant's « The Changeling." 

All this I need not have retailed, no doubt; but even 
old news requires reviving occasionally, just to keep us 
in mind of what it may often be very necessary not to 
forget. Now-a-days, one hears of coming events so far 
ahead of their happening that when they do occur they 
come as a surprise. I may, however, add, by way of 
apology for referring to these writers and their works, 
that <* The Wheels of God " will be well worth reading. 
It is Mrs. Claremont's first essay at a long story, and 
its theme is sure to interest and fascinate. Mr. Frank 
Mathew is an able story-teller, and his new book b said 
to be even better than his last. 

We have living in London a very charming and very 
facile young widow, who writes under the name of G. 
Colmore. She has already written a volume of poems, 
and one or two novels; but none have made much im- 
pression. I have had occasion, lately, to read the proof 
sheets of a new book of verses she is passing through 
the press, and I confess their contents have astonished 
me not a little. The poems are collectively called 
** Points of View," a title which seems to give no clue 
of any value. Therefore I shall say that the ** points 
of view " refer to the excuses for ** the conduct of life" 
which various individuals have to offer for their partic- 
ular sins of omission or commission. The writer shows 
a remarkable facility for versifying; but the chief 
strength of her work is in the keen-sighted sympathy it 
everywhere displays. If the book does not get talked 
about, then it must be either that I am an easily im- 
pressed person, or that the world of readers is bcKsome 
sadly blase. 

You will be glad to hear that Burton's masterpiece in 
travellers' tales, « The Pilgrimage to Mecca and Me- 
dinah," is at last to be published in a cheap and handy 
form. It will be remembered that the copyright of the 
first edition of this great work expires in the present 
year. In 1879, however, a third edition was issued in 
which the late Sir Richard Burton included many revi- 

sions and alterations. This edition, under the editor- 
ship of Lady Burton, was issued about four years ago 
in two volumes. Now the copyright of this last issue 
has been acquired by Messrs. George Bell & Sons, and 
the two volumes with all the illustrations will soon form 
part of that firm's « Bohn's Standard Library." When 
published, they will make the most remarkable two- 
dollars' worth of reading in any language. 

We are promised the completion of the printed cat- 
alogue of the books in the British Museum, early in the 
twentieth century. This catalogue has been a good 
many years in the making, and when it is finished a se- 
ries of supplemental volumes will have to be started 
immediately; but had it never have been begun one 
would have wondered where on earth the officials in 
charge of our National Library would have placed the 
manuscript-catalogue. When the printing commenced, 
the MS. volumes numbered 3,000; what they would 
have amounted to now, it would be difficult to say. 
Even in the printed form, the reference set in the 
reading-room, which has blank leaves for additions, will 
make a goodly row of a thousand volumes. 

Two or three new publishers are about to appear in 
London, but what they are g^ing to publish is not yet 
known. One of them, Mr. Gerald Duckworth, learned 
his business with Messrs. J. M. Dent & Co., so that we 
may expect prettily got up books, at any rate; but 
whether he is to publish new works, or will follow the 
advice of the Authors' Society, and re-make the old 
books, I cannot say. Another new-comer, Mr. John 
Long, has set himself the task of catering for the novel- 
reading public, and already, I learn, he has in the press 
stories by Mrs. Lovett Cameron, Miss Esm^ Stuart, F. 
W. Robinson, and Dr. Grordon Stables. At this rate our 
Publishers' Association will become a wealthy body, — 
fifty-two dollars per member, per annum, soon mounts 
up. But what are they going to do ? 

** Ian Maclaren," the other day, made a speech on 
*< Local Patriotism"; by way of illustration he related 
the following experience: *<Not long ago I was travel- 
ling from Aberdeen to Perth. A man sitting opposite 
studied me for a minute, and then, evidently being con- 
vinced that I had average intelligence, and could appre- 
ciate a great sight if I saw it, he said, * If you will stand 
up with me at the window, I will show you something 
in a minute; you will only get a glimpse suddenly and 
for an instant.' I stood. He said, < Can you see that ? ' 
I saw some smoke, and said so. * That 's Kirriemuir,' 
he answered. I sat down, and he sat opposite me, and 
watched my face to see that the fact that I had had a 
glimpse of Kirriemuir, or rather of its smoke, was one I 
thoroughly appreciated, and would carry in retentive 
memory for the rest of my life. Then I said, < Mr. 
Barrie was bom there.' * Yes,' he said, * he was; and I 
was bom there myself.'" 

Mr. Fitzgerald, the mountaineer, has come back from 
his expedition to the Andes, and is being interviewed 
right and left. Of course, his adventures are to be 
embodied in a book, for which, I need hardly say, the 
younger publishers have competed not a little. The 
fortunate firm is now ready, and announces the work 
for the coming autumn, to be issued in such elaborate 
fashion as to make the handsomest book of travels ever 
published. Well, I hope they will make a success of it. 
But I cannot, for the life of me, see what benefit is to 
be got by paying a writer a price which forbids a profit 
on the publication of his work, unless the work prove a 
phenomenal success. No doubt, Mr. Fitzgerald's book 






[Feb. 16, 1898. 


An intxodiiotofy •eqnaintanoe with 160 Birdi oommonlj fonnd 
in the woods, fields, end geidens ebont onr homes. Text by 
NsLTjx Bi.AiroHAK. Introduction by John Bubbouohs. 

Fifty-two Superb Colored Plates. 

From the Introduction, — ** When I began the stndy of birds 
I had aeoess to a oopy of Andnbon, which greatly stimnlated 
my interest in the pnrsnit ; bnt I did not hare the opera g^ass, 
and I ooold not take Aadaboa with me on my walks, as the 
reader may this yolnme, and he will find these eolored plates 
as helpfal as those of Andnbon or Wilson.*' 

New Edition, Octavo, Cloth, $2.00. 

Ibe itrMigth of tlM effort now bdng made to iatrodttoe the obeerr- 
sace of Bird Dav into the pablic achooU ot the United Btatee indicstee 
the valae plAoed by educeton upon the study of birde in etimuleting a 
lore of nature, and teaching leeeona in humane treatment of all llvuig 
thinn, and eultiyating powers of quick, exact obeenration in children's 
minds. Bird enthusiasm, once kindled, remains to the end one of the 
most interesting, enjoyeble, and healthful recreations, both at home 
and afield. 


Edited by Bliss Pbbbt, of Prinoeton UiuTersity. 
A ooUection of books of the highest standing in literatnre, 
well set forth, in good readable type, and on rongh-edged 
paper, with photograynre portrait foontispieoes, and taete- 
fnUy bound in fiezible oloth. 16mo, SO oents each, and fall 
leather with gilt tops, 60 oents eaeh. 

The Tolnmes now ready are devoted to 



mVINO, LINCOLN (^repoHnp). 

Othm" volumes in p rep ar aiion. 

DOUBLEDAY & McCLURE CO., Publishers, 

141-155 East Twenty-fifth Street, Nsw York. 

Dr. HiN SDALE^s Works. 

The American Qovernment, 


By B. A. Hinsdale, Ph.D., LL.D., Professor of the 

Soienoe and the Art of Teaching, in the University 

of Michigan. Cloth, 488 pages. Price, 61.25. 

Ths Onx Great Book on CiTies, the reooeiiized master- 
pieoe — is The American Goteenment, by Dr. Hinsdale. 
Those who read or study Hinsdale's Axerican Goyern- 
MENT oannot remain in ** ignoranoe of the prindples of our 

Training for Citizenship. 

By Dr. Hinsdale. 64 pages. MailiDg price, 10 cts. 

This Booklet is designed to show how to teaeh and how to 
stndy the interesting bnt perplexing snbjeet of Giries. 

Studies in Education, 

By Dr. B. A. Hinsdale. Cloth, 384 pages. Mailing 
priee, SI .00. 

A timely work of permanent Talne on important educa- 
tional topios. 

%* Postpaid to any address on receipt i^ price, 

WERNER School Book Company, 


Educational Publishsbs, 

378-388 Wabash Are. 


Leach, Shewell & Company's New Books. 


for Secondary Schools. 

By Webster Wells, S.B., Professor of Mathematics in the Massaehnsetts Institute of Technology. $1.10. 

Great care has been taken to state the yarious definitions and rules with accuracy, and eyery principle has 
been demonstrated with strict regard to the logical principles involyed. As a rule, no definition has been 
introduced until its use became necessary. 

The examples and problems haye been selected with great care, are ample in number, and thoroughly 
graded. They are especially numerous in the important chapters on Factoring, Fractions, and Radicals. 

In use in New York City High Schools; Detroit High Schools; and Lewis Institute, Chicago. 


Including: Illustrative Selections with Notes. 

By F. V. N. Painter, A.M., D.D., Professor of Modem Languages in Roanoke College; author oi**A History of 

Education," ** Introduction to English Literature," etc. Cloth, 498 pp., $1.25. 

The student is introduced to American Literature itself, with such helps as will giye him an intelligent 
appreciation of it. 

Introduced at once by Kansas City High Schools and many smaller places. 


(Students' Series of Ens:lish Classics.) 

Edited by Caroune Ladd Crew, B.A., Instructor in English, Friends' School, Wilmington, Delaware. Cloth, 
207 pp., 35 cents. 



CHICAQO: 378 WatMish Ave. 






^tttrarg Critiasm, ^mmwmn, anir Information. 

Volwn^ XXIV, 


CHICAGO, MARCH 1, 1898. 82/apear, ' I OppaiU Auditorium 


The Red-Bridge Neighborhood 

A NoTol. By MARIA LOUISE POOL, Anthor of 
*'Tli6Two8iaoiiMt'''*Mn.Genad,'*eto. lUnstnted 
Vy CLIFFORD CARLETON. Post 8to, Qoth, Oni»- 
moiial, $1.50. 

The Invisible Man 

A GfotMqne Romanoe. By H. G. WELLS, Anthor of 
** Tho War of the Worlds," '' The Time Machine,'* ete. 
Post 8to, Cloth, Ornamental, $1.00. 

The Saclc of Monte Carlo 

An AdTontare of To^y. By WALTER FRITH, 
Anthor of *'In Seaioh of Qniet." Poet 8to, Cloth, 
Ornamental, $1.25. 

A Year from a Reporter's Note- 

diers ol Fortune*'' ''The Prinoess Aline," "Three 
Qrbigos in Venesnela," ete. Ulnstrated. Poet 8to, 
Piper Bonrda, $1.50. 

Elements of Literary Criticism 

By CHARLES F. JOHNSON, Anthor of " English 
Words." 16mo, Cloth, 80 oents. 

Tlie Qreat Stone of Sardis 

ANorel. ByFRANK R. STOCKTON. Illnstrated by 
PETER NEWELL. Poet 8yo, Cloth, Ornamental, $1.50. 

A Legend of Camelot 

PSetnrea and Venes. By GEORGE DU MAURIER, 
Anthor and Illnstrator of "The Martian," "TrUby," 
•te. Large 4to, Cloth, Ornamental, $5.00. 

The War of the Worlds 

By_H. G. WELLS, Anthor of "The Time Machine," 
"Tlie InTisible Man," etc. With Illnstrations. Post 
8to, Goth, Ornamental. 

A Little Sister to the Wilderness 

A NoToL By LILIAN BELL, Anthor of " From a 
Gill's Point of View," "The Loto Affairs of an Old 
Maid," ete. New Edition. 16mo, Cloth, Ornamental, 


ABomanee. By ROBERT W. CHAMBERS. PoetSyo, 
Ckth, Omunental, $1.25. 

Spun -Yarn 

Sea Stories. By MORGAN ROBERTSON. Illnstrated. 
Post 8to, Cloth, Omamental, $1.25. 

The Lion of Janina 

Or, The Last Days of the JanlMarlea. A Turkish 
NoTel. By M AURUS JOKAI, Anthor of " The Green 
Book," "Black Diamonds," etc. Translated by R. 
NISBET BAIN. 16mo, Cloth, Ornamental, $1.25. 

The Wooing of Malkatoon : 

Two Poems. By LEW WALLACE, Anthor of " Ben 
Hnr," " The Prince of India." " The Boyhood of Christ." 
etc. ninstrated by F. V. DU MONO and J. K. 
WEGUELIN. 8to, Qoth, Ornamental, Deckel Edges 
and Gilt Top, $2.50. 


ANoTcl. By S. R.CROCKETT. Dlnstiated by T. DE 
THULSTRuP. Post 8to, Cloth, Ornamental, $1.50. 

International Monetary 

By HENRY B. RUSSELL. 8to, Goth, $2.50. 

The Student's Motley 

The Rise of the Dutch RepnbUc. By JOHN LOTH- 
ROP MOTLEY. Condensed, with Introdnction and 
Notes and an Historical Sketch of the Dutch People 
from 1584 to 1897, by WILLIAM ELLIOTT GRIFF£9. 
Profusely Illustratea. Crown 8to, Cloth, $1.75. 

Ine Vmtage 

A Romanoe of the Greek War of Independence. By 
E. F. BENSON, Anthor of *" Limitotions." " The Judg- 
ment Books," etc. With Illnstrations. Post 8yo, Cloth, 
Ornamental, $1.50. 

Ribstone Pippins 

A Country Tale. By MAXWELL GRAY, Anthor of 
" The Silence of Dean MaiUand," etc. Poet 8yo, Cloth, 
Ornamental, $1.25. 

The Fight for the Crown 

A NoTcl. By W. E. NORRIS, Anthor of " Clarissa 
Fnriosa," " BUly Bellew," etc. Post 8to, Cloth, Orna- 
mental, $1.25. 

Picturesque Sicily 

By WILLIAM AGNEW PATON. Ulnstrated from 
Photographs. Crown 8yo, Cloth, Ornamental, Uncut 
Edgee and GUt Top, $2.50. 

Edition de Luxe on Special Pftper; Uncut Edgee and Gilt 
Top, bound in gray paper with olotn back and paper label. 
Only 100 copies printeiil, of which 50 are for sale, $15.00. 

HARPER & BROTHERS, Publishers, New York and London. 



[March 1, 

Standard English Classics 

THIS SERIES has been undertaken in the 
belief that teachers of English in second- 
ary schools desire the English classics offered 
to their pnpils in a form that will not only 
fully meet the college requirements, but will at 
the same time have the flavor of real literature 
and not of the class-room only. 

The Series will, therefore, include the books 
prescribed by the Joint Conference of Colleges 
and Secondary Schools for reading and study, 
and other classics suitable for light work in 
secondary schools. They will be edited by 
competent scholars, with special reference to 
the college requirements. 

The first volumes of the Series have already 
been issued in paper and boards, but will here- 
after be bound in cloth. 

Tennyson's The Princess. 

Bdltod, with IntrodnoCioa aad VoiM»bj Albibt 8. Cook, ProleMor 
of tlM iBfliah liuigaac* and Utentiira la Tale Unit«nifcj. Cloth, 
187 pHMi 40 oeali. 

Carlyle's Essay on Burns. 

Edttod, wltti VolM, bj Chablm Laxm Hasiov, Ttaehor of ■ngllih 
iaI>iirfooHlfh8o]iool,TkllBiTor,lEMt. Boards, Mpagoa, SO oeots. 

Macaulay's Essay on Milton. 

Edited by H. A. Sum, Imtniclor la Bn^lih in T«lo Univonity. 
Paper, 82 peges, 25 oeots. 

Macaulay's Essay on Addison. • 

Xdited by H. A. Sum, Inatniotor in Bn^leh in Tale Unitenity. 

Dryden's Palamon and Arcite. 

IdMed by O. X. EHot, Jr., Inrtraofcor la Ki^illih, MorfM Sehool, 
Clinton, Coon. 

Sir Roger de Coverley Papers. 

From "The Speelator.** Bditedby MabtX. LnovnusBditorof 
BpenMT*! "Britoinait.** 

Colerids:e*s Ancient Mariner. 

Edited by L. B. Ome. 

Pope's Translation of the Iliad. 

BookB L, YL, XXIL, and XXIY. Edited by Wiluam Tattav. 

Qeorge Eliot's Silas Marner. 

Edited by R. AoBLAma WrrKAM, Teacher of Xi^^iah in Litta High 
School, Somenrille, Ifaaa. 







Houghton, Mifflin & Co/s March Books. 


Stories of Tnutfatlantio TzaToL Bj Hemrt B. Ful- 
ler, author of « The Cliif-Dwellers," *• The Cheyalier 
of Peoaieri-YaDi/' etc. 16mo, $1.25. 

Four ohanning ttories of Italy and Enfflaad : The Ckeateet 
of These.-- What Tonth Can Do.— The Pilgrim Sons.— Pat- 
qiiale*8 Pictore. Not only aie they good stories, hat Mr. 
Fnller's liteiaiy art lends to them a peonliar attraetton. 


By Bret Harte. 16mo, 91.25. 

Eight stories, some of them located in California, some in 
Eiurope, all told with the sore tooch and the liteimry skill 
which make Mr. Harte so marrelloas a story-teUer. 


Biographical and critical papers on Pierre Loti, Gay de 
Maupassant, Zola, de Gonoourt, Charcot, Paul Boar- 
get, de Yogtttf, Bruneti^re, Lemaitre, Anatole France, 
and Madame Blanc Bentzon. By Mdlle. Tetta 
Blaze de Burt. Crown 8yo. [/n AprilJ] 


By Mrs. Florence Earle Coates. 12mo, $1.25. 

Not a few of theee poems are well known to readers of the 
best periodicals. All of them are thooghtfol and lyrical, with 
fine variety of theme and distinct poetic charm. 


A most delightful autobiographical book. By Thomas 
Wentworth Hiooinson, giving the most interesting 
experiences of his remarkably interesting life. 12ino^ 


By Helen Choate Prihoe, author of '* The Stosy of 
Christine Rochefort "and « A Transatlantic Chate- 
laine." 16mo, $1.25. 

like Mis. Prince's prerioos norels, this is a story of modem 
French life, the scene being for a while at Psris, later and 
principally in Tooraine. The characters include the heroine, 
who marries a wealthy Jew to restore the fortonss of her 
family, a very worldly cortf, a young Tfaglishwan studying 
Frendi, and a young American studying art. The story is 
bright, readable, and ought to be a popular summer book. 


A fresh, attractive account of the Pilgrims in England, 
Holland, and New England, by Rev. Dr. W. E. 
Griffis, author of " Brave Little Holland," ** Japan," 
etc. With Illustrations. 16mo, $1.25. Small 16mo, 
in Riverside Library for Young People, 75 cents. 

Dr. Qriffis has visited the England and Holland homes of 
the Pilgrims, and his book, with excellent pictures, is alto- 
gether interesting. 

For $aU by book$eUeri. Sent, prepaid ^ an receipt of price^ 6y 






The Building of the British Empire 

108-1806. The SlQvy of BnclaBd'B Growth ffom EliHibetli 
toVi«ioffUL By Ax.tbxd'AomabStokt, author of '* The 
life of Joha UumU," oto. In2Tolt. Noe. 00 and 51 in 
tfM^*Stoi7oftheNelioiie"ieriee. With orer 100 porteaiti 
aid jPaetfatJa— from oontemporafy puintik Lavge 13iiio« 
elod^ eaeh $1.60 ; half leather, gUt top, each $1.76. 

The Story of Modern France. 

in^l896. By AjnxKfe Lkboh, Hemher of the Chamber of 
Demitieo. No. 49 in the '*Stoiy of the Nations" aeriee. 
KDy illnstfated. Large 12mo, oloUi, $1JX) ; half leather, 
ph top, $1.76. 

Bird Studies. 

Aa AeeooBt of the Land Birda of Kaitern North Ameiiea. 
B^WnxiAM S.D.S00TT. With orer 170 illnatiatioBS from 
onfinal photognn^ha. Qoarto. 

Jewish Religious Life after the 


in the oonne of the Ameriean Leotores on the 
Hiatory of Beligiona. By the Rer. T. K. Crxtkx, M.A., 
DJ)., Oriel IVofeoior of the Interpretation of the Holy 
Sor ip i nr e hi the Univerrity of Ozford, and Canon of Boehea- 
fear. ISmo. 
TketwoprarloaiToliiiiiMiBtlMMriMan: **Biiddlilam: ItsHiitoiy 

•■d litenteie,** by Prol T. W. Bhtb-Datim ; and **The RuHgJont of 

WmIU v PipcpiM," by Prof. Dahxml O. BsnraoM. 

Thirty Years of American Finance 

A Short Finamrial Hietory of the GoTemment and People of 
te United States, 1866-^. By Alkzandbb Daha NoTSS, 
aathor of the New York Kv€ming PoH'b ''Free Coinage 
Oatnehiart " in the eampaign of 1896. 12mo, $1.25. 

Open Mints and Free Banking. 

By William Bbouoh, anthor of ''The Natnral Law of 
Money," eto. 12mo, $1.26. 

Some Common Errors of Speech. 

Bj Altbxd G. Comftoh, ProfeoMir in College of the Ciij 

of New York. ISmo. 

A Tohime of soggMtloiM to yooiiff writen for the ATcridlng of oertain 
dHMS of erron, mth trginplm of Md and of good uMge. 

A Simple Qrammar of English 

now in Use. 

ByJ<»v Baxlb, A.M., LL.D., ProfeMor of Anglo-Saxon, 
Umrenity of Ozford. author of **JBngli8h Pioae: Iti Ele- 
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In the Midst of Life. 

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Commonwealth/' etc. 

CONTENTS Volume I. : Pbbface — Chronological Table — Introduction. 

Book I. The Reyolntion and Modem Franee. 
Book II. The Constitution and the Chief of the State. 
Volume II. : Book III. The Parliamentary System. 
Book IV. Political Parties. 
Each volume contains an adequate index. 

**Mt. Bodley 's considerable work on France is a book of political philosophy, but one in which the philosophy 
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Stories from the Classic Literature of 

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The Study of Children and Their 
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Retold for Youko Ptoplx. 
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Cloth, 16mo, $1.00. 

, M.A. 
, M.A. 

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The Celebrity. 

fiy WiNSTOv Churchill. Cloth, 1 2mo, $ 1 .60. 

Unoommonly bright, fall of entertaining incidents, through 
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Bo.»«^l«u«cK. THE GOSPEL OF FREEDOM. oioth.«^8vo. 

The motif IB that of personal independence in its appeal especially to the restless, eager, egotistic modem woman. 

S?iort Stories rvith very marked though widely varying " local color.** 

Where the 

Trade Wind Blows. 

Bj Mis. Schutlbr Crowkinshisld. 

Cloth, 12mo, $1.60. 
A ^owfang pictare of Wert Indian life. 

Tales Told in a 

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Cloth, 16mo. (In Press.) 
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By Gborob Cart Eoolbstok. 

Cloth, 12mo, $1.60. 
Rapid, Tigoroos, full of the aoldifer*! life. 

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY, No. 66 Fiftli Avenue, New York. 



[March 1, 1898. 

D. Appleton & Company's New Books 


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Sflripime'i The New Psyohology.— Waldstein's The 
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. . 155 




The recently compiled statistics of the United 
States Treasury, relating to our imports for the 
fiscal year which ended with last Jane, offer a 
mine of valuable material for the worker in 
economic science and the student of commercial 
or industrial problems. With the mass of thia 
material we are not at present concerned, but 
the figures relating to ** books and printed mat- 
ter " are of such interest to the constituency of 
The Dial as to bespeak a few words of com- 
ment* The following table gives the value of 
both free and dutiable imports of the class now 
considered as passed through the custom-housea 
of eleven customs dbtricts. 

niflTRirr Boom ato Pm«tid Matth. 

uiBXRiCT. j,^,^ Dutiable, 

New York $1,810,925 $1,110,476 

Boston 134,866 97,888 

Philadelphia 66,477 44,384 

Chicago 64,602 88,912 

St. Look 47,642 2,174 

Baltimore 21,037 10,765 

Proridenoe 26,808 488 

Vermont 20,768 3,648 

(Snoimiati 12,977 2,916 

NewHayen 15,128 567 

Bfimieapdlie 10,860 1,009 

Total for eleren difltrids, $1,721,474 $1,307,675 
Total for entire ooontry, 1,806,476 1,373,230 

It will be seen that nearly all of the printed 
matter imported is entered in the eleven dis- 
tricts above given, and the first noticeable fact 
revealed by inspection of the figures is that very 
few books pass through custom-houses west of 
the Mississippi River. Less than five per cent 
of the whole is specifically unaccounted for in 
the above table, and of this five per cent about 
one-fifth comes to California ports of entry. 
These facts do not mean, of course, that few 
books from abroad find their way into the trans- 
Mississippi section of the country, but rather 
that our foreign printed matter, which naturally 
comes across the Atlantic, is mostly entered at 
Eastern ports, and afterwards distributed by 
importing booksellers and library agents. It 
must also be remembered that the claim of New 
York to three-fourths of the total importation 
by no means indicates that all of these books 
are intended for local consumption. Still, it is 
only natural to expect that New York, Boston, 
Philadelphia, and Chicago should be, in about 
this order, the four chief ports of entry for 

THE DIAL [M«okl, 




itMidLi snprwiie in modem eritiobm. The Freneh 
■mid is i2t natura eritieal; the intellectaalitj of that 
ttmilry is preeminenlij systemalie. CriticiBm, to 
ksre the permftneaey of srt, most be synthetie; there 
most be itfder, preeisioiiy laeidity ; the mind must be 
•xaet and mathematicaL Whenerer the moUey 
•iray of disorganized thought oomes under the direc- 
tion of sach a power, there most necessarily be the 
orderly march of ideas. This has been the living 
faree of the French mind in the progress of the 
world. It has giren a continuity to its own litera- 
tsre woA as no other modem literature possesses ; 
lad, further, it has crystallized and generaliaedy in 
the modem deydopment, the mass of data which the 
fererie of the North and the metaphor of the South 
have placed at its door. I do not mean to say that 
the oUier modem literatures have not had critical 
periods in which to stop and think, and thus, with 
the elimination of insignificant detafl, to catch the 
^irit of their drifting, and to prepare themselTes 
anew for that utterance which is but the voice of 
flieir age. If we look at this closely, however, it 
Mens to me that we must certainly see that with the 
Teatonie race the periods of profitable criticism are 
the ezoeptimi. In the ** Qnerelle des Anciens et des 
Modemes," which is notiiing but the struggle of tem- 
peramental forces in literature and in life, we find all 
•ense of proportion and perspectiTC lost to England 
and to Giermany. Lessing stands a monument to the 
refutation of that statement ; and if a man were not 
known by the company he keeps, I should be 
inclined to include Addison. It may be thought 
strange tiiat Pope is not included here ; but to me 
it seems that in his attempt to lie on the bed that 
Boileau laid for him he is anotiier example of a 
i^rit out of his time — too shallow or too expedient 
to serve as trae critic. 

The critics of America, England, or the continent, 
vho hold to-day the ear of the people, are those that 
have drank deep and copious draughts at the in- 
•{nred fount of French criticism : Matthew Arnold, 
Mr. G^eorge Saintsbury, Mr. Edmund Gosse; Dr. 
Georg Brandos, whose << HauptstrOmungen in der 
litteratur des XIX. Jahrhnnderts " has been epoch- 
■aking throughout Germany and Scandinavia. 

The daim for the superiority of French criticism 
does not ex neeesiikUe speak for the intellectual 
loperiority of the race, — quite the contrary. The 
abandon of untold riches which characterizes the 
Teutonic race may be preferred to the orderly 
arrangement of limited wares ; our sympathy may 
be with the Goth, but we cannot refuse our admi- 
ratiim to the classic poise and hauteur of the effete 
Latin, with his blood tingling with the despair of the 
Vandal and the impetuous ardor of the Celt It is 
merely the question of creation .or exegesis: Jesus 
(9irist will always stand for more than Strauss or 

As said above, it is the love of synthesis, of 
erderly review, that is characteristic of French life 
in letters. I know of no nation that is so fond of 
Teeapttnlationandof inventory of stock in trade. As 

early as tiie middle of the sixteenth century, we 
stand not inf requentiy in the presence of such books as 
<< Beceuil de TOrigine de la Langue et Po^ie Fran- 
^aise," in which we have extracts and tiie glimmer 
of critical generalization wluch is so brilliant with 
them now. It was the same love of order and epi* 
tome that caused the epigrammatic French to oen- 
ceive the first newspaper in the modem sense of the 
word, the << Ghtfette de France," whieh appeared at 
tiie be^nning of the seventeenth century under no 
less a sponsor than Cardinal Richelieu, whose devo- 
tion to centralization is typical of all which that 
idea stands f or ; it is the animus of the French Acad- 
emy, where the validity of censorship in literature 
is vested in its constructed models ; it is what makes 
practicable the sovereignty of kings, witii their 
motto of r^iaif e^est mai incised on a background 
oiflmtr-dMis ; and, above all, it is the reason tiiait, 
despite the intellectuality of individual French Pro- 
testants, the creative period of the nation has been 
under the influence of Holy Church, whose theme 
and purpose is centralization and synthesis. 

Coordination and the harmony of related parts 
is what the French mind has sought, and according 
to which it has worked. There has always been sym- 
metry of the various faculties. Eclecticism, to the 
exclusion of one, has indeed, in this sweep of years, 
occurred ; but, from the << Principes de litt^rature" 
of Charles Bi^ux, which were derived from the 
study of Aristotle, and, in connection with Winckel- 
mann's **G^chichte der Kunst des Alterthums," 
may have influenced Lessing's <' Laokoon," to Vic- 
tor Cousin's '< Le Vrai, le Beau, et le Bien," there 
are but sporadic suggestions of it 

This explains to us why those most picturesque 
historical summaries of the Freneh have treated of 
revolutions at times of storm and stress ; why the 
historical genius has sought medissval themes at 
times of Romantic unrest ; why, during periods of 
classical reaction, it has sought its inspiration in 
sunny Ghreece. In explanation of this I am tempted 
to cite the revolutionary themes of Thiers, of 
Tocqueville, of Mignet, of Michelet, of Edgar 
Quinet ; but I refrain, through length of tities, from 
doing so. Suffice it to say that tibie revolutions of 
England, America, France, Greece, and Italy have 
received at least fair treatment in their hands. 
Victor Duray's classical histories, which are now so 
popular throughout Europe and America, were made 
possible through the quiescent Romantic fervor, 
which, just preceding it, had seen the advent of his- 
tories of the Crusades and of the Middle Ages. 

The philosophy and science of France have been 
no exception to this agreement. Momentary aber- 
rations in philosophy, such as the Port Royal letters 
of Pascal, which were directed against the Jansen- 
ists, with proper perspective, receive proper value. 
And its science may yet have to declare, aufond de 
see ereusets, as M. Paul Adam sa]^ the discovery of 
the divine principle in art, ** music, painting, and 
poetry, as the triple reflection of one ceotral light" 

Glkn L. Swiogktt. 

THE DIAIi [Mtrohi, 




Amerioan rowing and rowing men should prove 
a welcome and instmotive addition to the pres- 
ent work. 

Thus far the various articles seem to be as a 
rule reasonably full and explicit, when we con- 
sider the necessity the editor and publishers 
are under of attaining a due degree of compre- 
hensiveness of range and treatment without 
expanding the work to an unconscionable num- 
ber of volumes. The term ** sport " is a very 
elastic one, and it would not be at all difficult 
to swell a sporting encydopsedia to the formid- 
able dimensions of a Dictionary of National 
Biography. No man is more enthusiastic, and 
on occasion more fondly loquacious in praise of 
his particular hobby, than the genuine sports- 
man. Your golfer or ^* wheelman," for instance 
(as so many know to their cost), will go on cheer- 
fnUy for hours together on their respective pet 
topics when once the tide of their eloquence is 
fairly set flovring ; and we have no doubt that 
the Earl of Suffolk and Berkshire has found 
his volunteer contributors very much less diffi- 
cult to secure than to restrain. In one import- 
ant respect, of course, the volume gains by the 
manifest zeal of the writers and their personal 
interest in their several themes. It is unusu- 
ally readable throughout, for an encyclopsedia; 
and the perfunctory note of the mere hack 
writer is seldom manifest. 

On the score of insufficient and superficial 
treatment of an important topic, we have but 
one special complaint to enter. Mr. A. Alex- 
ander's article on Gymnastics seems to us sur- 
prisingly brief and meagre in view of the 
general thoroughness of the volume. In the 
entirely inadequate space of two pages and a 
half he briefly defines his general term, and 
then proceeds to string together some sixteen 
neceBsarily indefinite paragraphs on Greek, 
Swedish, German, Danish, Bnssian, Spanish, 
American, English, and Finn gymnastics, and 
the Educational, Recreative, Acrobatic, and 
liedical systems. We may note in passing, by 
wi^ of showing the disproportionateness of Mr. 
Alexander's essay, that the writer on Croquet 
has devoted five pages to that simple and mori- 
bund game ; while even that mild form of the 
diase. Butterfly and Moth Catching, comes in 
for over a page and a half of animated descrip- 
tion, at the hands of the same authority. So 
we think Mr. Alexander may justly be charged 
either with injudiciously attempting to cover 
too much ground in the scanty space allotted to 
Urn, or else, if in the matter of space he was 
left to his own discretion, with underrating and 

slighting a very important subject. As thirty*^ 
seven pages are given to Cricket, twenty-three 
to Football, twenty-five to Cycling, and twenty* 
three to Angling, we should say that fifteen 
pages to Gymnastics would have been some- 
thing like a proper allotment. Mr. Alexander 
is usually accurate, so far as he goes ; but in one 
instance we think he has made a strikingly 
erroneous statement. In comparing the Swed- 
ish gymnastics with the Finnish, he animad- 
verts upon the ** jerky" style of the former 
school. Now if our conception of the theory of 
the excellent system of Fretuebungen known 
as the Swedish Movements be measurably cor- 
rect, ** jerkiness " is about the last quality to be 
predicated of them. '' Don*t jerk I " «' Don't 
move too fast I " — is the constantly repeated 
injunction of every teacher of the Swedish exer- 
cises who has mastered even the alphabet of 
the system. 

The plan of publication of this work, in parts, 
has been adopted, the editor says, in the *^ con- 
fident expectation that those who buy the ear- 
lier numbers wiU never rest satisfied without 
the complete series." The initial volume cer- 
tainly goes far to warrant this belief. Mechan- 
ically it is one of the handsomest productions 
of the kind we have ever had the pleasure of 
handling. The illustrations, comprising twenty 
full-page photogravures and a great number of 
vignettes, serve well the dual purpose of adorn- 
ment and instruction. It is a really sumptuous 
work, possessing uses and attractions that 
sportsmen and lovers of fine books generally 
will find hard to resist. ^ q^ j^ 

Thb New England Primbr.* 

Mr. Ford does not succeed in impressing 
his weight as an authority upon his history of 
"The New England Primer," in spite of a 
formidable array of facts and evidences of con- 
siderable study. Both seem to be of too recent 
acquisition for thorough assimilation, while the 
writer himself is not in sufficient sympathy with 
his subject. Yet there is no doubt of his con- 
scientiousness, and this, with the part played by 
the little book in the formation of our nationfd 
character, makes the work one of much interest 
and considerable importance. 

" The New England Primer," this treatise 
discloses, was the combined reading book and 

*Thb New Englaio) Pbimbb: A History of Its Origin 
and Development. Edited by Paul Leioester Ford. New 
York: Dodd, Mead ^b Co. 




leligioas manaal placed in the hands of every 
young Ameriean in the North from the time of 
its first publication, about the year 1690, until 
its practical supersession a hundred and fifty 
years later. During this time, Mr. Ford esti- 
mates, not less than three millions of copies 
were printed for use in America alone, at the 
rate of twenty thousand a year. Every copy 
contained an Abeoedarium, a Syllabarium, and 
an illustrated Alphabet containing such familiar 
verses as 

Young Obadias, 
Davidf Josia»t 
All toere Pious, 

Zacheus he 

Did climb the Tree 

His Lord to see. 

These were followed by the ** Exhortation unto 
His Children," attributed to John Bogers, to 
be referred to later in this article; a Cate- 
chism ; and, sometimes, the Lord's Prayer, the 
Apostles' Creed, and the Ten Commandments. 
The most notable original contribution of the 
Primer to literature is found for the first time 
in a London edition dated 1781, given anony- 
mously and without punctuation, as follows : 

Now I lay me down to sleep 
I pray the Lord my soul to keep 
If I should die be/ore I wake 
I pray the Lord my soid to take — 

which, having been included in all subsequent 
reprints, came to assume something of the 
importance of the Lord's Prayer itself. 

The word primer is derived by Professor 
Skeat from JPrime^ the first of the canonical 
hours, by the addition of the English suffix er. 
A book of hours would naturally take its name 
from the first of them, and Mr. Ford himself 
shows that in 1490 «^ A larger book of Catho- 
licism (^«ic^ . . . was the well-known ^ Book of 
Hours '; which, translated from the Latin text 
into English, was called * The Piymer of Salis- 
bury Use.' " His surmise concerning the word, 
set forth thus, *^ The authorized primers were 
not school books being rather primary — hence 
< primer ' — manuals of church service," is an 
unfortunate and unnecessary guess. Etymology 
aside, Henry YIII. is found authorizing tixe 
publication of these little books both for and 
against the Church of Rome, and they were 
afterward condemned by the Council of Trent. 
Until the fiight of James U., the English mon- 
archs successively published their own and for- 
bade the use of their predecessors' primers. 
About the year 1686, one Benjamin Harris, 
having embroiled himself with the British gov- 
ernment by printing some ultra Protestant 
pamphlets, came to Massachusetts. He it was 
who had published, according to one authority. 

'« The Protestant Tutor " before his flight, aad 
Mr. Ford also g^ves him the distinction af 
bringing out the first American newspaper — 
called ^* Public Occurrences," and suppressed 
by proclamation almost before it was made 
public. The first edition of '« The New En- 
gland Primer " was printed for Harris ; it bears 
strong resemblance to the other work from his 
hand ; he was such a writer and rhylnester as 
would be likely to deliver himself of the con- 
tents of the two books ; and there seems to be 
no reason for disputing his authorship of the 

The Primer filled a want in the life of New 
England. The Puritan, as Mr. Ford points 
out, sought book-learning chiefly for the sake 
of reading The Book — *^ the single book," as 
Lowell says, '^ with whose language he is inti- 
mate." To this end, the mingling of spelling, 
reading, and dogmatic theology in the Primer 
contributed in the safest and most practical way. 
Its popularity was both immediate and endur- 
ing, as has been shown. But the editor here 
misses-a golden opportunity, in not giving some 
notion of the geographicad extent of its influ- 
ence. He mentions, casually enough, that it 
made its way into parts of New York and 
Pennsylvania. Whedier the Primer penetrated 
into the other colonies, and what, if any, influ- 
ence it had there, is not set forth, nor is there 
anything to show that any investigation was 
made in that behalf. Still, its circulation was 
so great that it is a matter for surprise that 
not more than forty examples of all the impres- 
sions made during the seventeentii and eigh- 
teenth centuries have come down to us. All 
that are known to be extant are described in 
this book, and their prices, running into the hun- 
dreds of doUars, givoi in detail. There seems 
to be no possible reason for not mentioning the 
price they commanded at the time of their pub- 
lication as well. Mr. Ford attributes the 
scarcity of these early examples to the natural 
destructiveness of childhood and ** the slight 
value set by adults on children's books of tl^ir 
own time." A more potent factor would be 
their ^^ slight value " in the most literal senses 
— their exceeding cheapness, commonness, and 
flimsiness ; for New England thrift can be de- 
pended upon to prevent the destruction of any- 
thing costly, now as then. 

Mr. FoihI's errors of detail are many, and 
most conspicuous on the side of religious terms. 
On one hand, he is addicted to the use of the 
ofiFensive word ** Romish"; on the oilier, he 
insists not only upon confounding Puritans and 



Sopwraiists, bat upon treating the terms as 
abaolutely synonymous. Then, though the 
Puritans of the Colony of Massachusetts Bay 
were unquestionably members of the Church of 
England, he goes on to style them ** the dis- 
senters of America," a most astonishing de- 
scription of men who held to a church estab- 
lished by law, and persecuted all who did not 
come within it. By way of completing the 
oydle, the Church of England is styled ^^ Epis- 
copalian," even in ante-Beyolutionary times. 
A more excusable blunder makes Greorge II. 
father to Greorge III., instead of grandfather. 
But the commentator goes wrong again in 
speaking of the familiar and highly orthodox 
couplet, — 

Whales in the sea 
God's voice obey, — 

as containing a ** somewhat difficult rhyme." 
If knowledge of scores of similar rhymes in 
Harris's day does not suffice, Mr. Henry Sweet's 
statement is authoritative : that sea and obey 
were perfect rhymes until ** the middle of the 
18th cent.," and, as a matter of course, until a 
hfter day in the colonies. The dirision, in the 
SyUabarium and elsewhere, of words like ** be- 
ne-fi-ci-al" and ** temp-ta-ti-on," should have 
shown the writer that he was dealing with the 
pnmunciation of another day than his own. 
There is no good reason, at the present day, 
for wasting sympathy over the Puritan babes 
who had to learn by rote the tremendous doc- 
trines and uncouth doggerel of the Primer ; but 
it is a serious matter, nevertheless, and Mr. 
Ford's continued sprightiiness of manner jars 
from page to page. Most unfortunate is the 
eoUeetion of ancient doctrinal jests on pages 
52 and 68, used as a climax to the *^ Introduc- 
tion " and quite unworthy the dignity of both 
book and writer. 

It is a pleasure to turn to Mr. Ford's better 
manner, as an example of which his treatment 
of the fables clustering around John Bogers, 
first of the Marian martyrs, may be cited. The 
^Exhortation unto His Children " of the Primer 
is prefaced by the time-honored statement that 
^ His wife, with nine small children, and one at 
her Breast, follow'd him to the Stake," the 
ambiguity of which phrase gave rise to a con- 
troversy, some centuries in duration, over the 
somber of the offspring, some engravers group- 
bg nine and some ten children about their 
devoted mother. Mr. Ford shows that the 
verses were not written by Bogers at all, but by 
Bobert Smith, another martyr ; he quotes Foxe 
to prove that Bogers's wife and children were 

not witnesses of his execution, and settles the 
number of the progeny by a further quotation 
from the mariyrologist wherein the children 
are said to be ^ eleven in number, ten able to 
go, and one sucking at the breast," reconciling 
tiiis with Bogers's own testimony that he had 
ten children by showing that the eleventh came 
into the world unknown to him after he had 
been shut up tight in jail. 

The feature of chief interest in the work, 
particularly for those who have seen but do not 
possess the original Primer, is the faithful 
reproduction of its rude typography, paper, and 
woodcuts, — the latter so extremely crude that 
in some cases the picture of a king, used as a 
frontispiece to the Primer, was not only made 
to serve for his successor, but, the Bevolution 
intervening, a portrait of Greorge III. actuaUy 
did duty for John Hancock I And as a proof 
of the innocency of our forefathers, the cut of 
a Queen from a pack of playing cards — ** the 
Devil's picture-book " — was used as an iUus- 
tration in one edition of the Primer without 
rebuke, and presumably without intention. 
Mechanically, the work of Mr. Ford's volume 
is admirably done throughout. 

Wallace de Gboot Bice. 


The concluding volume of Mr. H. D. Traill's 
'^ History of Social Life in England " is cast 
upon exactly the same lines as the earlier ones, 
and possesses the same excellences as well as 
many of the defects which they revealed. The 
comments already made in The DiALf are 
therefore applicable to it ; — the various essays 
differ widely in originality and style, and there 
is a certain amount of repetition as a result of 
treating each department of social life in sever- 
alty : some of the writers have burdened their 
pages too heavily with bare statements of fact, 
instead of giving the vital conclusions which 
they had drawn from scientific study, while 
other writers have omitted the facts necessary 
to sustain their propositions properly; some- 
times a tone of authority pervades an essay, 

* A History of Social Lifb in Enolakd. A Record of 
the ProgresB of the People in Religion, Laws, Learning, Arte, 
Lidnetry, Commeroe, Science, Literature, and Manners, from 
the Earliest Times to the Present Day. By yarions Writers. 
Edited by H. D. Traill, D.C.L. Volome VI., From the Bat- 
tle of Waterloo to the General Election of 1885. Nev York : 
G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

t See The Dial, Vol. xvii.. No. 206, pp. 15-17 ; vol. »x.. 
No. 220, pp. 87-88 ; vol. xx., No. 235, pp. 203-205 ; yol. zni.. 
No. 263, pp. 329-331. 



[March 1, 

and in other instances the subject-matter is left 
in a clearly incomplete condition; there are 
even contradictory statements made by the 
writers of different essays. Yet the work is 
excellently well done in ihe main ; even better 
than in the earlier volumes — with the possible 
exception of the articles on Agriculture by Mr. 
Bear, and three out of four of Miss Bateson's 
essays on Manners and Customs. 

The real social life of England — the condi- 
tion of the vast mass of the population and the 
progress of democracy — is as sparingly treated 
in this as in the other volumes ; and this be- 
comes a more serious defect in the volume 
which deals with recent times. There is lack- 
ing, indeed, that unity of purpose which alone 
is consbtent with the diversity of plan involved 
in a work of such composite character as this 
one. There is needed, first, a clear statement 
of the facts which will show in a tangible man- 
ner the way in which present conditions and 
institutions differ from those of an earlier pe- 
riod ; and second, an explanation of the reasons 
why certain results have followed particular 
causes. Such is the plan which alone wiU 
justify the rewriting of history, and such a plan 
is wanting in the present volume as a whole. 
It is followed out, however, by Professor Mon- 
tague in an essay which is a gem of its kind — 
on the History of Law. Miss Bateson's ac- 
count of educational progress in the present 
century is also planned on the same lines. 

The central feature of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, beyond all question, is the material prog- 
ress, particularly of England and America, and 
in a less degree of the world in general. The 
present volume of <' Social England '' should 
therefore have given this fact its due promi- 
nence ; and the various articles written each by 
an eminent specialist, — on trade and agricul- 
ture, art and architecture, language and liter- 
ature, public health, morals, manners, the de- 
velopment of jurisprudence, the church, the 
army, the navy, science, education, religion, 
and so forth, — should have shown the relation 
of industrial forces to the other departments of 
social life. In a word, all the contributors to 
this volume should have had clearly in mind a 
definite theory of social progress, and it should 
have been their purpose to explain the action 
and reaction between the different elements of 
our civilization. In this way their efforts would 
have directly contributed to the solution of the 
social problems of the day and to the establish- 
ment of real democracy, both in England and 
his country. Mr. Riddell should have at least 

enumerated some of the *^ many social and eco- 
nomic as well as inventive " forces which resulted 
in the development of the textile industries 
(page 69), and have explained why the indus- 
trial revolution was most marked in these in- 
dustries, as well as why it antedated all others 
by nearly a generation. Professor Symes 
should have told us why it was that *' as lately 
as 1796 England adopted a system which, in 
less than forty years, reduced almost all agri- 
cultural laborers to a position of pauperism " 
(p. 219), why '^ the Poor Law authorities of 
London began carting off waggon-loads of pau- 
per children to Lancashire," and why these 
and other children were ^' swept into factories 
when they could hardly walk " (p. 217). Dr. 
Colville states (p. 243) that before the close 
of 1833 Scotland secured her Municipal Cor- 
porations Bill, in advance of England; but 
some one of the contributors to this history of 
England in the nineteenth century might prop- 
erly have given more than half a dozen lines to 
the problems of city life and administration, 
and to their influence on civilization. 

These instances are taken at random, but 
they will serve to show the class bias and the 
political 'affiliations of the writers in Mr. 
Traill's company. In his exceUent history of 
law to which reference has been made. Pro- 
fessor Montague not only sets an example to 
his colaborers, but he imposes on them a duty 
which they entirely fail to perform. He em- 
phasizes the fact that the nineteenth century is 
a period of direct legislation, and that a great 
part of our modem statutes has been concerned 
with what it is convenient to call public law ; 
and he goes on to consider those enactments 
which have altered the constitution of the courts 
of justice and the forms of procedure, — have 
transformed ancient courts, multiplied new 
ones, amended rules of procedure, and more 
than once revised the whole administration of 
justice. He states, — what everyone knows, — 
that old departments of administration have 
been reorganized, new departments established, 
and the entire system of local government been 
recast; but he adds, almost facetiously (p. 
470), that enactments relating to subjects of 
this class, ^^ such as the New Poor Law, the 
Municipal Corporations Acts, the Public 
Health Acts, and so forth, are touched upon in 
other chapters of the present volume." 

Certainly no movement has been more vital 
to the social life of the people of England in 
this century than that for the reduction of the 
hours of labor; but the subject is barely 




(^toaohed upon" in a paragraph of a dosen 
(p. 428). The Christian Socialists are 
widi even less, and Henry Hunt is 
not even mentioned. The Chartist movement 
fares a bit better, receiving nearly two pages ; 
but its nominal leader is spoken of as an empty 
braggart (p. 116), and a typical demagogue of 
great physical prowess and considerable ora- 
torical g^fts (p. 224). This hardly indicates 
a critical examination of the relation between 
eanse and effect in social life, or a scientific 
explanation of the social progress England has 
been making in this centnry. Indeed, there is 
bat little in the body of the work to justify the 
titles to two of the chapters at least, — ^^ The 
Bnle of the Middle Class " (1846-1865), and 
"The Succession of Democracy" (1865-1886). 
Why the population of England has trebled 
daring the century, while that of France has 
remained stationary ; what has been the actual 
increase in nationad wealth, and how this enor- 
mous increase in the supply of the comforts of 
life has been distributed ; why some other dis- 
tribution has not occurred, or could now be 
brought about ; what were the peculiar features 
of middle-class government, and why they were 
not permanent, but were succeeded by demo- 
cratic ^Mnfluences and tendencies"; how we 
are to secure the blessings of democracy and at 
the same time avoid its dangerous tyrannies ; 
what relation there is and should be between 
the church and the army, and how far physical 
conflict hinders moral elevation ; what are the 
limits of public and national education as a 
socializing force and a power for uplifting man- 
kind ; what are the present benefits of muni- 
cipal ownership, and what the necessary limits 
of state activity in industrial enterprises ; — 
these and similar subjects are the ones on which 
a reader will seek for guidance in the succes- 
sive volumes of " Social England," and more 
particularly in the closing volume of the series. 
There is one all-important social truth which 
the disjointed character of this work helps to 
enforce, namely, that there must be a certain 
correlation of parts in all social progress : our 
morals must match our money matters, or both 
wm go wrong. Slavery, and ^ven serfdom, are 
quite incompatible with large factories ; they 
cannot exist side by side. Poverty and democ- 
racy are equally strangers : if we would have 
the one we must abolish the other. If we would 
preserve to mankind the blessings of great 
wealth which the material progress of the nine- 
teenth century has placed at our disposal, not 
only our laws of property but our notions of 

right and wrong and our ideals of life and con- 
duct must be elevated to a far higher level. It 
is not necessary to mortify the flesh, and clothe 
the body in sackcloth and ashes, because lux- 
urious living tempts a few to abuse the bless- 
ings of wealth ; the higher intellectual tastes 
and sesthetic pleasures should be developed. 
The use of wealth in beautifying the home, 
surrounding it with flowers, filling it with books 
which inspire, and making it a joy to the pass- 
ing wayfarer as well as to the welcome guest ; 
the use of wealth in cleaning the streets, ex- 
tending the parks, erecting pleasant school 
buildings, and making the city an attractive as 
well as a safe abiding place, — these, and others 
like them, are the conditions of progress in the 
twentieth century. 

Abthub Bubnham Woodford. 

Thb Study of Races.* 

The second volume of RatzePs important 
work on ^^ The History of Mankind " (the first 
volume of which was noticed in The Dial for 
August 16, 1897) treats of the Americans, the 
Arctic Races of the Old World, and the peo- 
ples of Africa. The discussion of the American 
populations has for us, naturally, the chief 
interest. The author appears to admit the 
unity of the American peoples, but suggests 
that this unity '^ may be based either on com- 
munity of descent or on long isolation and con- 
sequent assimilation." It is not easy to deter- 
mine to which of the two explanations Mr. 
Ratzel inclines. Personally, we feel that any 
discussion which emphasizes unity, either in 
type or origin, is faulty. Does not every ad- 
vance in the study of the physical anthropology 
of our native tribes show diversity of American 
types ? Not two types, which, as Ratzel says, 
^^ found support mainly from Topinard and 
Quatrefages," but more than two original types, 
are to be investigated. 

It is inherent in the character of a work like 
this that the material must be condensed. A 
single paragraph must contain matter that 
might easily be expanded into pages. Partly 
as a result of this condensation, but also partly 
through the fault of the writer or translator, the 
statements are frequently obscure or badly 
framed. Thus, in connection with Abipone 
marriages, we are told : ^^ The ceremony is often 

*Thb History op Mankhtd. By Freidrioh Ratiel. 
Translated from the German by A. J. Batler. Volume IL 
With Dlnstratioiia. New York : The Maomillan Co. 



[March 1, 

very simple, bat even so are held perfeotiy 
faindiiig, especially the silent exchange of pres- 
ents." What are we to make of snch a sentenee ? 
It 18, however, a fair example of the frequently 
faulty style. Without, however, criticising 
small points of detail, we may say that the dis- 
cussion of Americans is as good as so condensed 
a statement can be expected to be. 

Batzel's description of African populations is 
probably the most important in our language. 
The light^skinned and low-statured peoples of 
Central and South Africa are first considered 
— Bushmen, Hottentots, Dwarf Races. Then 
come the Negro races of South and East Africa. 
The discussion is not easy reading. The move- 
ments of the herding and agricultural pop- 
ulations have been numerous and confusing. 
Cultures have been modified in a thousand 
ways. Tribes subdued to-day may be conquerors 
to-morrow. Names have changed and strange 
mimicries and masqueradings have been in- 
dulged in. To disentangle ^e confused skein 
has been a difBicult task, but one, on the whole, 
well done by our author. 

To the student who is not a specialist in 
African ethnography, this book will be of great 
importance for reference. The illustrations are 
especially to be commended. They not only 
handsomely adorn the work, but are of high 
• value for study. There is probably no other 
popular work which contains so many fine illus- 
trations of race types and ethnographic objects. 
The third volume will complete the work. 

Frederick Starr. 

A PopuLAB History of Modern Spain.* 

The six volumes on the movements and his- 
torical characters of the nineteenth century, 
which Mrs. Latimer has sent forth within the 
last few years, form a series of considerable 
interest, and, on the whole, of permanent value. 
Judging them by the purpose of the author as 
expressed in the several prefaces, and in the 
light of her modest disclaimer of either ability 
or desire to go below the surface and discuss 
Ae deeper forces that have brought about the 
movements she describes or the profound pro- 
blems suggested, as well as by the needs of the 
«« general reader'' whose ignorance of contem- 
porary European history is hardly relieved by 
his knowledge of the names of a few of the 

* Spaik m THB NucBTESXTH CxHTUBT. By ELixabeth 
Wormeley Latimer. Chicago : A. G. MoClnrg A Go. 

foremost statesmen and monarchs and generals, 
the present endeavor is to be pronounced suc- 
cessful. The specialist will find many points 
where from his knowledge of underlying forces 
he can criticize both the form and the substance 
of the statements made. Both the books give 
mainly pictures of the court life of the several 
countries, descriptions of the personal charac- 
teristics of kings and ministers and leaders of 
revolution, and accounts of the superficial 
aspects of the changes of government of which 
the century has seen so many ; and for work of 
this sort the writer is well equipped by personal 
observation, wide reading, and a pleasant style. 
The many who only care for, or will take the 
trouble to acquire, this deg^^ee and this kind of 
acquaintance with the affairs of the century, 
will find these books easy reading ; while, it is 
to be hoped, some will be led on by them to the 
sources of a deeper and truer knowledge of the 
wonderful developments of the century. 

The volumes of the series vary in value, — 
that on the opening of Africa, and the present 
volume on Spain, being the most useful, because 
they furnish what cannot be easily got together 
from other works. The volume on Spain is 
especiaUy timely, as it gives that insight into 
Spanish character and history which is necessary 
to the very beginning of an appreciation of the 
Cuban question. Spanish history during the 
last hundred years can hardly be called inter- 
esting to any but the student of social and pol- 
itical forces. It is a tangled maze of tyranny, 
intrigue, and revolution. Spain, until very 
recently, has been back in medisdvalism ; and 
so far as the average Spaniard*s thought and 
belief go, one cannot say that the country has 
yet emerged very far from that condition. This 
is illustrated many times in the present work. 
Spanish pride and ignorance and superstition 
and bloodthirstiness have combined to prevent 
economic progress and to make a real popular 
government impossible. These same quidities 
have caused the loss of Spain's other American 
possessions, and the ruin of Cuba. Yet Spanish 
pride will sacrifice without limit, rather than give 
up this last token of past imperial greatness. 

The sketches given in this work are of such 
interesting characters as Grodoy the Prince of 
the Peace, Joseph Bonaparte, King Ferdinand, 
Queens Christina and Isabella, Don Carlos, and 
General Riego ; they are vivid, and group the 
tangled facts about Uiese persons in such a way 
that the story is not hard to follow. Many 
excellent portraits adorn the volume. 

Charles H. Cooper. 




Moi>]EB9r Phases of Mikd-IjOrb.* 

Thm BMMt modern of the distmetiTelj modern 
gMiqi el Toluiies before ns is an exposition of <<The 
New F^foliology/' by Professor Seriptnre of Yale 
Unifenity. Hie newness of things is, or soon comes 
te be, a relative matter : New College at Oxford is 
wumy eentories old, and the Pont Neaf is by no 
m ea ns the most recent of Parisian bridges. How- 
efer defeetive as a description, the term << New Psy- 
dielogy" is at least distinctive, and prepares the 
reader for finding within these covers something 
▼ery different from the traditional matter or treat- 
ment of the ^ Psychologies." In the present instance, 
BoreoTer, we have presented not only a survey of 
rseent investigations, and an account of the methods 
sad eqoipment of the modem experimental psy- 
chologist, but we have these presented from a novel 
psint of view. There are other more or less recent 
treatiaes covering a similar ground, and equally 
imbaed with the spirit of exact science and with the 
diieipline of the laboratory ; but never before has 
diis domain been described from so thoroughly and 
eonsistently an objective standpoint. The volume 
laay be characterised as an << objective " psychology : 
tbe mental processes and activities are viewed 
wholly from without, not from within. The result- 
ing treatment is much like that of a text-book on 
physics; the physiological side is nearly as little 
lepresented as the introspective, and the genetic and 
comparative aspects of the subject — and these, too, 
sre eertainly new — find little mention. The attempt 
to present such an original and objective study of 
tbe ftkcts of mental science, whether successful or 
not, is in itself a notable event However much 
future contributors to this field may differ from 
Professor Scripture in conclusion and in point of 
Tiew, in perspective or in design, they are certain to 
be guided and stimulated by his pioneer effort The 
bnportance of the volume is increased by reason of 
the neceesity for removing the prevalent false 
impression of the interests and purposes of the mod- 
em psychologists. Much as we may deplore the 
fact, it is none the less true that the appreciation of 
the services of the modem psychologist suffers from 
a confused notion of his work. It cannot be said 
too emphatically that he is not a dealer in the oo- 
eolt, nor an expositor of personal peculiarities, nor 
a physiologist in rather poor disguise, nor an unsci- 
flotifie controversialist and theorizer. «< The New 
P^chology " will do much to counteract this con- 
ception ; it will do this because it exhibits the rigidly 

♦Tra New Pbtoholoot. By E. W. Scripture, Ph.D. 
(Leipzig). '* Contemporary Science Series," XXXUI. Lou- 
dM : Walter Scott. (Imported by Charies Scribner'e Sou.) 

Thb SuB-ooNSGions SsLP, and its Relation to Education 
saiHMdth. By Louis Waldstein, M.D. New York : Charles 
Seribner*s Sons. 

Studies ik Fstohioal Resbaboh. By Frank Podmore, 
UJL New York : O. P. Putnam's Sons. 

Thb Pitoholoot of the Emotiokb. By Th. Ribot. 
** OoBlflmpoEvy Seienoe Series," XXXV. London : Walter 
Sssit. (Imported by Charles Soriboer's Sons.) 

■eienti^ ehavaeter of method and reeeareh 
peneable to true progress ; it emphasises the teeh* 
nieal eharaeter of the training and attainments 
neeessary to qualify one to follow this pursuit ; it in 
no way encourages a dillettatUe interest in and ap- 
plication of undigested material ; it shows clearly 
what psychology is not. In all these ways, as weU 
for its intrinsic merits, the book is both notable and 

The volume is divided into five parts: the first 
gives an account of the methods of psychology, and 
describes the importance of observation and erperi- 
ment, of measurement and statistics, in the investi« 
gation of mental processes. This portion of the 
work brings to the foreground the dose kinship 
between the methods of psychology and those of 
other sciences, the importance of quantitative deter- 
minations, the necessity for ¥ratchfulness in detect- 
ing and overcoming sources of error; in brief, it 
shows that a sound logic of method and design is 
as essential to psychology as to any other science. 
The last portion of the book is devoted to an his- 
torical retrospect of the origins and growth of the 
new tendencies in psychology, and to an account of 
the general outlook and the present provisions for 
the advancement of psychological knowledge. In 
this prospect a very creditable position falls to the 
share of ois- Atlantic psychologists. The three inter- 
mediate portions mike up the body of the work ; 
their titles are Time, Energy, Space, — titles 
hardly suggestive of psychological activities. As, 
however, our reactions to the material world in 
which our bodies move and our minds live necessa- 
rily appear as responses to the various forms of 
physical energy, which are again essentially deter- 
mined by temporal and special conditions, it cer- 
tainly becomes possible to prepare under these 
rubrics a systematic account of the nature, limita- 
tions, elaborations, interpretations, and applications 
of such responses. For time relations we begin 
with the fundamental fact that all activities, mental 
as well as others, require time. The times needed 
for the initiation and development of a sensation ; 
for the innervation and execution of an act of will ; 
for interpreting the nature of a stimulus, its dis- 
tinction from others, its symbolic or artificial signi- 
ficance; for recalling familiar bits of knowledge, 
or making simple inferences — are all determined 
with as much exactness as the nature of the pro- 
cesses will permit. Our own estimates of the pass- 
ing of time ; our sense of rhythm ; the waning of 
memory-images as time goes on; the flow of ideas 
in temporal succession, — these form additional 
chapters which may be grouped about the <' time " 

The methods by which we acquire a knowledge 
of space are simUarly treated. The natural divis- 
ion is here followed, taking up in turn the space 
information derived from the movements of our 
body in space, from the impressions of touch, and 
from the varied movements and impressions of 
vision. Energy is represented in all our move- 



[March 1, 

mantBy and henee the nature of mniiealar eontrae- 
tions, the charaeteristies of f atigae, the pereeptions 
of movement, the sensations of resistance and weight 
as well as of soond and color, maj all he grouped 
under the term energy ; to which is added, although 
not very consistently, a chapter on pain and one on 
the feelings. 

Such, in outline, is the plan of this work. The 
manner of treatment is selectiye ; there is no attempt 
at comprehensiyeness. Under each head a group of 
ohservations that seems likely to convey most clearly 
the nature of the methods and results is selected and 
fully described ; preference being always g^yen to 
results in quantitative form. Many of the experi- 
ments are original, and show much ingenuity both 
in the settling of problems and in technical device. 
The unfortunate personal tone of the author's 
<< Chautauqua" volume on << Thinking, Feeling, Do- 
ing " is largely, although not wholly, avoided ; while 
but little exception can be taken to the prominence 
given to the studies from the Tale Laboratory, and 
Uie passing-by, owing to limitations of scope, of 
many important facts and observations. 

While recording one's appreciation of the schol- 
arship and the originality of the compiler, and the 
general success of the compilation, the fundamental 
question as to the possibility of a rigidly objective 
psychology forcibly presents itself. Does not a 
psychology that deals, not with sensation and per- 
ception, not with memory and association, not with 
distinction and choice, that discards the help of care- 
ful self-observation, that instead of these deals with 
time and space and energy, — does not such a 
psychology proclaim its own insufficiency ? Is not 
this classification one of appearance and not of re- 
ality, objective in the sense of outside and not in- 
trinsic? Is there not as much danger of turning 
psychology into physics as into metaphysics ? These 
are the queries that accompany the critical reader 
from chapter to chapter. As a matter of fact, the 
mental processes of perception, memory, discrimi- 
nation, association, and the like, are touched upon ; 
the objective treatment is frequently abandoned, de- 
signedly or otherwise ; none the less the dominant 
tone and perspective is unpsychological as the term 
is currently understood. Whether it is really so or 
whether its newness is an anticipation of future 
trends, may be more wisely questioned than asserted 
or denied. The rigidly scientific psychology, the 
psychology of experiment and observation, the 
psychology of growth and development, has come 
with the close of the century as a permanent contri- 
bution to the circle of the sciences. Whether the 
particular phase of it selected by Professor Scripture 
is to be in the future the dominant phase cannot yet 
be determined ; but that it will always be a promi- 
nent factor, both in determining the spirit and the 
content of psychological research, can hardly be 
questioned. Under these circumstances, so able and 
useful a compendium as this must be welcomed as 
an important aid to students of all shades and 

The <' Subconscious Self," by Dr. Louis Wald- 
stein, is a thesis in applied Psychology ; and the 
thesis is admirably maintained and its lessons vig- 
orously enforced. This thesis is based upon the 
recognition of two elements in our mental make-up. 
The conscious side is that generally recognized 
as ourselves, — the self that selects the impressions 
upon which we feed, that regulates our conduct, that 
guides and controls our lives. The sub-conscious is 
Uie sum of the impressionable, receptive tendencies 
that creates our likes and dislikes, that engenders 
our moods and aspirations, that gives shape to our 
peculiarities, our temperament, and character. We 
are very much more than and very different from 
that which we designedly intend to be ; and it is this 
duality which is expressed and elaborated as the 
conscious and the sub-conscious self. There is cer- 
tainly a little danger in this creation of two selves: 
the danger of conceiving them as separate entities 
with independent powers and natures. In the hands 
of a less judicious writer than Dr. Waldstein, this 
conception would be readily abused, and unwar- 
ranted inferences and implication on the part of the 
reader might counteract Uie wholesome effect of the 
conscious recognition of that less tangible but potent 
factor of our mentality. 

The practical side of the thesis emphasizes the 
importance of early associations and environment, 
because childhood and youth are the impressionable 
ages when we absorb much more than we consciously 
imbibe, when we learn much more than we study, 
when the sub-conscious tendencies are strongest. 
Hence ''the surroundings in which the child is taught 
are of more importance, in relation to the ultimate 
degree of culture to be attained, than the lesson ; the 
manner of the teacher than the substance of his 
teaching." '' For culture depends upon the impuU^ 
not upon purpose." On the side of health. Dr. 
Waldstein maintains that many forms of nervous 
ills are rather in the nature of evil mental habits, 
dependent upon more or less original weakness and 
a disturbance of the normal relations between the 
conscious and the sub-conscious. The mental appeal 
in cases of hysteria and neurasthenia must be in the 
line of a re-establishment of the control of conscious 
effort, to dip down deep and reconstruct the under- 
currents of thought and feeling. The change of 
scene, the absorption in new occupations, the rest 
from conscious strain, and, still more, the relief from 
worry which is so infinitely more wearing than work, 
are effective as they supplant morbid introspective 
moods and feelings by wholesome altruistic interests. 

In the elaboration of his thesis. Dr. Waldstein 
appeals to the evidence of suggestion and hypnotic 
action ; to medical experience and educations! exam- 
ples, to the revival of old and apparently forgotten 
memories, to the suggestiveness of certain organic 
and less specialized sensations, for the illustration of 
the nature and importance of the sub-conscious self. 
Some of these illustrations are rather dubious ; but on 
the whole, the argument is moderate and the appli- 
cations suggestive. It is at once a stimulating and 




« safe Toliimey and well adapted to the needs of the 
general bat intelligently interested reader. 

WhatOTer one's opinion of its intrinsic importance, 
there can he no doubt that << Psychical Research " 
iorwB a eonspienoos feature in modem mind-lore. 
Tlie term has really been giren a technical meaning, 
and serres to distinguish a somewhat heterogeneous 
group of topics, most of which, but not adl, have 
some bearings upon psychological principles. There 
is, for instance, nothing psychological about the mys- 
terious ringing of bells and tumbling about of wall 
ornaments, or the tying of knots in an endless cord, 
or the insertion of slips of paper into an apparently 
sealed box, or the alleged miraculous transfer of let- 
ters and documents through space, — all of which 
procedures the devout psychic researcher must ex- 
amine and explain, — uidess it be the contribution 
to the psychology of deception and credulity which 
the description of the true modus operandi of these 
interesting performances reveals. On the other 
hand, researches into the nature of hypnotic phe- 
nomena, of automatism, of secondary forms of 
conscioosness, of illusions and hallucinations and 
kindred more or less abnormal forms of mental ao- 
^n, are definitely psychological in scope and signi- 
ficance. The strand that binds the sheaf together is, 
however, the interest in the unusual, the apparently 
miraculous, the possible exception to recognized 
physical laws, the possible discovery of means of 
transcending the limitations of this mortal coil. 
This extreme interest in the supernatural is prob- 
aUy not to be ranked as amongst the most cultured 
or worthy of civilized interests, and yet its exist- 
ence must be distinctly recognized and met. There 
is, therefore, a place, and by reason of its power to 
influence opinion, an important place, for a book 
that describes plainly but critically the status of the 
chief forms of nineteenth century supematuralia. 
Sach a book is Mr. Podmore's <' Studies in Psychical 

The phenomena of spiritualism are described with 
rare and commendable patience ; the excessive super- 
stition, the absurd log^c or want of it, the looseness 
of so-called test conditions, the petty deceits and 
gross frauds, the pitiable credulity of victims and 
the boldness and originality of mediums, are por- 
trayed as calmly as the description of so many 
natural history specimens. The spiritualists << who 
would be capable of testifying, if their preposses- 
nons happened to point that way, that they had 
seen the cow jump over the moon," and would refer 
for corroborative evidence to the archives of the 
nursery, as well as the learned professors who invent 
apparatus for demonstrating the power of the me- 
dium to modify the laws of gravitation, are alike 
given a hearing ; and the resulting verdict is fraud, 
eked out by some hallucinations. One cannot help 
feeling as Faraday felt when investigating similar 
phenomena forty years ago, that <* in the present 
age, and in this part of the world, it [such investi- 
gation] ought not be required." Theosophy meets 

a similar fate at the hands of the examining expert ; 
but in spite of exposures and confessions, the cults 
continue to be practised. The exposures are ex- 
plained away, new doctrines and new '' signs " are 
devised to satisfy the appetite of the curious. ** With 
such men and against such a contention, argument 
is no longer even possible. DecipiatUur" 

Ghosts and haunted houses, premonitions and 
clairvoyance, poltergeists and obsession, are passed 
in review ; and after a typical citation of cases and 
analysis of results, the conclusion is reached that 
the known laws of nature, the demonstrated possi- 
bilities of cleverness and conjuring, the varied pos- 
sibilities of error and prepossession, are sufficient in 
their entirety to account for the phenomena so far 
as an account may be legitimately demanded. These 
form an admirable illustration of the workings of 
the popular mind in matters occult, and they point 
a moral and adorn a tale frequently quite different 
from what the narrators of the experiences had in 

But the crucial instances where, in the opinion of 
Mr. Podmore, as well as of other well versed and 
learned investigators, science must at present bend 
the knee and acknowledge the sovereignty of an- 
other power, are telepathy and Mrs. Piper. Tele- 
pathy, or the transference of thought from mind to 
mind by other channels than the recognized avenues 
of sensation, Mr. Podmore insists has been demon- 
strated by experiments, and receives a valuable con- 
firmation in the premonition of deaths, in dreams 
that come true, in strong verdical impressions, and 
the like. So perfectly established does the author 
regard this principle, that he uses it freely in ex- 
planation of baffling cases of other forms of psy- 
chic phenomena for which a negative conclusion 
has been reached. The impressions made by the 
chapters on telepathy upon the present reviewer are 
quite similar in logical force to those made by the 
evidence for the phenomena described in the other 
portions of the work ; the need of an ultra-scientific 
hypothesis seems as undemonstrated in the one case 
as in the other. Here is debatable land ; and from 
one who has exhibited such patience and care, as 
well as insight and experience, as has Mr. Podmore, 
it is proper to differ respectfully but none the less 
firmly. Telepathy has not as yet been returned as 
a member of the parliament of science, and, in the 
opinion of many, indeed, of most, of those whose 
opinions are entitled to carry weight, has but a 
slight and constantly decreasing prospect of occupy- 
ing the desired seat. 

As for Mrs. Piper, she is simply a mystery ; her 
specialty is to reveal in trance condition a knowl- 
edge of the sitter's private affairs astounding in its 
intimacy and correctness. The ignorant and the 
cultured, the lowly and the mighty, the skeptic and 
the believer, old and young, have sat at Mrs. Piper's 
feet and had the innermost recesses of their per- 
sonal biography revealed by the mysterious <' Dr. 
Phinuit " who is the trance informant of Mrs. Piper. 
Her trances << furnish the most important evidence 



[Mardi 1, 

which the Society for Psjchical Beeeareh has jet 
ftddaced for the eziBtenee of something heyond tele- 
pathy, and a£^rd a sufficient jnstifieationy if any 
were needed, for the labors of the past fifteen years/' 
Whether in dae time the halo that now ladiates 
from Mrs. Piper's head will fade away m a more 
powerfol search-light is f ocnssed npon it, or whether 
those who come to scoff will stay to pray, may safely 
be left for the f atore to determine. Enigmas haye 
been solved again and again, and psychology has 
other and more important problems immediately 
before it than the illumination of the illnsive mate- 
rial of " Psychic Research." Of greatest importance 
is the necessity of preserving a rational perspective, 
of not confusing Psychology with tales of ghosts 
and table-rappings, and of estimating these a^&eged 
sapranormal phenomena — as Mr. Podmore's volome 
will help one to do — at their proper value both as 
regards their truth and their significance if true. 

Professor Ribot's volume, '^The Psychology of 
the Emotions," takes us into quite a different sphere 
of mind-lore, the region not of the intellect but of 
the feelings. Here experiment must g^ve way to 
observation and analysis, and in place of quantitative 
determinations there are variable and illusive quali- 
tative changes. Different as is the material and 
treatment, tiie psychology of the emotions quite 
clearly reflects the influence of modem conceptions 
and investigations. Professor Ribofs reputation is 
that of an eminentiy successful expositor ; though 
not himself an experimentalist he encourages experi- 
mental work in others, and appreciates fully the 
importance of all the various trends of modem psy- 
chological activity. He brings to his writings a wise 
enthusiasm, a clear critical judgment, and an unusual 
originality of composition and generalization. Of 
all his monographs this certainly represents the work 
of greatest complexity and difficulty ; in successful 
achievement, in originality of treatment, and in 
general utility, it equals, and indeed surpasses, the 
standard of his previous contributions. It may be 
recommended as one of the most attractive and 
profitable means of approach to an interesting and 
important group of psychological problems. 

The work falls into two divisions, the first dealing 
with the general psychology of emotion, the second 
with the special psychology of the emotions. One of 
the main problems of the first division is the deter- 
mination of the nature of feeling. Is it a primitive 
fact, sui generis^ coordinate with the simplest ele- 
ments of the intellectual group, sensation and per- 
ception ? or is it a mere accompaniment of the latter, 
an epi-phenomenon ? Are pleasure and pain merely 
supplementary conditions of sensation, or are they 
equally primordial, and independent of the intellect- 
ual content of the sensation ? Professor Ribot takes 
his stand with those who maintain the fundamental 
importance of the feelings, the " emotionalists " as 
opposed to the <' inteUectualists," and devotes many 
chapters to the support of this doctrine. In this 
investigation the relations of feelings to sensations, 

of feelings to the modes of their manifestation, of 
feelings to movements, of pleasure and pain, and of 
a wide range of allied factors, are fully discussed in 
the light of their origin, their development, their 
morbid manifestations, and their utilitarian function. 
Biology, anthropology, and pathology eontribute 
facts to the nonnal psychology of the emotions and 
prevent the undue attention to the processes of the 
adult, educated, and cultured member of the genus 
homo, to which may be ascribed so many of the 
miBconceptions of the older psychologists. Along 
with this richness of method and material have come 
new problems as well as new ways of looking at the 
old ones. Is the expression of the emotion essential 
to the emotion, or is it something accidental and su- 
perfluous ? Shall we say with James that we are sad 
because we weep, we are afraid because we tremble, 
and are angry because we strike or feel an inclina- 
tion to do so, or can we feel all these emotions without 
their motor accompaniment? Is pain a distinct sen- 
sation with perhaps a special nervous mechanism, 
or is it an adjunct of other forms of sensation ? What 
is the place of feeling in the development of the in- 
dividual and of the race? What is tiie origin of the 
expression of the emotions ? What is the place of 
emotion in the intellectual life? These are some of 
the general problems which must be discussed as an 
integral portion of the study of emotion. Such dis- 
cussion has nothing of finality about it ; it is fre- 
quentiy a statement of opposite views with littie 
indication of a preference for one or the other ; it is 
not infrequentiy a confession of ignorance or the 
discovery of gaps in our knowledge. None the less 
the discussion is profitable ; a preliminary survey is 
far better than none, and one cannot expect the 
equipment that comes from long periods of occupa- 
tion in the exploration of the darkest regions of 

The special emotions may be treated more defi- 
nitely. Certain types of emotional manifestation are 
primitive and fundamental ; they appear in the lower 
forms of animal life and in the early months of in- 
fant experience ; they remain in the decadence of old 
age and combine with other forms of feelings and 
ideas to form the sentiments. Such instinctive emo- 
tions are those connected with self-conservation, 
fear, anger, sympathy. These give place, under con- 
ditions of increased intellectual development, to the 
social and moral feelings, to the religious, esthetic, 
and intellectual sentiments. Recent investigation 
along the lines of animal study and child study, as 
well as a more intimate acquaintance with the 
thought-habits of primitive peoples, make it pos- 
sible to sketch the main characteristics of the sev- 
eral emotions with considerable definiteness; and 
Professor Ribot utilizes this type of information 
with great skill. In conclusion he attempts a clas- 
sification of characters, both normal and abnormal, 
a contribution to the science of ethology which John 
Stuart Mill suggested, which Bain attempted to in- 
augurate, and which has recentiy engaged the atten- 
tion of French psych<dogists. The result, however 




[Maroh 1, 

qnoUitioiis, nor does she shun her library ; and this 
b well, for her qnotations are well-made and her 
reading is wide and reputable. Bat, unless oar 
memory deceiyes as, these things oeenpy a some- 
what Afferent place in the economy o£ her essay : 
or, looking at it from another point of view, her 
essays have gained, we take it, character and strac- 
tore. Instead of fantasias on different wandering 
themes, we have in this volame a number of his- 
torical rSsunUs of different elements in civilization, 
— as, women of thought and action, diaries, drinking- 
songs, fiction. This kind of essay is perhaps sim- 
pler than the other, but it usually has more real 
merit, unless its author be one of the few great 
essay-writers of the world. Hence Miss Repplier, 
whose power consists in ready assimilation and a 
sound discrimination and appremation, but yet not 
much strength of original (if not analytic) think- 
ing — like Montaigne's, for instance, or Emerson's, 
— Miss Bepplier finds here a better instrument. In 
her previous volume we commended her sane judg- 
ment and unruffled common-sense. Both quidities 
may be seen here, and each is of great value in 
deiding with such subjects as the eternal feminine, 
novel-reading, Sunday-school stories. These essays 
are quite as agreeable to read as Miss Repplier's 
earlier work (singular it would be if , in the case of 
so devoted a student of style, it should not be so), 
but they have much more body to them. One thing 
we take exception to : we do not think Miss Rep- 
plier a good person to deal with the subject of bac- 
chanalia. We allow that she writes agreeably on 
the matter, but hardly to the real increase of good 
thinking on the topic. This, however, is a small 
matter : perhaps it may come from a purely theo- 
retic standpoint. We must add that in this volume 
Miss Bepplier leaves her library and goes to Con- 
stantinople and Cairo by way of Douai and Syra- 
cuse. We do not recollect tiiat this has occurred 
before, although Miss Bepplier has several times 
looked out of her window and seen something. We 
hope the result of her present travels will not dis- 
courage her, although it would seem as if the things 
that she had experienced had been rather a source 
of annoyance to her than otherwise. 

The works of Miss Marie Corelli 
offer an excellent opportunity for the 
^gant exiraets. selection of elegant extracts, for the 
reason that those who like Miss Corelli's works are 
apt to like elegant extracts too. We have not often 
met Shakespearean students who longed for a 
<' Beauties of Shakespeare." We do not think that 
the volume of selections, from Meredith, published 
some time since, was ever a delight to lovers of 
Meredith. Nor has '< The Good, the True, and the 
Beautiful," we imagine, been wholly satisfactory to 
the Buskinites. But the '< Beauties of Marie Cor- 
eUi," compiled by Miss Annie Mackay and published 
in England by Mr. George Bedway and in this coun- 
try by Messrs. Lippincott Co., cannot be so criticised. 
We think that Corelli students will be glad to have 

Mi»$ Corelli 
(u seen in 

the book lying on the marble-topped tables of their 
pensive citadels, and that Corelli lovers will give it 
a prominent place on the buhl dtcLgires of their lux- 
urious boudoirs. It has also a further use. Those 
who have never read the works of Miss Corelli, and 
never mean to, may find here what those works are 
like, at the expense of very littie time and trouble. 
Matthew Arnold thought that Wordsworth gained 
with the general reader by being presented in selec- 
tions; and when he saw how much Wordsworth 
gained, he was tempted to make selections from 
Byron also. So with Miss Corelli ; only the Corel- 
lians should try to read her in toto. We do not, 
however, think that Miss Corelli should be compared 
with Byron or Meredith, or even with Shakespeare. 
She would not herself invite such comparison, nor 
would this book justify it, save in the superficial 
manner that we have pursued. Miss Corelli, in our 
judgment, comes a litUe below Ouida in the scale of 
authors, and considerably above Miss Julia Edwards. 
Perhaps Miss Mackay will find time to provide us 
with selections from the works of those well-known 
ladies. If she do so, we recommend her to follow 
her present plan of arrangement, in which extracts 
are arranged according to the novels from which 
they are selected. Another way would be to group 
under one head — let us say Art — all the extracts 
bearing on Art ; and so on. But that plan, we think, 
would be dangerous. We would also suggest that 
instead of the term << Beauties " in the tiUe, it might 
be better to say << Extracts," or perhaps ^ Elegant 

Two new books 
on American 

Compilations of American literary 
history for the use of schools are of 
late multiplying apace. Within the 
past two years we have had excellent manuals of 
the subject published by Mr. F. L. Pattee and Mr. 
Brander Matthews, and two other text-books of 
about the same compass are now before us. One of 
them, bearing the simple tiUe *^ American Litera- 
ture " (Macmillan), is the work of Miss Katharine 
Lee Bates, and contains a gracef uUy written narra- 
tive treatment of the subject, running to upwards of 
three hundred pages, and adorned with over a score 
of portrait iUustrations. Miss Bates has determined 
to be readable, at whatever cost of condensation or 
scientifically ordered array of facts, and has pro- 
duced a book which is primarily entertaining, 
although we by no means intend to imply that it is 
not also trustworthy. What we often miss, how- 
ever, in these attractive pages, is that scrupulous 
weighing of every criticid epithet employed that 
should characterize a text-book for youthful stu- 
dents. Some of the judgments expressed have a 
random quality, if not an unhappy one; and we 
come at times upon absolute futilities of phrase that 
might far better have been omitted. From the 
standpoint of historical scholarship, as iUustrated by 
its echo of traditional opinion in dealing with such 
matters as the Pocahontas yam. Cotton Mather 
and witchcraft, or Ethan Allen at Ticonderoga, the 




book must be prononneed saperfieial. — Mr. Henry 
S. PaneoMt's ** Introdaeiion to American Litera- 
tare " (HoLt), the other text mentioned at the be- 
ginning of this paragraph, finds the critic prepos- 
sessed in its favor by the admirable << Introdaetion 
to English lateratare " prepared by the author, a 
year or two ago. We gave high praise to that book 
when it appeared, and find in the volame now before 
OS the same well-chosen diction, sobriety of jndg- 
ment, and sense of perspectiye that characterized its 
predecessor. We should say that no better book 
had yet been produced for use in our secondary 
schools, and few that come anywhere near its stand- 
ard of excellence. 

Mr. GMto't '^^ write the history of English lit- 

tkJrt kutmy ^f erature within the compass of some 
EM^uk KterafMrs. ^^^^ hundred duodecimo pages is a 

task from which the wisest of students might shrink ; 
it has been done so many times already — and fairly 
well done at that, — while the style of an archangel 
could hardly make a manual of the sort good for 
continuous readiog. But this is an age of serial 
compilations of knowledge, and the Procrustean 
tyranny of the series styled "Literatures of the 
World " left the editor no escape from contriying to 
have the story of English letters told to scale once 
more. The editor has undertaken the tale himself, 
and, being Mr. Edmund GkMse, has of course pro- 
duced " A Short History of Modern English Litera- 
ture" (Appleton) which is as nearly entertaining 
snd readable as it is possible for any such work to 
be. He has also made his task somewhat more 
tolerable by beginning with Chaucer, thus leaving 
the " archaic section " of our literature for treat- 
ment in another volume by some other hand. He 
has endeavored, to quote his own words, " to give 
the reader, whether familiar with the books men- 
tioned or not, a feeling of the evolution of English 
literature in the primary sense of the term, the dis- 
entanglement of the skein, the slow and regular 
unwinding, down succeeding generations, of the 
threads of literary expression." The element of 
biography is almost wholly dispensed with, making 
the interest strictly critical and philosophical, and 
the work has, in comparison with its numerous rivals, 
whatever advantages may flow from orig^inal and 
epigrammatic turns of expression, quotations of the 
unhackneyed sort that show a man to be fresh from 
the reading of many of the authors discussed, and 
the general charm of manner that attaches to every- 
thing that Mr. Grosse writes. 




Encouraged by the success of his 
interesting work entitled '< Extraor- 
dinary Cases," which was noticed in 
our colunms a twelvemonth or so ago, Mr. Henry 
Lauren Clinton now issues a second and similar 
volume, ** Celebrated Trials " (Harper), containing 
sketches of other noted cases with which the author 
has been professionally connected during his forty 
years of active practice at the New York bar. Mr. 

Clinton defended, for instance, Mrs. Cunningham in 
the celebrated Cunningham-Burdell case, and Bich- 
ard Croker against the charge of murdering John 
McKenna ; and he was of counsel in the Tweed and 
the Kelly vs, Havemeyer cases. The Cunningham- 
Burdell trial occupies nearly half of the volume, and 
Mr. Clinton's account of it is as engrossing as one 
of Poe's tales. This Burdell mystery has never, we 
believe, been unravelled. Other trials recounted by 
the author are : the case of Dr. E. M. Brown, of 
Watson and Crary, of Robert J. Gramble and Ma- 
tilde Hujus, of Isaac Van Wart Buckhont, of A. 
Oakey Hall (tried for neglect of official duty), of 
Favre vs. Monvoisin, etc The book is brimful of 
striking and sensaUonal incidents, of examples of 
ingenious shifts of legal practice, of searching judi- 
cial analysis, and of impassioned flights of forensic 
eloquence. The author's style is manly and direct, 
and he sensibly refrains from gilding his narrative 
with the rhetorical flourishes which he evidently 
finds it advantageous to use in addressing a jury. 
Mr. Clinton's second volume is, like his first, one 
that members of the bar should greatly relish ; while 
to the lay reader with a taste for romantic fiction 
it offers the allurements of o'er-true tales steeped in 
the atmosphere of mystery and crime. The book is 
well made, and it contains several portraits of lead- 
ing legal lights, including one of the author. 

Two friends 
of Carlyle. 

Actuated by a common friendship 
for Thomas Carlyle and a certain 
kinship between their own natures, 
John Sterling and Ralph Waldo Emerson exchanged 
letters at more or less frequent intervals during the 
latter part of Sterling's life. Though never meet- 
ing face to face, each found in the other a stimulus 
and an attraction which makes the volume of their 
correspondence now published (Houghton) well 
worth the reading. The editor, Mr. Edward Waldo 
Emerson, has done his modest work well, prefacing 
the letters with a brief sketch of the delicate and 
short-lived man to whom Emerson wrote, << Thou- 
sands of hearts have owed to you the finest mystic 
influences," and of whom Carlyle said, << He was a 
brilliant, human presence, honourable and lovable 
amid the dim, common populations." The book is 
a small one, less than a hundred pages, yet it gives 
us pleasant glimpses of both men, — the one whose 
name and thought has permeated all literature, and 
the one whose gifts promised so much and yet who 
was permitted to accomplish so little. 

throe oenturie*. 

KrUger's '* History of Early Chris- 
tian Literature" (Macmillan) is a 
compound of biographical and biblio- 
graphical material. It covers not only the authors 
and works of three centuries, but the later literature 
which has grown up around them. The books of 
the New Testament, as well as the apocryphal lit- 
erature, are claimants for a place in this thick vol- 
ume of over 400 pages. There is a feeling of satis- 
faction, as one ti^es up this book, that he has in 



[Maich 1, 

luuid A fairly «zhMiBtiT6 Baropean bibliographj of 
erafy imporfeant aathor and work inelnded within 
its eompasa. The apostles and ohoreh fathers of 
three continents, of dl shades of Christian belief , of 
Tariant degrees of scholarship, have their niche in 
this literary edifice. It is gratifying to find so many 
▼alaable personal facts abont the great churchmen 
of that age. In the same section are cited the orig- 
inal works of each ancient aathor, in its different 
editions, and in immediate connection the later 
works which have been boilt on those originals. 
We should have highly prized a word now and then 
by the distingaished author on the speeial value of 
some of the Uterature referred to. Enou^, how- 
erer, is cited on each subject, he says, <* for a thor^ 
ough study of that subject" At the end of the book 
is a valuable chronological conspectus, which por- 
trays the gradual progress of literary productirity 
m the several provinces of the Empire. This, with 
a full round index of authors and works, gives 
the volume such a bibliographical completeness, 
except as to American works, as will be a delight 
and a treasure to every scholar who delves into 
this important period of the growth and spread of 

The American student desirous of 
becoming acquainted with the lan- 
guage of Norway and Denmark has 
hitherto been unable to secure the help of a suitable 
grammatical manual. None of the books hitherto 
published in this country has been altogether ade- 
quate to the needs of the student, and &ere was a 
real demand for such a work as Prof. Julius £. 
Olson's '^ Norwegian Grammar and Reader" (Scott, 
Foresman, & Co.), which has just been published. 
We are glad to note that the author carries the 
courage of his convictions far enough to style his 
book a '< Norwegian " grammar, in defiance of the 
pedantry which would insist upon the term '< Dano- 
Norwegian," and of the impossible contention that 
such writers as Herr BjOmson and Dr. Ibsen do not 
use the Norwegian language. Bather less than half 
of the work is devoted to the grammar ; the rest 
consists of well-chosen selections, with notes and a 
vocabulary. The extracts range all the way from 
Eventyr by Asbjtf msen and Moe to examples chosen 
from the Dioscuri of contemporary Norwegian lit- 
erature and lyrics from the MouUttrcBver. They 
make up a singularly attractive collection, and the 
student who masters them all will have made a good 
start in his acquaintaiiee with the Norwegian lan- 
guage, literature, and history. It is a task well worth 
undertaking for anyone who knows German to begin 
with, since it offers an unusually great reward for 
an unusually small amount of effort. 

«(f Norwegian 
amd Danish, 

Miss Mary Gky Humphreys's life of 
Catherine Schuyler forms the sixth 
and final volume of the excellent 
little set of biographies of *^ Women of Colonial and 
Revolutionary Times " (Scribner), which we have 

A notable 
tho Revolution, 

9he»dj had more than one occasion to commend. 
Catherine Schuyler, wife of G^eral Philip Schuyler, 
was a daughter of Colonel John Van Rensselaer, 
son of Hendrick and grandson of Killian, the first 
Patroon, whose estate was at Claverack, about forty 
miles from Albany, and a few miles back from the 
present town of Hudson. Thus by virtue of blood 
and marriage, at least, Mrs. Schuyler was, although 
personally of a retiring and domestic turn, a repre- 
sentative figure among the matrons of the Revolu- 
tion. Her life embraced a momentous and stirring 
period in our national history, including, in its mil- 
itary aspect, the French, and Indian, and Revolu- 
tionary Wars, and, in its political, the transitional 
colonial period and the beginnings of the Nation. 
To the student of manners, Uie story of Mrs. Schuy- 
ler's life is instructive, and the author tells it simply 
and literally. It abounds in vivacious pictures and 
incidents illustrative of the social and domestic life 
of the time, and affords a glimpse or two of Dutch 
colonial life at Albany. There is a well executed 
portrait of Mrs. Schuyler. 

The publication of the personal let- 
fj^^^HS^l'^Zu, ^'B of prominent men results often 

in disappointing those who believe 
the verdict of history will be materially changed 
thereby. Sources are now so available and so uni- 
versally used that the fruits of the letters remaining 
unused are little more than the pleasure derived 
from a knowledge of the friendships of great men. 
The Hon. Elihn B. Washbume was for many years 
so close a friend of General Grant that the publica- 
tion of Grant's '< Letters to a Friend" (Crowell) 
gives pleasant glimpses of the friendship between 
the two, but adds little of historic value. The most 
interesting letter is the one in which Grant refuses 
to listen to the suggestion that he should declare 
himself not a candidate for the Presidency in 1880 
under any circumstances. Gen. James Grant Wilson 
contributes an introduction to the attractively pub- 
lished little volume. 

Volume y. in the pretty << Arcady 
i^^^i. Library" series is entitled "The 

Happy Exile " (John Lane), and con- 
tains some twenty-two pleasantly fancied rustic 
sketches, the fruit of the sentimental holiday ram- 
bles of a young Londoner among the gpreen lanes 
and by-psAhs of ComwalL Mr. H. D. Lowry is the 
editor, and Mr. £. Philip Pindott has furnished a 
half-dozen acceptable etchings. Most of the papers 
have appeared in English periodicals, but they de- 
serve their present setting. The writer makes no 
pretence of being an observer of the Thorean- 
Jeff cries order, but he evidently has the jaded 
** cit's " keen delight in the things of tiie country, 
and his raptures are unfeigned. There is a mild 
vein of adolescent sentimentality throughout, and 
the Cornish types are not ill-drawn. The volume 
will form a delightful companion for a vacation 


THE DIAL [Muohi, 




[March 1, 

the many letters which still oome asking for his inter- 
yention in public matters, or for private advice and 
assistance." Canon Rawnslej, who never misses an op- 
portunity to pen a sonnet of the anniversary or memorial 
sort, has jost published the following tribute to Mr. 
Rudcin, upon the occasion of the seventy-ninth birthday 
of the great art-critic and ethical teacher. 

'* Bom in our monster Babylon, to decree 

The blasting of all Babylons — and ordained 
To be her avani-oourier who has reigned 
Longest and best — we give God thanks for thee. 

The' oonqnering hosts enoomiUMB land and sea. 
And men of arms her ISmpire have maintained. 
Thou art her mightiest warrior, thon hast gained 

By power of wisdom wider sovereignty. 

Wherefore to thee, for whom this day has brought 
The golden crown thy eightieth year shall wear, 
We bring the tribute of our love and praise. 
And borne from far-off centuries we hear 

Proud acclamation of the seer who wrought 
Undying splendour for Viotorian days.'* 

Topics in IjEAding Periodicals. 

March, 1898, 

American Army Mancenvre, An. Franklin Matthews. Harper, 
American Graduate Schools. H. Edgren. Educational Rev, 
Anatomy and Physiology, The Century's Progress in. Harper, 
Andre's Bfessenger. Jonas Stadling. Century, 
Andr«e*s Safety. Walter Wellman. McClure, 
Anti- Jewish Crusade in France, The. Rev, qf Reviews, 
Australian Democracy, The. £. L. Gknlkin. Atlantic, 
Austria, Stirring Times in. Mark Twain. Harper, 
Bacchylides and his Country. J. Irving Manatt. Atlantic, 
Books and the Custom House. Dial, 
Boston, Municipal Service of. F. C. Lowell. Atlantic, 
" Election Schools'' of St. Louis. W. F. Saunders. Rev, qfRev, 
England, Social Progress in. Arthur B. Woodford. Dial, 
England's Crisis. J. N. Lamed. Atlantic, 
Fiatemalism v». Paternalism in Govemment. R. T. Ely. Cen, 
French and English literature. H. D. Sedgwick, Jr. Atlantic, 
F^ch Genius in Criticism. G. L. Swiggett. Dial, 
Gradingand Promotion of Pupils. J. T. Prince. EductUHRev, 
(Grant's Des Moines Speech. J. S. Clarkson. Century, 
German Policy regarding Austria and Turkey. Harper, 
Japanese Life. K. Mitsukuri. Atlantic, 
Klondike, River Trip to. John S. Webb. Century, 
Klondike, Rush to. Sam Stone Bush. Rev. qf Reviews, 
Klondike, Rush to, over the Mountains. E. S. Curtis. Cen, 
Klondike, The. Hamlin Garland. McCiure, 
Lecturers, Eminent, Reminiscences of. Joel Benton. Harper, 
Lynch-Law Epidemics, Prevention of. £. L. Pell. Rev, qfRev, 
Mammoth Cave, The. John R. Proctor. Century, 
Mathematics, Logic of, in Relation to Education. EducatURev, 
Mexican Society in 1866. Sara Y. Stevenson. Century, 
Mind-Lore, Modem Phases of. Joseph Jastrow. Dial, 
National Seminary of Learning, Our. W. J. McGee. Harper, 
New England Primer, The. Wallace de Groot Rice. Dial, 
Occupation for College Women. Kate H.Claghom. EducHRev, 
Paidology, the Science of the Child. Educational Review, 
Painter, America's Earliest. C. H. Hart. Harper, 
Races, The Study of. Frederick Starr. Dial, 
Readingaloud in Public Schools. S.H.Clark. EducHRev, 
School- Fatigue Question in Germany. Educational Review, 
Social Pictorial Satire. George du Maurier. Harper, 
Songs of American Birds. John Burroughs. Century, 
Spain, Modem, A Popular History of. C. H. Cooper. Dial, 
Sport, The Encydopndia of. Dial, 
War, In the Wake of a. Julian Ralph. Harper, 
Wilson, Richard. John C. Van Dyke. Century, 
Women Composers. Rupert Hughes. Century, 

LiiST OF New Books. 

[The following list, containing 4^ titles, includes books 
received by Thb Dial since its last issue,] 


Auld Lan«r Syne. By the Rt. Hon. Professor F. Max 
MiLller. With portrait, 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 325. Charles 
Scribner's Sons. $2. 


Report of the Historical ManuBcrlpts Commlesion of 
the American Historical Associetion. By J. Franklin 
Jameson, Taloott Williams, Frederic J. Tumer, and Will- 
iam P. Trent. Large 8vo, uncut, pp. 660. Government 
Printing Office. Paper. 

The Neutrality of the American Lakee and An^lo- 
American Relations. ByJames Morton Callahan, Ph.D. 
8vo, uncut, pp. 199. ** Johns Hopkins University Studies." 
Paper, $1.60. 

To Teach the Neerro History: A Suggestion. By John 
Stephens Durham, B.S. 12mo, pp. ^. David McKay. 


Various Fraffments. By Herbert Spencer. 12mo, pp. 209. 

D. Appleton A Co. $1.25. 

Biblical Quotations in Old Engrlieh Proee Writers. 
Edited by Albert S. Cook, Ph.D. 8vo, uncut, pp. 331. 
Macnullan Co. $3. 

The Later Renaissance. By David Hannay. 12mo, uncut, 
pp. 281. ** Periods of European Literature." Charles 
Scribner's Sons. $1.50 net. 

Works of Jamee Whitoomb RUey, "Homestead" Edi- 
tion. Vols. III. and IV.; each with frontispiece, 12mo, 
gilt top, uncut. Charies Scribner's Sons. (Sold only by 
subscription. ) 


Complete Works of Horace. Edited by the Very Rev. 

E. C. Wickham, D.D. 18mo, uncut, pp. 307. Oxford 
University Press. 90 cts. net, 


The Lion of Janina; or. The Last Days of the Janissaries : 

A Turkish Novel. By Maurus Jtfkai ; trans, by R. ^Osbet 

Bain. 16mo, pp. 285. Harper & Brothers. 91.25. 
Soldier Stories. By George Cary Eggleston. lUns., 12mo, 

pp. 251. Blacmillan Co. $1.50. 
Across the Salt Seas: A Romance of the War of Succes- 
sion. By John Blonndelle- Burton. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, 

pp.446. H. S. Stone <& Co. $1.50. 
The Red Bridgre Neighborhood. By Mniim Louise Pod. 

Dins., 12mo, pp. 369. Harper & Brothers. $1.50. 
The Fiffht for the Crown. By W. E. Norris. 12mo,pp.321. 

Harper & Brothers. $1.25. 
For Love of Country : A Story of Land and Sea in the Days 

of the Revolution. By Cyrus Townsend Brady. 12mo, 

pp. 354. Charies Scribner's Sons. $1.25. 
Rlbstone Pippins: A Country Tale. By Maxwell Ghmy. 

12mo, pp. 148. Harper & Brothers. $1. 
The Confession of Stephen Whapehare. By Emma 

Brooke. 12mo, pp. 297. 0. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.; 

paper, 50 cts. 
The Jud«re. Bv Elia W. Peattie. 12mo, gilt top, pp. 286. 

Rand, McNally A Co. 75 cts. 
The Sack of Monte Carlo : An Adventure of To-day. By 

Walter Frith. 12mo,pp.244. Harper & Brothers. $1.25. 
A Prince of Mischance. By T. Gallon. 12mo, pp. 294. 

D. Appleton & Co. $1.; paper, 50 cts. 
An ElvLsive Lover. By Virna Woods. 16mo, pp. 254. 

Houghton, Mifflin & Co. $1. 
TheKlnfiTOftheTown. By Ellen Mackubin. 16mo, pp. 152. 

Houghton, Mifflin & Co. $1. 
The Shorter Stories of Fiona Macleod. Re-arranged, with 

additions. In 3 vols., 12mo, uncut. Edinburgh : Patrick 

Qeddes & Colleagues. Paper. 
By Stroke of Sword. By Andrew Balfour. Dins., 12mo, 

pp. 326. New York : Truslove & Comba. Paper, 60 cts. 
Love Letters: A Romance in Correspondence. By Harold 

R. Vynne. With frontispiece, 24mo, gilt top, pp. 170. 

New York : Zimmerman's. 





mDdulCa]in«rB,CiiBtom0,an(lOeremonlea. BvtheAbM 
J. A. Dnboii ; tnuu. from the anthor's later Jnenoh 'MS, 
•ad edited by Henrr K. Beanchamp. In 2 toIs., with por- 
tnit, 8to, iment. Oxford UniYenity Pteas. 16.00. 


Tbe Sacred Books of the Bast. Edited by F. Max Miiller. 
New Tola.: Vol. XLIIL, The Satapatha-Brfthmana, 
Ptet IV.. trans, by Jolina ^irelinsr, $3.25 net,; Vol. 
XLVIL, Pkhlari l^Bxta, Part V.. trans, by £. W. West, 
$8.26 iwt. Baeh 8to, nnont. OiEford Uniyersity Press. 

TheStoryoftheOhristiaQ Church. By Georee R. Crooks, 
D.D. With map, 8to, pp. 604. Eaton A Mmdb. $3.S0. 

Qod, Natore and Attributes. By Randolph S. Foster, D.D. 
8to,pp. 280. Baton A Mains. $3. 

The New Paritanlsm: Papers Read dnring the Semi- 
centennial Celebration of Plymouth Choroh, Brooklyn. 
By TarioQS writeis: with Introdaotion 1^ Roasiter W. 
Raymond. 12mo, icilt top, nnont, pp. 275. Fords, Howard, 
^Hnlbert. $1.25. 

Two Lectures on the " Sayings of Jesus," Recently Dis- 
eorered at O^rhynohns. By Rev. Walter Look, D.D., 
and Rer. Wilfiam Sanday, D.D. 12mo, pp. 49. Oxford 
UniTecsity Press. Paper, 60 ots. 


The Non-Beli^on of the Future: A Sooiolopoal Study. 
Trans, from the French of M. Guyau. 8to, pp. 543. Henry 
Holt & Co. $3. 

Outlines of Sodolofiry. By Lester F.Ward. 12mo,pp.301. 
Mafflwillan Co. $2. 

Introduction to the Study of Sodoloiry. By J. H. W. 

Stnekmberg. 8yo, unout, pp. 336. A. C. Aimstronff A 

Son. $1.60 ii€f. 
The Bargain Theory of Waflres: A Critioal Deyelopment 

from the Historie Theories. By John Daridson, M.A. 

12mo, pp. 319. G. P. Putnam*s Sons. $1.50. 
Republican Responsibility for Present Currency Perils. 

By Perry Belmont. 12mo, pp. 90. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

60 eta. 


What Is Good Music? Suggestions to Persons Desiring to 

CnltiTate a Taste in Musioal Art. By W. J. Henderson. 

12mo, pp. 206. Charles Soribner's Sons. $1. net. 
J. F. Millet and Rustic Art. By Henry Naegely (Henry 

GsSlyn). With portrait, 8to, uncut, pp. 179. London: 

Beechreibunff des Gtoistlichen Schauspiels im Deutschen 

Mittelalter. Von Richard Heinzel. Large 8yo, unout, 

pp. 364. " Beitriige znr Asthetik." Hamburg nnd Leipzig : 

Yerlag Ton Leopold Voss. Paper. 


Book Prices Current for 1897 : A Record of the Prices at 
?niioh Books HaTC Been Sold at Auction during the Year. 
8to, pp. 624. Lo^on : Elliot Stock. 

Norman's Universal Cambist; A Ready Reckoner of the 
World's Foreign and Colonial Exchanges. By John Henry 
Norman. 8to, pp. 271. G. P. Putnam*s Sons. $3. 

The Oxford Bnfirllsh Dictionary. Edited br Dr. James 
A. H. Murray. New section : Frank-Law — fyz, G^ — Gain- 
Coming ;b^ Henry Bradley, Hon. M. A. Large 4to, uncut. 
Oxford Umyersity Press. $1.25 net. 

Bdmund Routledfire's Date-Book, from the Creation of 
the Worid to the Year 1897. 12mo, pp. 96. George 
Rontledge A Sons, Lid. Paper, 20 cts. 


How to Play Golf. By H. J. Whigham. Dlus., 12mo, 
pp.313. H. S. Stone A Co. $1.50. 

The Bncydopeedia of Sport. Edited by the Earl of Suffolk 
and Berkshire, Hedlev Peek, and F. G. Aflalo. Parts 
IX., X., and XL; each illus. in photograyure, etc., large 
8yo, uneot. G. P. Putnam^s Sons. Per part, paper, $1. 


Including Dickens, Thackeray, Lever, Ainsworth, Steyenson, 
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leetion offered for Sale in the World. Catalogues issued and 
sent post free on application. Books bought. — Walteb T. 
SnoiGKB, 27 New Oxford St., London, W. C, England. 

Heady March S. 



Upon which he devoted the final years of his life, 

The Science of 

Political Economy 

In the Introdaction he calls it : 

" The Boienoe whieh treats of the nature of wealth 
and the laws of its production and distribution; that is 
to say, of matters which absorb the larger part of the 
thought and effort of the vast majority of us the 


Octavo, Clotb, Gilt Top. 
Price, $2.^0. 

DOUBLEDAY & McCLURE CO., Publishers, 

141-155 East Twenty-fifth St., New Tore. 

-^^ dn^e munbera, 16 ota. AniA Bahdall-Dhbl, Editor, 
261 fifth Atwum, Hew York 01^. 

STORY -WRITERS, Blogrmphert, Historians. Poets -Do 

-^^— ^— — "^"^ you dedre the honest oiitleiam of your 
book, or its lUlled reTidon sod oorreotioii, or edvioe ss to poUlcstlon T 
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Easy Cludr*B friend sod fellow laborer in letters. Dr. Titos IL Cosn.** 
Terms by agreement. Send for circular D, or forward your book or MB. 
to the New York Bureau of Revision, 70 Vlfth Ave.. New Tork. 


1. Interesting catalogue of choice English and American books in 
Sue bindings, quoting extremely low, tempting prices. 

2. London Weekly Circular of Bare Booka. Dial readera ahould aend 

for both. ^ ^ HAQEMANN, IMPORTER, 
160 Fifth Avenue, New York. 

16 OS. to the lb. 
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Joseph Qillott's Steel Pens. 

FOR QBNBRAL WRITINQ, Nos. 404, 332, OOi E. F., 601 K F., 1044. 
FOR FINB WRITINQ, Nos. 308 snd 170 (Lsdies* Fen), No. 1. 
FOR BROAD WRITINQ, Nos. 294, 389; Stub Points 849, 983, 1008, 

1009, 1010, 1043. 
FOR ARTISTIC USE in fine drswings, Nob. 669 (Crow QuOl), 290, 

291, 837, 860, and lOOa 
Other Styles to ault sll Hsnds. Qold Medals nt Paris Ezposltioii, 
1878 and 1889, and the Award at Chicago, 1803. 

Joseph Qillott & Soos, 91 John St., New York. 



[March 1, 


Mwi of the woild tnteniawtlj dige«Ud and logtoyiy ftlMriflwd ttong 
25 oki. for 13 wooki on tiuL Th> pAivrnnm, WMhlngloii, D. 0. 

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400 Recitations and Readinsrs. 

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by the manufacturers, on reodpt of $7.50. 


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careful attention to M8& of aU Idnda. 

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ifMMon Tk€ IHoL 

editorid noticea, asnd ataaup to 

tor. too Pierce BulMiuf . 
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Wan ASD No aiH w asT. 

The Lakb Rbowh. 

DAYTON, and all Points In OHIO. 


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For further Information, 

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Dk90lor ^ Piam0 Dtpartntemi, Dinetar «f Voeal D9pmrtmmU. 

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^Musical and T^amatic a/lrt, 


Offers superior advantages to Students desiring 
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Mr. Kelso has just published a new work, in 
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We carry a complete assortment of 

OfTice, Library, and School 




18 and 20 Van Buren St., 




[March 1, 1898. 








WHOSO FINDETH A WIFE. By William Le Queux. 12ino, cloth, price . . . $1 00 

UNDER THE BAN. Teresa Hammond Strickland. 12mo, cloth 1 00 

FOR LOVE OF A BEDOUIN MAID. By LeVoleur. 12mo, cloth 1 00 

A VALUABLE LIFE. By Adeline Sergeant. 12mo, cloth 1 00 

SHIFTING SANDS. By Frederick R. Burton. 12mo, cloth 1 00 

WOMAN AND THE SHADOW. By Arabella Kenealt. 12nio, cloth 1 00 


A new noTel by 

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A story of gayett New Tork, 



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A new noTel by 

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ALASKA : Its History, Climate, and Resources. 

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ABC OF MINING and Prospectors' Handbook. By Charles a. bramble, d.l.s. 

The most practical, comprehensive, and up-to-date anthority on this subject Illustrated. Pocket Manual, 

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A COLONIAL DAME. By Laura Datton Fessbkdbk. 
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from originals by Vbazie Wilson. Compiled by Miss Esther Lyons. Price, 25 cts. 

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PICTORIAL ATLAS OF THE WORLD. A New Trade Atlas. Cloth, retoil, $4.00; half leather, $6.00. 

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VthmB XXIV, 
FRANCIS F. BROWNE. ( No, 282, 


CHICAGO, MAECH 16, 1898. "'tT.V^' { C^ftJ^i^. 


Ready April 9: 

THE GIRL AT COBHURST. By Frank R. Stockton. 

12mo. Prioe, tl.60. 

An entirely new loye-etorj by Mr. Stockton whioh hae not appeared serially. Hie scene is laid in a coantry 
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Saggeetions to Persons Desiring to CnltiTSto a Tasto in 

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CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS, 153-157 Fifth Avenue, New Yorlc. 



[Mardi 16, 

Harper & Brothers' New Books. 

Social Pictorial Satire 

Reminiscences and Appreciations of English Illas- 
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International Monetary 

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The Student's Motley 

The Rise of the Dutch Republic. By John 
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The War of the Worlds 

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Wonder Tales from Wagner 

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A Year from a Reporter's Note- 

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A Romance. By Robert W. Chambers. PostSvo, 
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Spun -Yarn 

Sea Stories. By Morgan Robertson. Illustrated. 
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HARPER & BROTHERS, Publishers, New York and Lx>ndon. 




Houghton, flifflin & Co/s Spring Books. 

Caleb IVest, Master Diver. 

By F. HoPKiK BON Smith, author of " Tom Grogan," 
«« Gondola Days," etc. Finely illustrated, 12mo, 1^1.50. 
[JBoHjf m AjnriL] 

Caleb West is a phenomenal master diver in the build- 
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A bluff and invincible sea captain figures effectively and 
pietnresquely. The ** ever-womanly " element is by no 
means lacking; and the story, like <* Tom Grogan,** is 
profoundly alive, thoroughly interesting, and unoom- 
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Penelopes Progress. 

By Katb Douglas Wiogin, author of «The Birds' 
Christmas Carol,^ « The Story of Patsy," «A Cathe- 
dral Courtship^" <' Marm Lisa," etc. 16mo, in unique 
Scottish binding, S1.25. [In April,'] 
This is a continuation of Mrs. Wiggin's sensible, hu- 
morous, delightful story of '* Penelope's Experiences in 
England." Penelope and her fellow-tourists, Salemina 
and Franoesca, invade first Edinburgh and then the out- 
lying districts, and they take the country and the Soots 
1^ storm, — an indescribable mingling of good sense, 
a^wntw^— ^ audacity, and fun. A most readable book. 

Tales of the Home Folks in Peace 

and War. 

By Joel Chandlkb Harris, author of the << Uncle 
Bemus" and «Thimblefinger" stories. With illus- 
trations, crown 8vo, 81.50. \Earhf m ApriL,] 
A book of stories of interesting adventures and char- 
acter studies of the South, most of them during the war 
or just afterwards. They are marked by the keen 
msight and cheerful philosophy which make Mr. Harris's 
itories so agreeable and fascinating. 

The Impotted Bridegroom, 

•And Other Stories of the New York Ghetto. 

By Abraham Cahan, author of « Yekl." 16mo, cloth, 
$1.00; Riverside Paper Series, 50 cents. 
These stories take the reader into a field almost en- 
tirely unworked as a literary possibility. They relate 
to Russian Jews in New York City, of whom many have 
heard, but few know anything definite. The author is 
ftuniliarly acquainted with them, their antecedents, their 
condition when they reach this country, their modes of 
life afterward, their views of religion and of Ufe; and 
his book is one of uncommon interest. 

From the Other Side. 

Stories of Transatlantic Travel. By Henrt B. Fuller, 
author of « The Cliif-Dwellers," « The Chevalier of 
Pensieri-Vani," etc. 16mo, $1.25. 
Four charming stories of Italy and England. Not 

only are they go^ stories, but Mr. Fuller's literary art 

lends to them a peculiar attraction. 

Cheerful Yesterdays. 

By Thomas Wbntworth Higouison. 12mo, S2.00. 
This book is the very flower of autobiography. It 
gives in the most attractive manner the most interest- 
ing experiences of a singularly interesting life. It de- 
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tions and experiences which made him a reformer, the 
development of literature and his own literary work in 
the fifties, the stirring episode of the Kansas oonfliots, 
and a very modest account of his share in the Civil War. 
The intrinsic and varied interest of the book, its noble 
and cheerful tone, and its exquisite literary style give 
it an uncommon charm and value. 

Unforeseen Tendencies in 

By Edwin L. Godkin, Editor of the New York NoHm. 

1 vol., crown 8vo. [/n April,"] 

A book of remarkable value, that should be read and 
deeply pondered by all good citisens. In it the aspects 
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the Fathers of the Republic. 

Letters of Victor Hugo. 

Edited by Paul Meuricb. Second Series, 8vo, $3.06« 

Both Series, $6.00. 

This Series includes Hugo's letters, when in exile, to 
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A Rommce of the Time of WflUam and Mary. 

Bj Stanlxt J. WsTMAH, aathor of ^A Gentlemao of 
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** lir. Stealer WeTman has wiittMi a latUfav food romaatie 
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The Memoirs of a Highland Lady. 

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%* The Highland Lady of theee Memrirs was a olanswoman 
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The Authoress of the Odyssey. 

Where and When she Wrote, Who she Was, and the Use 
she made of the Iliad; and How the Poem Grew 
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** It omitains a considerable amount of ssge reflectioB, and 
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Wellington ; 

His Comrades and Contemporaries. By Major Abthxtr 
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Progress in Women's Education 
in the British Empire. 

Being the Report of the Education Section, Victorian 
Era Exhibition, 1897. Edited by the Countess of 
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The Sundering Flood. 

By WiLiiAM Morris, author of « The Earthly Para- 
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By Fredkrio W. Farrar, Dean of Canterbury. With 
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CoHmm: The Life Stoiyof Aner— The Choice— The 
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The Poor Man's Paradise. By Hbrbert Yiyian, M. A., 
Officer of the Royal Order of TaakoTO. With por- 
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** This is a Tastly readable book, and despite some erident 
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Industrial Democracy. 

By SiDNXT and Bbatricb Werr. With 2 diagrams, 
2 Tols., 8vo, 958 pages, $8.00. 

**It is not too muoh to say that these two Tolumee, the ee- 
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published by Uie same authors ia 1894, contain amongst other 
tilings by far the most complete aad aathoritotlTe exposition 
that has been ooUeoted yet of the fscto whioh go toniake the 
histories of trade unions. ... No single book of whieh we 
are aware is calculated te afford nearly so mudi aid as thess 
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Tital questions with whieh our generatioa must gmpple. In a 
word, the book is inTaluaUe, if it be used rii^tly. . • • We 
commend to the pnblio a book whioh is a monument ol 
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publicist and politiciaB, a book whioh, whca it is stndisd in a 
watdiful spirit, is of great Talue.** — 

Stray Thoughts on Reading. 

By LucT H. M. Soulsby, Head Mistress of Oxford 
High School. 16mo, 1^1.00. 

Aids to the Devout Life. 

(Reprinted from « The Outlook.'*) 16mo» doth, 50 ots. 

The Message of the World's 


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T. Y. Croweli & Co.'s Spring Announcement 

The Founding of the Qerman 

by William I. 

By HuMBiGR YOK Stbsl, tnuiaUted by Helena SohimmeUemiiff White. Vol, Vll.t eompUting the m(. 8to, oloth, gilt top, |2. 
Tlie Mventh and oondnding Tolume of thi« mnnnimintal work, whieh the author, baf ora hia death, anooeeded in bringing to a anooeaafiil col- 
miaation in f^te of the Jealoaa and petty reatriotiona on the part of the goremment, brloga the atory down to the Fianoo-Pmaalan war. Ihia la 
aatoralbr the moat dramatio and faaHnaMng of all the Tolumea, and throwa a flood of light on the whole hiatory of Europe during khoee aomantoaa 
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co n trOmtkm to modem hialory. The laat Tolume oontaina a tabular riew of the prindpal eyenta of the tbne covered, and a Tolumtauma index 
to the aavan volumea. 

Workingmen's Insurance. 

By WnjJAM F. WnuLOUOHBT, United States Departmental Labor. (Vol, XIV. in CrowdVi Library qfEc(momie$ andPolitie$.) 

12IIIO, eloth, $1.76. 

Thia la a painatakinff and ezhauative examination of the problem of the inanranoe of worUngmen againat aooldMit, alekneei, and old i^pa. 
Ihere la no work quite lue it. It oovera foreign ayatema of compulaory inaurance, the varioua forma of inanranoe reaulting from the voluntary 
elteta of employera and workingmen, the relief departmMita organiaad bv railway oompanlea and other lam employera of labor, and the Inanr- 
anoe work ci labor uniona in the United Statea ana abroad. The author oaa had exoefmonal oppovtunitiea for obtalmng faeta at mat hand; and 
hia work i^peala to all atudenta of aooial oondltiona. to thoae engaged In the management of inaunmoe and relief organiMtiona, and to thoae who 
are involvea In the vexed queatton of employera* Uaoility. 

Congressional Committees. 

By Laubos G. MoCk>NACHix, Ph.D. {Vol, XV, in CrowdTi Library qfEconomia and Polities,) 12mo, doth. {In preu,) 
Dr. McOonachie deflnea Oongraaalonal Oommitteea aa **the agenta, the inatrumenta, the ohannela of oonneetlon, between Oongraaa and tiie 
nation.'* With the expanakm in recent yeara, growing ever mora and more rapid, of population and oomplieated intereata throughout our land, 
**theeumberaoae organlationof alower daya^waa auVjaoted to a atcaln It oovud not bear ; and the adoption of a mnlttpUcter of oommitteea, eaoh 
JBtrueted with aone department, waa the omy praotioal way out of a vaat difllcul^. It illuatratea evolution aa wondng In a living, changing 
gol ittcal^ organlam, and Dr. MoConachia atudtoa ita detaOa with great care. He wrltea with no little vivacity, and with a wealth of mfeeraKlng 

"""^^ What is Art? 

By CouHT Ltof N. TOL0XOI. Authorized Edition. Translated from the Rnnian by Aylmer B£aade. 12mo, eloth. (JfipreM.) 

*'Of an the eaaaya la oritlolaau morale, or aooial eoonomica whloh TolatoX haa slven ua ainee he gave up ttM produetfon of hia own great 
mAm of art, thia la aa ohanetariaoo and far^eaohing aa any. And probably It will Be read with even gr ea ter interaat, for tlie aolntion which It 
thongli certainly not more Important than hia prunitive Onrlatian morality, comae to ua with neater freahneaa, and la In more direct 
itica, not merely to generally recognlaed practice, but to all modem theorlea and doctrinee openly and univeraally proclaimed aa to the 
and value of Art. • • . It la a great theory, auch aa we ahould have expected from the great living prophet" 

Brunetiere's Manual of tlie History of French Literature. 

Authorized tramlation, ninttrated with portraits. 12mo, eloth. {Inprese,) 

ILBruaetitee, the ftunoua French critio,stand8 decidedly for a conaervattveoritieiam; and hia lataat and moat important work aiay be oouated 

n to the vear 187S, including In thia ** modem ace " the epoch cell 
It a model manual for the atudent and genenu reader who dealrea a aottd 

« aa aoond, reliahle, dignified, and wlae. The work Ib brou|^ down to the vear 187S, including In thia ** modem ace " the epoch 
The atvle la (terming, and the auggeativenaaa of the ttaooi^t makee It a model manual for the atudent and gener * ^^ 

groundworic in French literature. ^ 



Facts I Ousrht to Know About the Oovern- 
ment of My Country. 

By WnxiAM H. Babtlxtt, Prinoipal of the Ghaadler St. 

SehooU Wovoeater, Maaa., Gomioilor of the Amerioan Insti- 

tnte of CiTioa. ISmo, cloth, 50 cents ; flexible leather. |1. 

Fourth Edition. 

**I volunteer the atatement that no auch co nden s at ion of facta haa 
been made with auch admirable daaaifloation for inatantaneous ref er- 
«Bee aa In thia little volume. Becanae eveiybody ought to know the 
facta, everybody ou^ to have the book.*'— Blahop Johk H. YniGnT, 
ChameeOor ChatUau^fua Ataembly, 

In Tune with the Infinite; 

Or, Ftiliie«5 of Peace, Power, and Plenty. By Ralph 
Waldo Tbikx, author of " What All the World'a A-Seek- 
ing." 12mo, doth, gilt top, $1.25. Fifth Thoniaiid. 
** . . . It haa done me more good than any one book of all my read- 

iog. . . ,*^''F\rom a Reader. 

What All the World's A-Seekins:. 

By Ralph Waldo Tbine. 12mo, cloth, g:ilt top, $1.25. 

Serenth Thonaand. 

** Ita purpooe la ditlineUy practieal. It Is moat faadnatlngly written, 
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Men I Have Known. 

By Peaa Fabbab. Illuttrated^ with facsimile letters and 
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" One of the notable booka of the aeaaon.'*— Inter Oeean. 

Sell-Cultivation in English. 

ByGBOBOB Hbbbebt Palhbb, LL.D., Alford Pro f eaaor of 
rhikeophy in Harrard Uniyenrity. l^no, 86 eenta. Tenth 
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The Evolution of France Under the Third 


By Baron Pibbbb db Coubbbtik. With Introdootion by 
Dr. Albbbt Shaw. Illustrated. 8to, eloth, gilt top, $3.00. 
**I>eala In a more aatiafaototy way than anything elae we have ever 

aeen with the poUtloal and oonatltutlonal hiatory of France.*'— BeHew 


The Coming People. 

By Chablbs F. Dolb, author of *' The Golden Rule in Bnai- 
neai,*' ** The Amerioan Citizen," etc. 16mo, doth, gilt top, 
$1.00. Third Edition. 

" "Read the book. It la aa alnewy in logic aa It la inqiiring in cheer 

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Qeneral Grant's Letters to a Friend 


Edited hy Gen. Jambs Gbakt Wilson. 16mo, gilt top, with 

portraita, $1.00. 

** Grant*a almple, modeat atyle. and hfa pithy comment on men and 
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THOMAS Y. CROWELL & CO., Publishers, New York and Boston, 

164 THE DIALi [March 16, 

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1898.] THE DIAL 186 

J. 'B. UPPINCOTT COMPANY t-Announce the "Publication of an 

Impottant Educational iVork, entitled 

Mammalian Anatomy. 




Direetor of the Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology; Professor of ZoSlogy in the UniYersity of 
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dation for the Advanoement of Science; Member of the American Philosophical So- 
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Its MusouiiAr Attachmsnts, Growth, and Variations Comparbd with 


Ei|:ht Hundred Pages. With over Five Hundred Original Illustrations, and many 
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The author's long experience with elementary classes has led to the adoption of those methods 
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interest of the student. 

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[Maioli 16, 

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ROBERT BURNS AND MRS. DUNLOP. Correspondence now paUished for the first time. With 
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The letters of the poet which are now aboat to see the light for the first time are of very great yalae. 


CHARLBS DICKBNS. A Critical Stud j. By Gborgb 

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PabtiaIi CoummEi : Wb Timat— The Growth of ICan and 

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Children — Humor sad Pethoe—Style — The Radical — Gom- 

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PROM TONKIN TO INDIA. Being a Narrative of TraTol and Adventure in the Far East By 
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WISDOM AND DESTINY. Essays. By Mauricb 
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WAY. By Iax Maclaren. 16mo, doth, price, 
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Christianity, the Worid - Religion. 

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/%««.«*1— „ D^wtiA» MA M its poutioal eonditlons are ooneened. ... It eontMns an /^i^*!. e^ iu% «*«• 

Courtenay Bodley, M. A. ^^j^^ .^^^ of the departmento of goremment, of the ^'^» *^*^ "•^- 

Tarions parties now in existenoe, and presents throogfa erer page a most lominons exposition, not alone of the polities, but of 
the temper, feeling, and genius of the Frenoh people." — 2%e Spectator. 


By Sir Chablbb Gayan Duftt. Li two Tolnmes. with 
Portraits. Medium 8vo, $8.00. 

"An Mitoblognphioal hlftonr of e rtmailnble esraar — w thocild 
niher Mj of two eareen M widaqr Mpvated M an Uie two hamUpherM. 
. . . Tha lint aiidad in faflara, iad our aothor laft Iraland in daapair ; 
tha aaoond tarmfaatad to hli attahiinant of blgh ofloa [In AuatiaUa] . . . 
aad to tha praotleal adoption of hta poUoy whieh afefll praraila.** — 3%a 


By Gboro Bbahdkb. Translated from the Norwegian by 
William Abohxb. Two vols.. Demy 8vo, $8.00 net. 
Dr. Oaorg Braadaa'a **Willlam Slialcaapaara ** may beat ba oaDad, 
pariii^M, an exluuutiTa oritieal biograpliy, folly abraait with tha lataak 
KngUah and Qarman renarohaa aad orlticiam. Dr. Braadaahaaaohiavad 
Oarman thorooffluiaaa without Oarmaa haaTtoaai, and haa prodoioad 
what moat ba ragardad aa a atandard work. 

A Beferenee Book for the Beginner, or for the Skilled Ch/rdener. 


Lessons with Plants. 

8wggt$tion9 fw Seeing and Interpreting 

Sowte qfthe Common fornu qf 


tZmOf iialf leather. Price, $1.10 net. 

A series of hints as to the best method 
of teaching botany. Illnstrated from 
Nature by W. S. Holdsworth, Assistant 
Ph>f essor of Drawing in the Agricnltnral 
College of Miohigan. 


Suggettions for the Utilizing of Home 

By Prof. L. H. Bailbt, Professor of 
Horticnltare, Cornell University. 

Cloth, 16mo. Price, $1.00. 

to tha Oardan, whathar that gardan ba a fAtf 
baekrardorananclomraof aoraa. Itgivaato 
almpla laaguaga aooh information aa erery man 
or woman who attampts to growatingla plant 
!■ to noad of. No madam Amerie<m work et- 
itl» which oomere this impcrtamt fiUd, 


First Lessons with Plants. 

A Selection of Twenty Leeeome Cheeen 
from ike Larger Volume, 
doth, 12mo. Price, 40 cts. net. 

Theee Lessons are ohosen from amcNo^ 
the luver number in "Lessons witn 
Plants," but each is qnite as eomplete 
and is illnstrated in the same wa^ as in 
the fuller Tolnme. The book auns at 
bringing the method within reaeh of 
some who desire a briefer book. 

Zola's Oreat Trilogy of the Three Cities, In Tliree Parts, each two vols., $2.00. 

By M. Zola. PARIS. 

*''LoaTdaa*aaa book ia a Utaranr oharm. 
LjOUPnBS It ia a romanoa of hish and 
^^*^^'\^*^^* jNuraqnali^. It ia a drama, 
ly but p o wa r fu ljy oofolaad.'* — William 
L to tha Jvaw York Home Journal, 

••^Faria'iafuUof lifaand action, brilliant 
aaitanama^Tar. Ita pagas cannot fail to balp 
ita raadara to a tmthf nl piotora of tha <Atj aa 
it ia to-day.*' 


tamporaxy facta. It ia contam- DAMP 
porary Uatory Man through tha KViflC. 
eraa of the g raa tart liTing reportar.*' — 21a 
Bvmimg Sun (Naw York). 


Bkno ths MmoiB of Captaik Basil Jxmnoo. By Aohxs 
aad EoBBTOK Castlb. 

'* Thia noral ia an azcaptionaUy darar ndjctara of wHd romanoa and 

modam pqrchology, tha pictnraaqaanam of 
Cloth, Cr. 8vo, $1 .80. tha haro*a adTantoraa baing handlad with no 

laaa aUll than ia azpandad npon tha analvaia 
of hia amotiona. . . . *ThaPrldaof Jannico'iaanartlitie prodactton, 
and it ia originaL**— Now York Trtinme, 

THE CELEBRITY. By Wihstok Chubohill. 


** Ona of tha baat atoriaa that haa coma from ttia pi 
■iz montha. Tha plot i» noral, tha central 

idaa claTcr, and the inddanta are worked oat Cloth, Cr. 8ve, $1 .80. 
with a degree of akill and good taate that an 

eminently aatlifaotoiy. . . . Itaqniathamoriaonaof itabaatqnalitlaa.** 
— Brooklyn Bogle, 

" A decidedly amoaiiig book I breeiy, bright, waU-writtan.**— .Baitoa 

""^"'"(S'^earfv.) THE QOSPEL OF FREEDOM. '''"**• ""'^S,..,©. 

The motif i» that of personal independenoe in its appeal especially to the reatlesa, eager, egotistio woman of oor new Amer> 
loan oiTilization. 


By lirs. SOHUTLBB CsowimrBHiKLD. 
**Ona of tha moat origiiia] and diitinctiTa of onrrant booka. ... It 

ia a collection of talea deacriptiTa of Ufa in 
Ctoth, Cr. 8vo, 81 •80. the Weat Indiea. . . . But CTan the ahorteat 

haa central idea plot and daralopment ; is a 
compact little drama. We commend thia book to anyone who wanta 
aonathing fraah and good to Action.*' — Bventng Telegraph (Phila.). 


By Qbobos Cabt Eoolxstom. 

**It ii a charmina little Toloma of abort atoriaa, largely pathatia, 

imegay . . . aoma founded on eventa which 
fall imaer the author*! obaervation, many doth, Cr. Sro, 81^." 
told from hearsay, and they are quite Taried 

to their moiif—wAde from the broad and deep feeling of human epn^ 
pathy which animataa them alL**— The Woreeeler 8py. 

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY, No. 66 Fifth Avenue, New York. 


N9. MS$. MABCH 16, 1898. Vol. XXIV. 


THB PLIGHT OF THE B00KS1g«T.lCR .... 173 



Van DpiM 177 


WOBTH. Anma B. McMahan 179 


MtrUm L. MiUer 181 

WORLDS NOT REALIZED. Sduntrd M. HaU, Jr. 182 


Mmrtm Faifw 184 

Steddeiries'i Haiiia.->NoTdMi*t The Dtodm Most 
Die.— Xmmw' Andronike.— Zola*i Pans.>-Jolud's 
Hm lion of Jftmiia. — ConleTaiii** Amenoan NobUity. 

MAik Twain** Following the Equator.— Paton^s Pio- 
tneaque Sieily . — Palmer** Going to War in Greeoe. 
— Baoon'a Bcnun, the City of Blood. — Barrowa'a A 
World PUgrinuige. — DaTb*a A Year from a Repor- 
ter'a Note-Book.— Thwaitea*a Afloat on the Ohio.— 
WiDonghhy'a Aoiom the Evexgladee. — Avian's 
Serria, the Poor Man*a Paradise. — Yoanghnihaad'a 
South Afriea of To^y. — Mx«. Bishop's Korea and 
her Neighbors. 


A Tery eandid Irish trayeller in America. — Biblio- 
graphy and nomismatios. — Mr. Jabberjee, B.A. — 
CUrk Rnasell's Tiews of the British Nary. — A oritio 
not to be desired. — Another attractiye bird-book. — 
Tlie materiab of American history. — Monnments of 
mined cities of Mexico. — A pot-ponrri from Professor 
Max MilUer. — A hero of old Spain. — An abdicated 
Spanish King. 





For some months now a three-sided disoas- 
sion of the most heated and acrimonious sort 
has been going on in England with regard to the 
mntaal relations of the author, the publisher, 
and the bookseller. Not only are the trade- 
journals and the periodical organs of the spe- 
cial interests concerned filled with pleas and 
arguments upon the several phases of this com- 
plex problem, but the debate has established a 
firm foothold in the columns of the daily news- 
paper and the pages of the popular magazine. 
It is indeed a question in which the general 
public has a legitimate interest, for in these 

days of common school education we are all 
readers to an extent of which our forefathers 
never dreamed, and the average man, who ia 
neither author, publisher, nor bookseller, feels 
instinctively that his own notions of what is 
proper should count for a good deal in any 
matter which places the cost of books at stake. 
In this respect, as in so many others, the great 
public is apt to disregard the nicer ethical con- 
siderations involved in the discussion, and to 
insist upon the cheapest books he can get re- 
gardless of the ways in which they may be 
cheapened for him. In our own country we 
had abundant opportunity to realize the force 
of this sentiment during our long struggle for 
the embodiment of common honesty in the copy- 
right laws, and just now we realize it anew in 
contemplation of the opposition to which an 
important reform in our postal regulations has 
had to succumb. 

The English agitation of this question takes 
its origin in the sufferings of the bookseller, from 
whom there arises a bitter cry of lessened pro- 
fits and lowered prestige. It all oomes from 
the current discount of twenty-five per cent 
from the published prices of books, a discount 
forced by keen competition and now so firmly 
established by custom that it seems like a part 
of the Englidi Constitution. We will cheer- 
fully give you two pence in the shilling, says 
the aggrieved bookseller, but to give three 
pence is to take the bread from our mouths. 
Striking figures are presented in behalf of this 
plea, as in the case of one respected represen- 
tative of the trade, who shows that an annual 
turnover of three thousand pounds with a two 
penny discount will yield a greater profit than 
a turnover of ten thousand pounds under the 
conditions now existing. The publishers, for 
their part, claim that they would gladly help 
the booksellers to a decent living, but are quite 
helpless to do so, since the large dealers are 
satisfied to allow a three penny discount, and 
the small dealers are forced to follow suit. But 
no, say the boooksellers, just see how they do 
things in Germany. In that happy land, deal- 
ers are forced to accept a discount based upon 
an equitable consideration of the interests of 
both parties, because the publishers would cut 
short the supplies of any bookseller who should 
violate this agreement by underselling his fel- 
low-tradesmen. Our safety is in the trust and 



[March 16, 

the boycott, and we call upon yoa to aid us in 
fastening these beneficent limitations upon our 
trade. Very well, say the publishers, only we 
must get the assent of the authors also, for with- 
out them our efforts would prove futile. The 
author b thus dragged into the dispute, but, to 
the dismay of the bookseller, proves recalci- 
trant. What I want, he says in substance to the 
bookseller, is the largest possible sale for my 
works, and so does my publisher, since his pro- 
fit and my royalty are in strict proportion to 
these sales. You, on the other hand, given 
your additional penny, would be better off, on 
your own showing, were you to sell less than 
half as many books. I know that I am tra- 
ditionally incompetent in matters of business, 
but I am not so guileless as all that. The pres- 
ent arrangement suits me quite well, and in en- 
deavoring to upset it I should be working 
against my own interests. In this seemingly 
hopeless impasse the discussion stands. 

In our own country, the problem is slightly 
different, although in its essentials much the 
same. With us, the authors, for lack of any 
organization corresponding to what obtains in 
England, do not form a third party to the dis- 
cussion, which is thus reduced to a struggle 
between publishers and booksellers. The bug- 
bear of the latter is not the regular discount 
allowed everywhere by honest retailers, but the 
department store with its cut prices, its prompt 
turnover, and its efficient organization. The 
very striking statement was recently made that 
one of these stores, on account of its advantage 
over the ordinary bookseller in the concession 
of from two to six per cent for short time pay- 
ments, could afford to retail an invoice of books 
^^ for the net cost of the bill and still leave a 
profit." At such a statement the mere book- 
seller may well hold up his hands in despair, 
and look for some other means of making a 
living. Practically, he is forced to do one of 
two things : either retire from a business sub- 
ject to this sort of competition, or himself be- 
come a department store on a small scale by 
adding bicycles, and cigars, and patent medi- 
cines to his stock in trade. 

The public is to some extent at fault for this 
state of things, and the principle that every act 
of purchase is freighted with ethical and social 
responsibilities is no doubt a sound one ; but 
consumers' leagues and other devices for bet- 
tering the condition of production and exchange 
do not seem likely to accomplish very much, 
and rarely convince purchasers who are not 
more than half convinced already. The ^^ shop- 

per " will continue to watch for ^' bargains,*' 
whether in books or in fine raiment, and is not 
easily persuaded to pay more for a given article 
than he must, or to contemplate the indirect 
consequences of his purchase when the direct 
and tangible advantage is so evident. More- 
over, the modern book-buying public is to a 
considerable extent a new public, created by 
the department store and the bargain counter. 
It would never have found its way at all into 
the real bookstore, and its acquisitions in the 
way of literature are made in delightful ignor- 
ance of the commodity which it is buying. It 
will proudly bear away its purchases of gaudy 
fabrications in cheap paper and muslin entirely 
unconscious of the fact that these things are 
not books in any real sense of the term, and 
will joy in the possession of, say, the ^* works " 
of Goethe (five volumes, price $1.79) without 
the least suspicion that the ** works " of Gt>ethe 
do not exist in the English language. To the 
book-lover, on the other hand, and to the book- 
buyer of the old-fashioned sort, these things 
and the marts in which they are dispensed by 
unlettered counter-jumpers are an abomination. 
He, at least, knows the difference between books 
made to read and keep and books made, like 
the spectacles in the familiar story, ** to sell"; he 
also knows that the cut prices of books in the dry 
goods stores are not (with an occasional excep- 
tion) cut so very much after all, and that in such 
stores the books that the serious reader really 
wants are never by any possibility to be found. 
The bookstore, then, may be said still to re- 
tain the greater part of its old clienMe^ but the 
fact remains that it ought to attract the new 
class of book-buyers also, yet that somehow it 
does not attract them. The elementary eco- 
nomic forces by which society is swayed are 
pulling hard against the self-respecting book- 
seller, and more and more placing at a disad- 
vantage the intelligence which he seeks to re- 
tain in the conduct of his business and the con- 
science which the self-respecting publisher puts 
into the manufacture of his product. Now these 
economic forces are hard things to fight against ; 
they are certainly not to be combated success- 
fully by repressive legislation, as some book- 
sellers foolishly seem to wish, while such com- 
binations in restraint of trade as are here and 
there suggested are likely either to prove simply 
futile or so to outrage the moral sense (exhib- 
ited in our notions of fair play and freedom of 
individual action) as to defeat their own pur- 
pose. Measures of the first class surely cannot 
be countenanced by intelligent persons, while 




measares of the second class embody a wisdom 
almost equally dabions. What then remains? 
The answer may not be a very satisfactory one, 
bat it seems to be the only one left. Economic 
fcnrees all have their origin in the mind, and flow 
from the ideas and desires of human beings. It 
is hopeless to oppose them by violent means, 
bat it is not impossible to transform them by 
educational processes. The advance of civiliza- 
tion does react upon these forces to very de- 
cided effect, and every year finds more and 
more minds prepared to receive the important 
truth that the cheapest ways of doing things 
are not always the most desirable ways. This 
truth once realized, its translation into eco- 
nomic action is a comparatively simple matter. 
Its concrete application to the case now in hand 
may be stated very briefly. A good book-store, 
stocked with serious literature, and conducted 
by people who know something of the books 
they sell, is a civilizing agency of the highest 
importance to every community. It ranks with 
the public library and the local high school or 
eoUege. That such a book-store should be found 
in every sizable town and that every great city 
should have a number of them are propositions 
that win without argument the assent of all in- 
telligent people. That it is difficult if not im- 
possible for them to exist under the conditions 
of present competition and of present public 
sentiment is a statement sadly true. That arti- 
ficial measures for the rehabilitation of the old- 
time bookseller are foredoomed to failure is the 
outcome of all sound ethical and economic rea- 
soning. We must then look for a better state 
of affairs, on the part of the public, to a more 
genuine popular education, a broader enlighten- 
ment concerning the usefulness of books, a 
greater willingness to bear small burdens for 
the attainment of large ends ; and, on the part 
of the bookseller, more patience under adverse 
influences, a broader view of the economic prob- 
lems with which he is confronted, and a greater 
alertness to impress the public with the need- 
fulness of his own peculiar social function. 


London^ March 1, 1898, 
The aeason has oommenoed with a rush, and bofliiiess 
if moTing in dead earnest. Pablishen are now engaged 
in preparing their <« Spring Announoement " lists; and 
altboogh these are not all yet to hand, I think I can 
gi?e joo snfficient information now to pat yon on a foot- 
ing of equality with oorselves in that respeet, by the 
time this reaches you. Of course, a few of the more 

important works of fiction have already been issued, 
such as Mr. Anthony Hope's « Simon Dale,** Mr. Stan- 
ley Weyman's •< Shrewsbury," and Dr. Conan Doyle's 
« Tragedy of the Korosko "; but much yet remains eie 
the holidays come on. So that you may be better able 
to study the titles, I give them classified, with our pub- 
lishers' names in parentheses. 

In Theology we have nothing supremely important. 
A great talk is being made of the new translation of 
the Bible, called the « Polychrome Bible "; but as the 
work is edited and sub-edited by two of your own 
scholars, you will, no doubt, know all about it. Al- 
ready three Tolumes have been issued. One curious 
part about the publication of it is that two firms, Messrs. 
James Clarke & Co. and Mr. David Nutt, are both ad- 
yertising it largely, the latter not so much as the former. 
Messrs. Hutchinson announce « The Origin and Nature 
of Man," by Dr. S. B. G. McKinney, and Messrs. 
Bell; •<One Thousand Tears of Church History," by 
BcT. L. O. Asplen. Messrs. Hodder & Stoughtco's 
« Expositor's Bible " will be completed by the issue of 
the 49th volume, called «The Book of the Twelve 

History and Biography furnish a fair number of aver- 
age quality ; but none of the books promises anything 
very exciting: « Mr. Gregory's LetteivBox, 1813-.d0," 
edited by Lady Gregory (Smith, Elder & Co.) ; « Memoir 
of Henry Whitehead," by Canon Rawnsley (Macmillan) ; 
M Notes from a Diary, 1873-81," by Sir Mountstuart 
Grant Duff, 2 vols. (Murray); « Memorials of an 
Eighteenth Century Painter (James Northcote)," by 
Stephen Gwynn (Unwin); «Paul Kruger and his 
Times," by F. R. Statham (Unwin); « Shelley: a Mono- 
graph," by Dr. Guido Biagi (Unwin); « Masters of 
Medicine" series (Unwin), "Sir J. Y. Simpson,** 
«< William Stokes," and •« Edward Jenner"; « Build- 
ers of Greater Britain" series (Unwin), "John and 
Sebastian Cabot," and "Edward Gibbon Wakefield." 
"The Later Renaissance," by David Hannay (Black- 

The class of books known as Travels includes quite 
a long list of really promising works. In addition to 
the expected accounts of Mr. Landor in Thibet and Mr. 
Fitzgerald on the Andes, which may be postponed un- 
til the autumn, we are promised immediately: "With 
Peary Near the Pole," by Eivind Astrup (Pearson); 
" The Yukon Territory," by W. H. Dall, G. M. Daw- 
son, and J. J. Ogilvie (Downey); " Weidth and Wild 
Cats: Travels and Adventures in the Gold-Fields of 
Australia and New Zealand," by Raymond Ratclyffe 
(Downey) ; " British Columbia for Settlers," by Frances 
Maonal (Chapman & Hall); "Zanzibar and Pemba: 
Travels in the Coast Lands of British East Africa," by 
W. W. A. Fitzgerald (Chapman & Hall); "Egypt in 
the Nineteenth Century," by Donald A. Cameron 
(Smith, Elder) ; " Through South Africa," by H. M. 
Stanley (Low); "Through the Gold Fields of Alaska," 
by Harry De Windt (Chatto & Windus); "Through 
the Famine Districts of India," by F. H. S. Mere wether 
(A.D. Innes); "IreUnd — '98 to '98," by J. O'Connor 
Morris (Innes); "Through Persia on a Side Saddle," 
by Ella C. Sykes (Innes); "Through the High Pyre- 
nees," by Harold Spender and Llewellyn Smith (Innes) ; 
" Five Years in Siam," by H. Warington Smyth, 2 vou. 
(Murray) ; " Through Unknown Tibet," by Capt. M. S. 
Welby (Unwin); " The Jew, the Gypsy, and El-Islam,'* 
by Capt. Sir Richard Burton (Hutchinson); a new edi- 
tion, with Introduction by Stanley Lane Poole, of Bur- 



[March 16, 

ton's famous ** Filgrimage to Meooah and EUMadinah,** 

There are no important Art Books, unless I make 
ezx)eptions of ** The Bases of Designy** by Walter Crane 
(Bell), just published, and a fine work on ** Charles the 
First," by Sir John Skelton, annonnced by Bussed, Y al- 
ladon & Co. The rest are mainly new editions: "Art 
and Life of William Morris," by Aymer Yallanee (BeU) ; 
M Lord Leighton: his Life and Work," by Ernest Rhys, 
edited by Gleeson White (Bell); *<The FUgrim's Fro- 
gress," edited by Rev. H. R. Haweis, and illustrated by 
G. W. Rhead, F. A. Rhead, and Louis Rhead (Fear- 
son) ; « English Fortraits," by Will Rothenstein (Grant 
Riclutfds). A fine work on the paintings of the por- 
traits of Christ will be «< Rex Regum," by Sir Wyke 
Bayliss (Bell) ; the book is to be most extensively illus- 
trated from the pictures of the best masters. 

Every season brings us its quota of works on Sport, 
and among these may be now mentioned: « Encyclo- 
pedia of Sport," Vol. II. (Lawrence & Bullen); « Isth- 
mian Library " (Innes): " Rowing," by R. C. Lehmann; 
"Figure Skating," by M. S. Monies Williams; -The 
World of Golf," by Garden Smith; "Sailing Boats and 
SmaU Yachts," by E. F. Knight; " The Deer of All 
Lands," by R. Lyddeker; " History of the Bramham 
Moor Hunt," by W. S. Dixon ; " Dumb Bells," by F. Graf 
(Bell) ; and " Cycle Touring," by A. W. Runmey (Bell). 

As is usual with " Spring publications," by far the 
larger proportion of them belong to fiction. This year, 
the novels promise to be of more than the average num- 
ber, and quite of the average quality. M. Zola's " Fans " 
has, of course, been delayed owing to the implication of 
the author with the Dreyfus case; and " lota's " " Foor 
Max " (Hutchinson), has just been issued and received 
as the best work Mrs. Mannington Caffyn has yet writ- 
ten. It would take one too long to go through each 
item separately, and, indeed, the greater number might 
not be worth the trouble; so that I will simply list them: 
"Lady Jezebel," by Fergus Hume (Fearson); "The 
Master Key," by Florence Warden (Fearson^; "The 
Virgin of the Sun," by Greorge Griffith (Pearson); 
" The Rev. Annabel Lee," by Robert Buchanan (Fear- 
son); "The Keepers of the Feople," by Edgar Jepson 
(Pearson). In their "Latter-Day Stories," Messrs. 
rearson announce: "Van Wagner's Ways," by W. L. 
Alden, "An Egyptian Coquette," by Clive Holland, " In 
Male Attire," by Joseph Hatton, ** An Episode in Ar- 
eady," by Halliwell Sutcliffe, " Trincolox," by Douglas 
Sladen, "A Russian Vagabond," by Fred Whishaw, 
"From Veld and Mine," by George Griffith. Messrs. 
F. V. White & Co. have " nearly ready ": " The Peace- 
makers," by John Strange Winter; " Scribes and Phar- 
isees," by W. Le Qneux; "LitUe Miss Prim," by Flor^ 
ence Wuden; "The House of Mystery," by Richard 
Marsh; and "Blanche Coningham's Surrender," by 
Jean Middlemass. Mr. Grant Richards has three im- 
portant novels: "The Wheel of God," by George Eg- 
erton; "A True Heart," by Frederick Breton; and 
" Convict 99," by Marie Connor and Robert Leighton. 
In addition to these, he is preparing a very beautiful 
ktUion de luxe of the novels of Jane Austen, to be issued 
in a limited edition, and in style like the " Edinburgh" 
Stevenson. Messrs. Downey & Co. have, of course, the 
continuing volumes of their " Illustrated Edition " of 
the novels of Charles Lever, and the " Wormeley " 
Balzac in 40 volumes. They also announce: "In the 
Promised Land," by Mary Anderson; " Bruising Peg," 
by Paul Creswick; " The Story of an Ocean Tramp," 

by Capt C. Clarke. Messrs. Hutchinson & Co. have " in 
preparation": "Woman and the Shadow," by Arabella 
Kenealy; " The Prince's Diamond," by £. H. Beaman; 
and " Wyndham's Daughter," by Annie S. Swan. The 
one novel of which Messrs. Blackwood & Co. make a 
special point is, " A Forgotten Sin," by Dorothea Ger- 
ard. Mx. Heinemann has already published most of his 
stories; there are left but two important volumes to ap- 
pear: "The Scourge Stick," by Mrs. Campbell-Praed, 
and " The Dreamers of the Ghetto," by I. Zangwill. 
Smith, Elder ft Co. announce: " Senorita Montenar," by 
A. P. Crouch; " The Ambition of Judith," by Olive Bir- 
relL Messrs. Innes & Co. have the following on their list: 
" Children of the Mist," by Eden Fhillpotts; " Sunlight 
and 'Limelight," by Francis Gribble; " The Indiscretions 
of Lady Asenath," by Basil Thomson; "A Woman's 
Privilege," by Marguerite Bryant; "The Island of the 
Seven Shadows," by Roma White; "The St Cadix 
Case," by Esther Miller. Mr. T. Fisher Unwin*s " Cen- 
tury " edition of Scott's novels in twenty-five small fools- 
cap volumes is to sweep the market for Scott. 

Among the Miscellaneous classifications I note: " Es- 
says," by Leslie Stephen, 2 vols. (Duckworth); "Side 
L^hts on Siberia," by J. Y. Simpson (Blackwoods); 
"l^ngs of En^and," by Alfred Austin (MacmillanS; 
Swift's Prose Works (10 vols.), Vols. III. and IV., 
edited by Temple Scott (Bell); Bishop Berkeley's 
Works (3 vols.). Vols. II. and III., edited by Greorge 
Sampson (Bell); Collier's "Annab of the Stage "(2 
vols.) (BeU); "Quatrains of Omar Khayykm," trans- 
lated by John Payne (Villon Society); " Our Foods and 
Drinks," by Dr. Andrew Wilson (Pearson); "The 
Great French Triumvirate," translations from Moli^re, 
Racine, and Comeille, by Thomas Constable (Downey) ; 
"Mad Humanity," by S. Forbes Winslow (Pearson); 
" The London Lover's Enchiridion," edited by Wilfrid 
Whitten (Grant Richards) ; " The Construction of U»r 
rine BoUers," by L. S. Robertson and Sir W. White 
(Murray); "RaUway Construction," by W. H. Mills 
(Longmans); Brun^tiere's "Essays in French Litera- 
ture," translated by D. Niohol Smith (Unwin); "Karl 
Marx and the Close of his System," by E. V. B5hm- 
Bawerk, translated by Alice M. Maodonald (Unwin V 

As I am finishing this letter, Messrs. Methuen's nst 
comes to hand; and from it I find that they are to pub- 
lish the following works on Africa: " Three Years in 
Savage Africa," by Lionel Decle; " Campaigning on the 
Upper Nile and Niger," by Lieut. Seymour Vandelear; 
" Niger Sources," by Colonel Trotter; " With the Mash- 
onaluid Field Force, 1896," by Lieut-Col. Alderson. 
Mr. John Murray also announces five new volumes of 
his " University Extension Manuals"; these are: " In- 
troduction to Physical Science," by Prof. John Cox; 
" The English Poets from Blake to Tennyson," by Rev. 
Stopford Brooke; " History of Astronomy," by Arthur 
Berry; " History of Education," by Frincipail Donaldson; 
and " Introduction to Philosophy," by Prof. W. Knight. 

Sir Walter Besant's " The Changeling " wiU not be 
issued until the autunm; the story has first to run a 
serial course in " Chapman's Magazine." Serial publi- 
cation will defer the book issues of the stories by 
H. Seton Merriman, Stanley Weyman, A. Conan Doyle, 
S. R. Crockett, and one or two others, which have 
already been announced. I learn that Mr. Harold Fred- 
eric has just finished what he considers a very powerful 
novel. Its title has not yet been fixed; but, in any ease, 
it^will not appear before the autumn. 

Tbxpub Scott. 




®;be Iteto §00hs- 

An Exponent of Pb e-Raphaei.i8m.» 

It is many years since Miss Francesca Alex- 
ander first became known in the art world as 
a person of pen-and-ink importance. So far 
back as 1855, Mr. Motley admired her draw- 
ings with some extravagance of statement ; and 
mnch later, when Mr. Buskin chanced to meet 
her in Florence and saw her work, he made 
haste to place her among the immortals with 
Holman Hunt and others of the Pre-Baphaelite 
faith. The inmiediate cause of Mr. Buskin's 
admiration was a portfolio of 109 drawings in 
pen-and-ink, illustrating and decorating the 
songs of the Tuscan peasantry. He took these 
drawings with him to England, talked about 
them in his Oxford lectures, presented a num- 
ber of them to the university, to St. George's 
Museum, and to other schools where he lec- 
tured. Twenty or more of the plates were 
photographed at the time, and, with Miss Alex- 
ander's translations and Mr. Buskin's editorial 
comments, they made up the book of 1884 
caUed *' Boadside Songs of Tuscany." Since 
then, photographic processes have been so much 
improved that it has been possible to reproduce 
all of the original plates line for line. This has 
been recently done in photogravure, by Messrs. 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co., and the result is the 
complete and very handsome quarto of 1897 
called *^ Tuscan Songs." 

For the songs themselves, and their transla- 
tion by Miss Alexander, there is little now to 
be said except in praise. The poetry of them 
— their lyric element — is not great ; but they 
are the records of faith, hope, and sentiment 
among the Tuscan peasantry, and Miss Alex- 
ander has brought them together believing that 
the best of them should be preserved. The ex- 
amples given are but the siftings from many 
hundreds of songs heard and remembered in 
Tuscany, where Miss Alexander has spent the 
greater part of her life. Some of them were 
taught her by Beatrice Bernardi of Pian degli 
Ontani — a local improvisatrice — and others 
came to her at odd times and in strange ways. 
The music to them was written by Signora Ses- 
tilia Poggiali ; and Miss Alexander, after the 
task of translation, put her pen at work beautify- 
ing the pages with initials, borders, and full-page 

* TuBCA2r S0MO8. Collected, translated, and illustrated by 
Franoetoa Alexander. One hundred and nine photos^raynree 
£ram th« original designs. Boston : Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

illustrations. What artistic quality the work 
possesses lies in the illustrations ; and it is with 
them that popular interest will be chiefly con* 

One may as well acknowledge at the start 
that Miss Alexander has done her work with 
sincerity, and that she has spared neither time 
nor labor to make it beautiful. The spirit she 
brought to it was conscientious and sympathetic. 
Indeed, Mr. Buskin thought her peculiar art 
gift was sympathy — *^ the gift of truest expres- 
sion of feelings serene in their rightness." The 
frontispiece drawing to the '* Story of Ida," one 
of Miss Alexander's earlier books, shows infi- 
nite tenderness and feeling, and it is not to be 
wondered at that one of Mr. Buskin's faith 
should be allured by the spirit of the worker. 
Still, he was not wholly blinded. He admitted 
that Miss Alexander had faults, but thought 
them more than atoned for by the virtue of sin- 
cerity. And that is quite true ; but Mr. Bus- 
kin was hardly the right one to say it. For the 
faults of Miss Alexander's drawing were of his 
planting. It was his writing and teaching that 
led her into error. He says — evidently intend- 
ing it in commendation — that her work is *' dis- 
tinguished by the faculty and habit of realiza- 
tion which belongs to all Pre-Baphaelism." 
Yes ; and what a pity I That is the error of it 
— the error of Pre-Baphaelism, and Mr. Bus- 
kin, and Miss Alexander. And it all came about 
from a misconception of the early Italian paint- 
ers — the painters before Baphael. It was dis- 
covered (let us say, for the sake of argument, 
by Mr. Buskin) that these painters had a won- 
derful charm of sincerity and honesty in their 
paintings, that they convinced one by their 
truth, their frankness, their earnestness of 
statement. It was also discovered that they 
did everything, from high to low, with an ex- 
acting detail, making much of flowers and 
grasses, and dwelling long upon such things as 
patterns, brocades, and jewels. Immediately 
the conclusion was jumped at that the flne 
spirit of a Botticelli or a Carpaccio was the re- 
sult of a ^^ loving care " in the handling of de- 
tail. Then it was further concluded that the 
spirit could be regained by the moderns if they 
would but take up the detail with the same ^' lov- 
ing care." The result was Pre-Baphaelism in 
England, with Holman Hunt, Millais, and Bos- 
setti as disciples, Mr. Buskin as prophet, and, 
far on the outside of the circle, such people as 
Miss Alexander taking an impulse from the 
movement. OMH 

The early Italians, it may be said, painted 



[March 16, 

in detail, not necessarily because they loved 
detail as such, but because they could not by 
any chance paint in any other way. It is char- 
acteristic of youth that it sees things in the 
part before it grasps or comprehends them as 
a whole. Every beginner paints the leaves 
apon the tree before he understands the mean- 
ing or significance of the forest. In other 
words, the power of generalization is not given 
to either the youthful painter or the youth- 
ful race. The fifteenth century Italians painted 
in a small way because they were immature. 
When the race and the art reached an apo- 
gee with Titian at Venice, the manner of see- 
ing and painting was wholly changed. Nature 
was summarized and syndiesized; the great 
truths were given, and the small details were 

But Mr. Buskin has never recognized the 
immaturity of the detail view, and he has more 
than once scolded himself red in the face over 
the studio doctrine of subordination. As for 
his disciples, most of the Pre-Baphaelites aban- 
doned the brotherhood and its small realism at 
an early day; and from those, like Holman 
Hunt, who have clung to the faith, there has 
resulted only incomplete work. This was to be 
expected. For all art movements that try to 
turn the world backward by reproducing past 
art usually seize upon the shortcomings and 
mannerisms of the imitated. Pre-Baphaelism 
was no exception. It persistently grasped at 
the detail and consistently lost the ensemble. 
This is Miss Alexander's crying fault, and yet, 
paradoxical as it may sound, it is her technical 
virtue. Detail is not objectionable in such 
things as a branch, a flower, a vine ; and Miss 
Alexander shows us by the spray of blossoms 
in the half-title to her book how really beautiful 
it may be when set apart by itself. But a car- 
rying out of this detail in a tree would result 
in something of metal-like rigidity having no 
possible relation to the earth, air, or sky. And 
Pre-Baphaelism insisted upon carrying out the 
principle of detail in every kind of composition. 
Miss Alexander shows it to us in Plate 84, 
representing the Child lying upon a heap of 
hay. The hay is drawn line upon line with 
minute precision, and as a result it has no elas- 
ticity about it. It is, in fact, as hard as wire. 
In Plate 29, showing the Madonna and the 
Bich Man, there is no end of detail lavished 
upon the pots and the plants at the right ; but 
the relation between the foreground, middle 
distance, and background, is lost. The hair 

and the head of the Bich Man are minutely 
done, but the head does not fit the body, and 
the figures do not fit the courtyard where they 
are supposed to be standing. Of course Miss 
Alexander, like her master, scorns all the studio 
teachings of subordination, of values, of the 
relations of light and dark. She is seeking 
truth, not studio devices ; but does she attain 
it ? Yes ; she gains the small truths of leaf and 
wrinkle and eyelash, but she loses the great 
truth of unity. One might go on, and suggest 
that in Plate 38 she has given figures and a 
room, but not a room with figures ; that Plate 42 
shows figures and a landscape, but not a land- 
scape with figures. In almost all of the larger 
compositions the insubordinate prominence of 
the petty features hurts the uni^ of the mass. 
Notice the wall under the window in Plate 61, 
— how it comes forward out of the picture ; and 
in Plate 88, how the whole room falls to pieces 
to give place to the figures. There is an imp 
of compensation that f oUows minute realization. 
You may gain the surface but lose the sub- 
stance, gain a figure but lose the room, gain a 
bush but lose the landscape. 

And yet, when one has had his fling at Pre- 
Baphaelism he may be very far from thinking 
the work of its exponents wholly worthless. 
One may find fault with Miss Alexander's 
drawing for its want of knowledge or its abund- 
ance of bias, and yet see much to be admired 
in her book of illustrations. Certainly its best 
quality is the spirit with which it is imbued ; 
but, aside from that, there are many small 
decorative features of much beauty. The 
fiowers, stems, and vines woven between the 
lettered text are excellent in every way, and 
remind one of the fine illustrations by Mr. 
Buskin made so many years ago for *' Modem 
Painters." In themselves these are quite suffi- 
cient to carry the book and give it more than 
a passing interest. The frontispiece, showing 
a single portrait figure, is also exceptionally 
vital ; and there are a number of large illus- 
trations, such as Plates 59, 91, and 101, of 
unusual charm. One may differ with the prin- 
ciple upon which the work is done without ques- 
tioning either the spirit or the ability of the 
worker. Pre-Baphaelism was both a success 
and a failure. It started on a wrong principle, 
but worked out its own salvation by dint of 
native ability and industry. The same thing 
might be said of both Mr. Buskin and his pro- 
tigee^ Miss Alexander. 

John C. Van Dtkb. 




A Frbnch Critic's Stxtdt of Words- 

In his preface to " The Excursion," Words- 
worth aUades to a previous, though unpub- 
lished, poem of his own as *^ biographical, and 
conducting the history of the author's mind to 
the point when he was emboldened to hope that 
his faculties were sufficiently matured for enter- 
ing upon the arduous labor which he had pro- 
pped to himself " (in writing ''The Recluse," 
of which '' The Excursion " was to stand as the 
second portion). Hesitating to lay before the 
public anything which dwelt at such length 
with his own experience, until such time as his 
apparent self-glorification should have been 
justified by the completion of ''The Recluse," 
the poem alluded to — " The Prelude " — 
although written in its author's prime, was 
not published until after his death, fifty years 

In general, critics have assumed the reader's 
knowledge of this unique autobiographical 
poem. A Frenchman, Monsieur Emile Lego- 
uis, believing that its import has not been suffi- 
ciently recognized by Wordsworth's own coun- 
trymen, finds in the poem the material for a 
more intelligent understanding of Words- 
worth's character and inner life than has before 
been made. He undertakes to give as com- 
plete an account of it as direct quotation, sup- 
plemented by analysis, can convey ; to explain 
or amplify it by means of all the obtainable evi- 
dence in the shape of Wordsworth's other 
poems, together with his own and his friends' 
correspondence ; to determine the allusions, and 
to assign to each particular fact its full impor- 
tance by giving a suitable account of its relations 
to history. A few chapters in conclusion are 
given to an analysis of the work of Words- 
worth's maturity ; but in the main the work is, as 
its title indicates, devoted to "The Early Life of 
William Wordsworth," ending with his twenty- 
eighth year, — the period covered by "The 
Prelude." It is a highly interesting study, is 
ably translated by Mr. J. W. Matthews, and 
makes a volume of nearly five hundred octavo 

Scarcely any English poet has been the sub- 
ject of so frequent or so voluminous criticism 
as William Wordsworth. Beginning with 
DeQuincey, most of these have agreed in assign- 
ing Wordsworth's optimistic habit of mind to 

*Ths Eablt Litb or William Wordsworth, 1770-1798. 
A Study of " The Prelude." By Emile Legouis, New York : 
ChiriM Seribner's Sons. 

his exceptionally favored lot in life. M. Le- 
gouis, however, reminds us that Wordsworth's 
lot was not in itself propitious, but the reverse; 
and reveals to us that his happiness and optim- 
ism were due to the conscious action of the will, 
and to deliberate choice, — that, indeed, he 
affords a most conclusive example of the power 
of the will over the formation of ideas and the 
ordering of existence. Having resolved to be 
happy, and having arrived at a dear perception 
of the necessary means, Wordsworth held with 
invincible tenacity to that line of life and 
thought which in his opinion must lead to hap- 
piness. In order to attain this end, he employed 
all his individual gifts, his rare powers of mind, 
his genius even, and his insight into nature ; 
and to this extent there is an incommunicable 
element in his method. But it is the effort, the 
unflinching resistance to despondency, that con- 
stitutes the great moral lesson of his life ; a 
lesson which, in spite of differences in individ- 
ual capacity, is of general applicability. From 
a literary point of view, also, the work is in- 
structive as explaining Wordsworth's isolated 
position amidst a murmuring and rebellious 
generation. Reviewing the well-known facts of 
Wordsworth's life, our critic finds them melan- 
choly rather than enviable. 

« Can a man be reokoned a favorite of fortaoe when 
he has lost his mother during his eighth year, and his 
father at sixteen; when he has been arbitrarily deprived 
of his inheritance, has had to endure a humiliating exist- 
ence under the roof of stem and narrow-minded grand- 
parents, and for years has been coldly treated by his 
relations on account of his indolence, his obstinacy, and 
his refusal to embark upon any of the safe careers sug- 
gested to him; when he is kept apart from the sister he 
loyes beyond everything else, apparently from fear that 
she may become contaminated by his (fisobedience and 
his subversive opinions; when he entrusts all his dreams 
of happiness to the French Revolution, only to see them 
borne under in the tempest, and loses not only his respect 
and love for his native country, but all hope of progress 
as well ; when, meanwhile, his existence is so straitened, 
so penurious even, and so utterly without promise for the 
morrow, that he is compelled to pospone indefinitely his 
union with his sister's friend, that maiden, chosen long 
ago, and now beloved, whom he knows not whether he 
can ever make his wife ? " 

The real theme of " The Prelude," according 
to M. Legouis, is the wonderful way in which 
the man contrived to profit by circumstances in 
themselves either indifferent, or favorable and 
unfavorable by turns, so as to attain to a joyous 
harmony of all his faculties. It is less a nar- 
rative than a study of origins ; less the history 
of a man than a philosophy of a mind. Far 
from being egoistic, it is broadly human ; the 
poet chooses himself for hero simply because he 



[March 16, 

can fathom no other soul so deeply, because 
there is no other from which he could derive so 
many fresh and indubitable truths. 

Moreover, Wordsworth's biography becomes 
almost an inward history of his generation. To 
learn how, in his case, manhood was developed 
out of early youth, is to learn how the nine- 
teenth century was born from the eighteenth, 
so different, yet with so manifest a family 

The moral crisis of Wordsworth's life came, 
as it did for so many of his contemporaries, in 
connection with the progress of the French 
Revolution. The visions of approaching uni- 
versal happiness which flashed before men's 
eyes in 1789 were speedily converted into dis- 
cord. Elements which it had seemed possi- 
ble to reconcile were discovered to be radically 
opposed: humanitarian faith was superseded 
by pessimism. The tranquility of his old age 
came out of such storm and stress ; the stages 
of recovery from the blight of the years between 
1792 and 1796 were slow but sure. The prin- 
cipal remedial agents were, first, the combina- 
tion of circumstances which restored him to a 
country home and to an atmosphere of nature 
where alone he could breathe freely ; and, sec- 
ond, the companionship of his sister Dorothy, 
the being he loved best in the world. With 
such protection and support, gradually he 
recovered what he had lost — a moral equilib- 
rium as perfect as any poet has ever enjoyed. 

Dorothy Wordsworth was something more 
than a companion whose affection is merely 
soothing. She had a measure of genius pecu- 
liar to herself, at once active and alluring. She 
was not content with a mere passive admiration 
of her brother. With all her faith in him, the 
greatness which her wishes as well as her fancy 
anticipated for him was of a particular kind. 
Very early she decided in her own heart that 
he would be a poet, and made up her mind also 
as to the sort of a poet he would be. Indeed, 
it is vain to attempt to distinguish the share 
each had in their mutual observations of na- 
ture. On every page of Dorothy's journals are 
touches of description which give rise to some 
of Wordsworth's best lines. To the maiden 
who saw with, and sometimes for, the poet, yet 
left to him the glory of immortalizing the 
image which she had discovered as soon as or 
earlier than he, a large share of admiration 
must be accorded. 

Besides Dorothy, the only person by whom 
Wordsworth admitted himself to have been 
deeply influenced was Coleridge. The intimacy 

which began between these two men while both 
were in their early twenties was as opportune 
as it was beneficial. It was Coleridge who 
provided, or rather assisted, Wordsworth to find 
the only thing still needful to make him the 
poet he finally became, namely, a philosophy. 
Soon the two young men felt that each was 
necessary to the other, and they established 
residences within easy walking distance, for the 
sake of daily intercourse. The story from this 
on is more familiar, yet some fresh insight is ta 
be gathered even here. Coleridge, in his Bkh 
graphia Liter aria^ has already made us famil- 
iar with the principal incidents which led 
to their attempts and failures at collaboration. 
M. Legouis shows that notwithstanding their 
utter inability to work with each other, each 
worked best/or the other, or rather each felt the 
spur and stimulus of the other's mind with such 
force that the effect was of the happiest on both 
natures. Wordsworth's realism asserted itself 
through being brought into confiict with Cole- 
ridge's preference for the fantastic. The impos- 
sibility of keeping step with Coleridge, and the 
discomfort of feeling his natural progress 
thwarted, were to Wordsworth a decisive and 
imperious revelation of the inevitable tendency 
of his own poetic genius. Henceforth his pecu- 
liar province should be the common. Wherever 
selection was possible, he held it his duty ixy 
borrow nothing from those elements of the 
world which are marvellous and unusual. But 
when he has thus thrown to the winds all the 
customary auxiliary resources of poetry, what 
was left to prove his claim to the title of poet? 
There remained a powerful imagination directed 
upon common objects and upon the simple in- 
cidents of life. His imagination sees accu- 
rately, but because its vision is powerful it sees 
what has never been seen, or sees better and 
more clearly the objects which are displayed 
before the gaze of all men. It is indeed an 
illumination from the soul, — 

" the gleam. 
The light that neTer was on sea or land, 
The consecration, and the Poet's dream." 

AimA B. McMahan. 

The seventieth birthday of Dr. Henrik Ibsen comes 
on the twentieth of this month. As his sixtieth birth- 
day was celebrated by the publication of Jaeger's biog<- 
raphy, so the approaching anniversary is to be marked 
by various commemorative writings, as well as by series- 
performances of his plays. « Folitiken," a leading news- 
paper of Copenhagen, is preparing a special issue for 
the date in question, to contain a symposium of critical 
opinion from many well-known writers of Europe and 




Marriage Customs in Mant liAsms.* 

The care which many of us use when some fav- 
ored friends of ours become engaged to marry, 
in offering our best wishes to the woman and 
in congratulating the man, is interesting. But 
it is something more. It is significant of the 
time when the woman was not won as she is 
to-day, but was the booty of a successful foray 
or the gift of the father and owner. 

This custom of our day is good enough, and 
we would not change it ; but if we think of it 
a moment we shall see that we congratulate the 
man because he is supposed to have been 
striving for a prize which he has at last won, 
and our best wishes to the woman mean sim- 
ply that we hope she may be happy. One who 
leans a little toward cynicism is sometimes 
inclined to reverse this social formula, on the 
ground that the woman is really the more for- 
tunate of the two, and that it is the man for 
whose happiness we should be hoping. 

Whatever be the facts so far as present con- 
ditions are concerned, there was once a time 
to which this courtesy of ours points when 
there would have been in it a genuine literal- 
ness which it lacks to-day. When a young 
man, having decided that he must have a wife, 
gathered a few of his friends about him, set 
out for some neighboring tribe, seized and 
brought home the most attractive woman whom 
he could find, he might well be congratulated. 
He had won a prize. With quite as genuine 
a feeling could one offer the maiden his best 
wishes that she might be happy if it could so be. 

This rude method of securing a wife was 
somewhat improved when a man came to apply 
to the parents or to the father of a girl whom 
he wanted. The proprietorship of the father 
was recognized, so it was his consent that 
needed to be gained rather than that of the girl 
herself. But as truly again had the prize been 
won, and with a deeper feeling of sympathy 
than before might one hope for the happiness 
of her who had been literally given away. We 
need not look far back of us in time, nor to 
very distant parts of the world, to see this cus- 
tom still alive. We, it may be, have wandered 
farther from these old-time ideas than have 
many peoples, retaining ourselves traces of 
them only — traces which have become almost 
mere forms. 

If we were able to know the marriage cus- 

* Marrtaq» Customs ik Maitt Lands. By the Rey. 
H. N. Hatefainson, B.A., F.G JS. New York : D. Appleton 

toms in all lands, we should find everywhere 
old practices still surviving, or at least exist- 
ing in rudimentary forms, but all pointing 
back to a time when the beliefs of the people 
made necessary these practices either to ward 
off evil spirits or to secure good fortune and 
abundance to the young man and his bride. In 
Germany still the bride stands close to the 
groom during the service, ^^ that there may be 
no room for the Prince of Darkness to come 
between them." 

Mr. Hutchinson, the author of ^^ Marriage 
Customs in Many Lands," has brought together 
from many sources descriptions of a great va- 
riety of marriage customs. His object is ^^ not 
to discuss scientific questions connected with 
the origin of marriage and the human family," 
but '^ to present to general readers a careful 
account of quaint and interesting customs, 
derived from information scattered through 
innumerable volumes." The value and interest 
of the book certainly would be much increased 
if we could learn from it not merely what vari- 
ous marriage customs people have, but why 
they have them. It is perhaps too much to 
expect in a single volume, and we can hardly 
complain since it was not the author's purpose 
to explain but only to relate. 

Attention is mainly given to those countries 
with which we are least familiar and where old 
and curious customs remain most tenaciously. 
Southern Germany, Bohemia, and Tyrol are 
full of survivals of old-time customs, the mean- 
ing of many of which is forgotten ; while 
China is illustrative of a people among whom 
an elaborate ceremonial in connection with mar- 
riage retains in large part its original signifi- 
cance. The barbarous peoples of Africa, of 
America, and of the Islands of the South Pa- 
cific, furnish curious customs similar in many 
cases to those of more advanced people. 

If in reading Mr. Hutchinson's book one is 
able to bear in mind the customs found in dif- 
ferent countries, he is struck with the frequent 
recurrence of certain practices. We are not 
ourselves very familiar with marriages or be- 
trothals arranged by parents or friends, but we 
notice among peoples as widely separated as are 
Chinese, Turks, Basutos of Africa, Samoans, 
Scandinavians, and Magyars, the go-between 
is an important person. With some the duties 
of the matchmakers are merely formal ; with 
others, they really bring about the marriage. 
But even when the duty is a formal one it is 
without doubt a relic of the time when the 
father owned the daughter and disposed of her 



[March 16, 

on the best terms possible. Look where we 
may, the world over, we find these traces of 
former customs. Our own custom of giving 
away the bride is a direct descendant of the 
practice of the father or other male rela- 
tive giving away the women of the family as 

It is well worth while to read a book in 
which one finds so many old customs described. 
And when we are amused by the curious, and, 
as they seem to us, foolish beliefs of many 
peoples, we shall do well to bear in mind that 
we ourselves have not as yet outgrown the age 
of superstition. Many of our prettiest customs 
are but survivals from a superstitious past, de- 
serving, however, to be retamed for their pic- 
turesqueness. Yet there is no doubt that to 
many they are of real importance, though not 

We may hope that in marriage, as in other 
matters, we may in time outlive our belief in 
signs and wonders, that we may feel a marriage 
is complete if no rice is scattered about, even 
though for picturesque effect we continue to 
throw the rice and the old shoe. 

A word may be added with regard to the 
general appearance of the book. It is very 
attractive ; the illustrations reproduced from 
photographs and paintings are unusoaUy good. 

Mebton L. Miller. 

Worlds not Bealizbd.'*' 

Until the publication of ^'Le Tr^sor des 
Humbles," M. Maeterlinck was known to the 
reading public as a philosophic man of letters. 
Every serious author is more or less philo- 
sophic : he has something to say of the general 
principles of life ; he can hardly avoid having 
some kind of philosophy, although he may 
make no effort to state it systematically or even 
directly. M. Maeterlinck has now, however, 
become a literary philosopher ; and in his latest 
book he sketches for us the outlines of his theory 
of the universe. It is not remarkable that M. 
Maeterlinck should have a philosophy : the re- 
markable thing is that he should try to express 
it, for it had been previously understood that 
the main characteristics of the deep truths 
which his work has heretofore embodied were 
such that nobody could give them utterance. 

*Thb Tbsasubb of thb Humblb. By Maurioe Maeter- 
linok. Translated by Alfred Satro, with an LitroduotioD by 
A. B. Walkley. New York : Dodd, Mead & Co. 

But, indeed, this last principle is the basis of 
the present formulation. 

In " The Treasure of the Humble," then, 
we have M. Maeterlinck as a philosopher ; not 
a very systematic philosopher, it is true, not 
academic, arid, accurate, but still a philosopher 
for all that. There will be many who have been 
interested in his plays who wiU like to turn to 
them again with these more definite statements 
in mind, and see how far they can discern, in 
what was enigmatic, the forms more or less 
vague which are a little more plainly drawn in 
this book. Such readers will turn at once to 
the essay on ^^ The Tragical in Daily Life," 
where they will certainly find some things of a 
good deal of interest concerning the manner 
and the matter of '^ The Princess Maleine " and 
the other remarkable dramas. We prefer, how- 
ever, to consider the book by itself for the mo- 
ment, or, rather, for itself. It offers us coun- 
sel on life and not on literature, and we prefer 
to take it as it offers itself. M. Maeterlinck 
is a philosopher of a known school, and his work 
has a place in a known tendency of our time. 
Let us see, if we can, what he adds to what has 
been already common property. 

When we speak of M. Maeterlinck as a phil- 
osopher of ^^ a known school " we mean that he 
is a mystic. That is a very vague name, and 
comprehends people as far apart as Plotinus 
and Greorge Fox. Mystics are really not much 
farther known than as they are known to be 
mystics. Still the word gives us, in a way, 
some idea of a standpoint : it means, for in- 
stance, that one proceeds by intuition rather 
than by the reasoning powers. As a nineteenth 
century mystic, M. Maeterlinck will be con- 
nected in our minds with a movement of some 
interest in contemporary France. He is not a 
Neo-Christian, as the term is or was, but in so 
far as his thinking comes from Carlyle and 
Emerson he partakes of the thought that has 
influenced the Neo-Christians. Being a Bel- 
gian, however, it is not remarkable that there 
should also reappear in him the German strain, 
somewhat diversely apparent in Eckhard, 
Boehme, and Novalis. 

All this is a very tame way of dealing with 
a great genius, of course ; but, tame or not, we 
see no other way so simple or so efficacious of 
giving the general idea of M. Maeterlinck's 
philosophy. Set him down as a mystic, and 
you know something of him. He deals with 
the secret of Life ; he deals with matters not 
apprehended by the ordinary senses or the 
intellect ; he endeavors to see through the hith- 




erto barrier of ordinarily-aocepted human pow- 
ers. He is looking along *^ die wall of life in 
search of the crevices through which Grod (and, 
let US add, Man) may be seen." 

It is possibly foolish to attempt to give any 
account of the ideas of one who begins his work 
by declaring (entirely in earnest) that " It is 
idle to think that, by means of words, any real 
communication can ever pass from one man to 
another." Certainly it is not an encouraging 
beginning ; we cannot understand M. Maeter- 
linck without refuting him, for this point is 
cardinal. But the reader must pass over the 
dilemma; without accepting the paradox he 
cannot even begin. Indeed, he will perhaps 
remember that the great moments of life are 
silent moments. Here M. Maeterlinck, very 
scientifically and unmystically, makes his start. 
Mystic though he be, he begins with a defi- 
nite fact which anyone may verify. There 
are certain moments in the life of everyone 
which are different from all other moments, in 
which life stands still and is eternal, while or- 
dinary existence runs through sixty, seventy, 
or six hundred seconds of time. Such moments 
people experience in different ways : some in 
love, some in sport, some in religion, some in 
work ; but all have them. People explain them 
in different ways, or else they do not explain 
them at all, or perhaps they do not even wholly 
appreciate that they have ijiem. Such moments 
have conventionalized themselves in literature 
as the period of " thoughts too deep for words." 
For these moments are certainly moments of 
silence ; but it is in them, proceeds M. Maeter- 
linck, in them only that we know. In such 
moments we are conscious of our brethren ; * 
then there is an instinct of truth in us ; then 
existence lies bare. When do we know such 
moments ? ^' At a home-coming, on the eve of 
a departure, in the midst of a great joy, at the 
pillow of a death-bed, on the approach of a dire 
misfortune," although it may be at no such 
crisis ; it may be at any time. 

Now, of such moments some people have more 
and some less ; some seem to have a great many. 
Three or four years ago, writing of Mr. Sharp 
and M. Maeterlinck, we spoke of their subjectis 
as being ^^ indefinite hopes and fears, imagin- 
ings of spiritual accompaniment, premonitions 
almost occult, faint ripplings of emotion, the 
little wavelets that skim over the waves of pas- 
But in saying so much and no more, we 


failed to penetrate entirely the idea of M. Mae- 

*H0ie, M often in what follows, I nse a phrase or a word 
ol M. liaeterlinck's without quotation marks. 

terlinck, if not of Mr. Sharp.* For now it is 
clear that it is as the awakening of the soul 
that M. Maeterlinck regards these questions 
*^ of a presentiment, of the strange impression 
product by a chance meeting or a look, . . . 
of the secret laws of sympathy and antipathy, 
of elective and instinctive affinities, of the over- 
whelming influence of the thing that had not 
been spoken." In these silent moments of life, 
our souls may know each other ; and for many 
reasons M. Maeterlinck believes that our souls 
know each other more now in our daily life than 
in other ages. There have been such periods 
in history before, — Egypt, India, the centuries 
of Mediaeval Mysticism ; there have also been 
periods in which souls were shut away from 
each other. Such was the case in the eigh- 
teenth century ; but now these great silent mo- 
ments are moments of more interest. 

On this theory is the book based. In certain 
great silent moments of life do we know the 
souls about us, do we become aware of fate, do 
we realize God. The essays are hardly consecu- 
tive ; they depend on the first and the second, 
and have a certain connection with each other, 
but they do not make an interdependent system. 
M. Maeterlinck has noted a change in our ideas 
of morality. There are moments when we feel, 
more deeply than did our fathers, that we are 
not in the presence of ourselves alone, and in 
such moments our conscience judges without 
much infiuence from '^ conventional " morality. 
In such moments do ^^ the gods from whom we 
spring" manifest themselves in an invisible 
goodness which, more than anything else, brings 
our soul into contact with other souls. The 
true working of life, the true fate, does not lie 
open ; it is hidden from most of us. Some per- 
ceive it more than others, — most of all, those 
few whom the gods love and have destined to 
early death : more than men, women, who have 
preserved the sense of the mystic in the earth 
to this day. 

Such is the merest hint at M. Maeterlinck's 
theory of Life : it can be seen to be a very inter- 
esting one. We have not here a mysticism like 
that of Eckhard, who strove to express the 
relation of God with any individual soul ; or 
even like that of Ruysbroeck, who sought to 
indicate a way by which the soul could return 
to the divine from which it had sprung. We 
have here a very practical matter, not handled 

* Somewhat more happy, perhaps, were we in speaking of 
M. Maeterlinck as one of the *^ antennae.*' He uses the same 
fignre himself in speaking of Novalis, " nn de ces Stree extr»- 
ordinaires qui sont les antennes de Pftme humaine." 



[Mardi 16, 

in a very practical way to be sure, but still a 
matter not for saints alone but for anyone and 
for aU. Everybody can recognize the moments 
when he becomes conscious of the true life, and 
everybody can increase his power of appreciat- 
ing such moments. ^'This much at least is 
abundantly proved to us, that in the work-a- 
day lives of the very humblest of men, spiritual 
phenomena manifest themselves, mysterious 
direct workings, that bring soul nearer to soul." 
It is this possibility of true life that M. Mae- 
terlinck thinks of as ** The Treasure," and it is 
more common in such lives as lack the ordi- 
nary circumstance of this world, namely ^^ The 

We have spent so much time in trying to 
express M. Maeterlinck's views that we have no 
room left for criticism. But criticism of such a 
theory of life is hardly a matter for a period- 
ical devoted to current literature. It will come 
in time, and in a different way. It is a pity, 
however, that we cannot indicate the sdsthetic 
bearing of M. Maeterlinck's philosophy : that 
we cannot point out the way in which this theory 
of ^^ the moment " is developed in application 
to the drama, and indicate som^ further appli- 
cations. But such matters must be passed by. 

The English version of this book is a good 
one. Despite some small inaccuracies and 
inelegancies, it is rather remarkable in convey- 
ing tibe meaning and the character of the orig- 
inal. We rather regret the omission of the 
essays on Emerson, Buysbroeck, and Novalis. 
They do not really belong to the others 
(although they are included in the French edi- 
tion), but they are very useful in an effort to 
understand our author. Mr. Walkley's Intro- 
duction seems to us good : not by any means 
the last word of comment, but still such as to 
give the reader who turns to it after he has 
read the book a good deal of help in accom- 
modating new ideas to old ones. 

It is a curious book, written in a charming 
style, and persuasive. One feels somehow as 
though M. Maeterlinck had almost a right to 
answer anyone who cannot see anything in it 
with the repartee of Turner, — namely, Do n't 
you wish you could ? 

Edward E. Hale, Jr. 

Some Becent Foreign Fiction.* 

^ The popular « Story of the Nations " series, published 
by Messrs. 6. P. Putnam's Sons, now numbers fifty 
volumes already published, besides seyeral others in 
preparation. A new cloth cover has been designed for 
the series, which gives it a more dignified appearance 
upon the library shelves. 

Foreign fiction is represented in the recent pro- 
duct by a nomber of books, among which six at 
least most have a few words of praise or dispraise, 
as the case may be. Nothing bat praise, snrely, is 
the desert of the stoat volame which contains a half 
score of tales and sketches by Mr. Sienkiewicz, 
translated, like the author's other books, by the 
increasingly skilful hand of Mr. Curtin. The au- 
thor of the great Polish trilogy has now obtained 
such a vogue that whatever may bear his name is 
sure of an audience, and we are no longer called 
upon to do the missionary work that it gave us so 
much pleasure to do a few years ago. Two small 
volumes of short pieces by this writer have for some 
time been familiar to Elnglish readers, and seemed 
to give slight earnest of his tremendous powers when 
working with sufiBicient elbow-room. Taken by them- 
selves, those two volumes gave indications of little 
more than a graceful talent. The new volume, en- 
titled <<Hania" from its longrest story, is of a dif- 
ferent quality, and seems to us quite worthy of the 
genius which we know the author to possess. It is, 
to be sure, very uneven, and several of the sketches 
attain nothing more than mediocrity, but the others 
touch a very high watermark indeed, and exhibit 
much the same combination of raciness, vitality, and 
artistic restraint that makes the minor writings of 
Tourgu^nieff supreme in their kind. "Hania," 
« Tartar Captivity," and << Charcoal Sketches " are 
certainly masterpieces in miniature, and not un- 
worthy of comparison with " First Love " and the 
<< Annals of a Sportsman." Some of the other pieces 
are of comparatively slight value, and two or three of 
them are no more than chalk drawings for the great 
canvasses by which the author is chiefly known. 

Why Dr. Max Nordau should have thought him- 
self capable of writing a novel, is a dark mystery. 
As an illustration of his own hobby of '< Degenera- 
tion," such a production as "The Drones Must 
Die " may have a possible warrant for existence, 
but we can conceive of no other. The book has 
neither wit nor penetration nor shrewd observa- 
tion nor strength of any sort Its movement is 
truly elephantine, and its invention is limited to the 
well-worn story of the poor man who seeks to en- 
rich himself by speculation and finds himself caught 
in the net of the spider. One might imagine an 

*HAinA. By Henryk Sienkiewiez. TruiflUted from the 
Polish by Jeremiah Curtin. Boston : Little, Brown, & Co. 

The Dbokbs Must Die. By Max Nordau. Tnmalated 
from the Qerman. New York : Q. W. Dillingham Co. 

AvDBONiKE. The Heroine of the Greek Revolntioii. By 
Stephanas Theodoros Xenoe. Translated from the original 
Ghreek by Edwin A. Qroevenor. Boston : Roberts Brothers. 

The Lion of Jakika ; or, The Last Days of the Janissaries. 
A Torkiah norel. By Manros Jokai. T^raaslated by R. 
Nisbet Bain. New York : Hsrper & Brothers. 

Paris. By Emile Zobk, Translated by Bmest Alfred Vise- 
telly. Two volnmes. New York : The Ma^millan Co. 

Americak NoBiiiiTT. By Pierre de Conlerain. New 
York: Charles Soribner's Sons. 




effeetiye treatment of la haute finance; Balzac ao- 
eomplished it, and Zola has the power to do it again, 
bat Dr. Nordaa is too pitif ally eqaipped for this or 
any other novelistic enterprise to he deserving of 
the slightest attention. 

The ponderoas romance entitled <<Andronike,'' 
which Professor Grosvenor has translated from the 
modem Greek of Mr. Stephanos Theodores Xenos, 
ia a chronicle history of the Greek revolution of 
1821, and covers the happenings of the three event- 
ful years that ended wiUi the sea-fight at Navarino. 
It proves to be more interesting as history than as 
romance, for the aathor is too minute and pains- 
taking in his endeavor to record the facts to make 
a saecessfal novelist, and ^e work on the artistic 
side is at once nawe and crade. Yet there are thrill- 
ing episodes, described in a spirit of exalted patri- 
otism, which have power to stir the blood and to 
reproduce the emotional tumult that was translated 
by Shelley into the pure poetry of " Hellas." Many 
onfamiliar incidents are woven into the web of the 
romance, besides those things long familiar to all 
English readers — the devotion and death of Byron, 
the adventures of Trelawney and Odysseus, the 
heroism of Marco Botsaris, the defense and fall of 
Misolonghi, the sinister careers of Ali and Ibrahim. 
The book is at least good history, and so embodies 
the spirit of modem Hellenic nationalism that we 
can easily understand the high esteem in which it 
is held by the people of whose contemporary liter- 
«tare it is said to be '* the greatest romance." 

The picturesque figure of Ali Pasha is one of the 
meet interesting in the Greek novelists' gallery of 
historieal portraits, and the desperate villany of his 
career long ago inspired the foremost among Hun- 
garian writers of fiction to weave a romance about 
"the Lion of Janina." This romance, translated 
into English by Mr. Nisbet Bain, has just been pub- 
Bshed, and serves once more to illustrate the orien- 
tal imag^ation and the artistic irresponsibility of its 
prolific aathor. The story is moulded about a skele- 
ton of historical fact, but has in reality no more hold 
upon life than an Arabian tale. One cannot help 
beiug attracted by the invention and the glitter of 
mch books, but it is not easy to take them as serious 
examples of modern fiction. 

The publication of M. Zola's *< Paris," complet- 
ing the trilogy of '<Les Trois Villes," is not only an 
event in the literary sense, but derives much adven- 
titioos importance from the author's recent cham- 
pionship of a cause unpopular with his f ellow-coun- 
tiymen. However his part in that unfortunate af- 
fair may have aroused the animosity of social and 
official France, there is no doubt that it has com- 
pelled the admiration of the disinterested public out- 
•ide, and that he has won for himself a new and en- 
thodastic foUowing among lovers of justice and fair 
plfty everywhere, whether given to the reading of 
lM)ob or not. If not, many of them will make an 
exception in favor of a novel published at just this 
tone by M. Zola, and the fortunes of the book are 
MBored, as far as the general European and Ameri- 

can public is concerned. Report comes from Paris 
that the hatred of this writer is so widespread as to 
lessen the probable sale of the new novel. But we 
doubt if human nature in Paris is so unlike what it 
is elsewhere as to have this effect. Even those who 
dislike the author the most will have a natural curi- 
osity to become acquainted with his final deliberate 
verdict upon the civilization which he has so taken 
to task in his defense of Captain Dreyfus. That ver- 
dict is embodied in the earnest and passionate pages 
of '< Paris," and must be reckoned with as the pro- 
nouncement of one of the most acute and vigorous 
intellects of the time. It is a many-hued picture 
with which the book presents us, a canvas with strong 
effects of chiaroscuro and lurid coloring, with start- 
ling contrasts between the base and the heroic, be- 
tween social shams and social realities, between the 
heartless indifference of the wealthy and the des- 
perate frenzy of the proletariat. There is much bit- 
terness of feeling in the criticism of the existing or- 
der, and a note of fine indignation rings through 
the whole work. Yet the purport is not pessimism, 
although many will no doubt dismiss the book with 
that easy epithet; it is rather the impatient and 
passionate idealism of the clear-sighted philosophi- 
cal observer, who says to society "thou ailest here 
and here," and does not shrink from laying bare the 
plague-spots of the present, knowing that by such 
service Uie permanent interests of society are best 
to be furthered. No, M. Zola is as distinctly an 
idealist as is Dr. Ibsen ; to charge such men with 
pessimism is to display ignorance of the very mean- 
ing of that term. We wish it might be said that the 
art of M. Zola was commensurate with his idealism. 
But the fact is indisputable that most of the literary 
graces are denied him ; there is in the best of his 
work little animation or brilliancy, little of the light- 
ness of touch to which art owes most of its effects, 
little of the calm that is so much more persuasive 
than the most turbulent display of emotion. " Paris " 
is not as dull as *< Lourdes," or even as " Rome," 
but it is nevertheless dull, except in episodes, and 
much conscientiousness is needed to read it without 
omission. The intellectual evolution of the Abb^ 
Froment is the thread which unites the three sec- 
tions of the trilogy, and in the end we leave him, en- 
nobled and strengthened by much suffering, brought 
to full acknowledgment of the claims of the intel- 
lect, and prepared to substitute a rational theory of 
conduct for the incoherent fabric, now hopelessly 
shattered, of his long cherished illusions. The in- 
troduction of his brother Guillaume, a chemist who 
has invented a new explosive of extraordinary 
power, makes it possible for the author to give to 
anarchism of the bomb-throwing type a conspicu- 
ous place in this " Paris " section of the work, and 
the destruction, planned but not executed, of a great 
basilica, is one of the most exciting episodes to 
which our attention is directed. In this book we 
doubtless have the final word of M. Zola's philoso- 
phy and of M. Zola's art. And the fundamental 
questions raised by his total activity are these two : 



[March 16, 

Is the philosophy that toward which the currents of 
enlightened thought are irresistibly flowing ? Is 
the art of such a nature that to the future observer, 
looking back upon our epoch, the books that bear 
the name of Zola will appear as the books of Bal- 
zac now appear to us, as the lasting embodiment of 
the life and thought of their age ? To the first ques- 
tion we may with some degree of confidence make 
an affirmative answer, but to the second the reply 
must be in the negative. The future historian of 
literature will not be able to neglect the immense 
work of M. Zola, but will be constrained to deal 
with it as we now deal with the work of Voltaire. 
In other words, it will be dealt with not as a per- 
manent possession of literary art, but as a literary 
force for the most part spent in the period that 
was responsible for its generation. 

M. Pierre de Coulevain's <* American Nobility " is 
a novel that we have read with great interest, and 
if we cannot give it our unqualified approval we can 
at least pay tribute to its skilful construction and its 
obvious sincerity of purpose. It is, briefly, the story 
of a French gentleman of distinguished ancestry, 
who, finding the family fortunes impaired almost to 
the point of destitution, seeks to restore them by 
marriage with an American heiress. The marriage 
is duly brought about, and the wedded pair are 
happy for a time ; but the inevitable intrigue pres- 
ently makes its appearance, and shatters the dream 
of the confiding wife* After a period of great emo- 
tional stress for all concerned, the other woman dies, 
practicaUy by her own act, leaving husband and 
wife to patch up a sort of reconciliation, and try to 
save from the wreck of their happiness enough to 
make their continued existence tolerable if nothing 
more. This plot is so hackneyed that its bare state- 
ment seems to put the book in the list of common- 
place and insignificant fictions ; but the author has 
acted from a serious artistic motive, to which credit 
must be given. His book is to a considerable ex- 
tent the embodiment of a thesis, to the ejffect that 
such marriages as he describes must inevitably fail 
to result happily, since there are spiritual depths in 
the soul of a Frenchman which no Anglo-Saxon 
woman can sound, spiritual needs in his nature 
which only women of Latin race and Catholic train- 
ing can satisfy. There is thus found a sort of justi- 
fication for the conduct of the hero, who is by no 
means represented as a vulgar libertine, and who 
clearly enjoys all the time the qualified respect and 
the entire sympathy of the writer. Let those who 
will call such a book immoral in its tendency ; we 
rather prefer to take from it the lesson of the essen- 
tial incompatability of temperament existing be- 
tween the two races, and are willing at the same 
time to concede that the author has told the story 
with perfect honesty from his own point of view, 
that he has done his best to be fair to the Anglo- 
Saxon character, and that the fatal defect of his 
argument proceeds from a limitation of sympathetic 
insight of which he himself is absolutely and bliss- 
fully unconscious. William Mobton Payne. 

Bec£nt Books of Travbi-.* 

Mark Twain*s recent account of his around-the- 
world lecture tour, which he entitles '' Following the 
Equator,'' is a first-rate specimen of that eminently 
sagacious mixture of sense and nonsense which is so 
characteristic of him. To many refined people he 
may seem the vulgar buffoon, entirely unrespectful, 
unconventional, irreverent ; but this aspect is but his 
surface aspect. He reverences what is essentially 
worthy of reverence, as is evident from many a page 
in this volume. His remarks on reverence, indeed, 
show eminent sense and insight, — as when he says : 

** The reverence which is difficult, and which has per- 
sonal merit in it, is the respect which you pay, without 
compulsion, to the political or religious attitude of a 
man whose beliefs are not yours. You cannot revere 
his g^8 or his politics, and no one expects you to do 
that, but you could respect his belief in them if you tried 
hard enough, and you could respect him, too, if yon 
tried hard enough. But it is very difficult; it is next 
to impossible, and so we hardly ever try. If the man 
does n't believe as we do, we say he is a crank, and that 
settles it. I mean it does nowadays, because we can 't 
bum him." 

In truth, the dominant note in this book is not jest 
but earnestness, moral and humane, — an earnest 
desire for sincerity and genuineness, but tearing 
sham to pieces and flinging it to the winds. If 
Mr. Clemens had not been Mark Twain, he might 
have been Carlyle. 

But we have not space for exemplifying fully 
either the wisdom or the wit in this book. However, 
we mention the common Hindoo impression of the 
United States, as Mark Twain gives expression to 
it. When this country is named to the average 
Hindoo, — 

** Two torches flare up in the dark caverns of his mind, 
and he says, * Ah, the country of the great man — Wash- 
ington; and the Holy City — Chicago.' For he knows 
about the Congress of Religions, and this has enabled 
him to get an erroneous impression of Chicago." 

Mark Twain's manner of writing is deliciously 

*FoLL0WiNOTHB Equator. By Biark Twain. Illnstrated. 
(Published by subscription only.) Hartford, Conn.: The 
American Pabli8hiI^c Co. 

PiCTURSBQUB Sicily. ByW. A. Paton. Illnstiated. New 
York : Harper A Brothers. 

GoiNO TO War in Qrebcb. By Frederick Palmer. Dlus- 
trated. New York : R. H. Russell. 

Bbkik, THB CiTT OF Blood. By R. H. Baoon, R.N. Hlns- 
trated. New York : Edward Arnold. 

A World Pilorimaqb. By J. H. Barrows. Illostrated. 
Chicasro : A. C. MoClargr & Co. 

A Year from a Rbporter*s Notb-Book. By Richard 
Harding: Davis. Illustrated. New York : Harper A Brothers. 

Afloat on the Ohio. By R. G. Thwaitee. Chicago: 
Way A Williams. 

Across the Evbroladbs. By Hugh L. Willooghby. 
Illustrated. Philadelphia : J. B. Lippinoott Co. 

8ervia, the Poor Man's Paradise. By Herbert Viyian, 
M.A. Ulustrated. New York: Longmans, GhveUf <fc Co. 

South Africa of To-dat. By Captain Francis Young- 
husband, CLE. Illustrated. New York : The Maomillan Co. 

Korea and her Nbighbors. By Isabella Bird Bishop, 
F.R.G.S. Illustrated. Chicago : Fleming H. Rerell Co. 




desoltoxj ; you never know on what continent the 
next page will land yon. Altogether, we have a 
most bi^liant and varied jumble of wit, humor, 
information, inBtruction, wisdom, poetry, irony, and 
jest. Mark Twain is continually stepping from the 
sublime to the ridiculous, and vice versa. As soon 
as he suspects he is getting eloquent, he at once 
jumps into outrageous farce. As Mark warns oft 
the reviewer who shall attack him for padding, we 
will only say that his skill and brilliancy can almost 
redeem the plentiful padding in this book. As a 
book of travel, this work stands very high by reason 
of its ineisiveness and vividness ; and the inveterate 
travel-reader will mark the day he fell in with it 
with red-letter. Altogether, we find here that rara 
avis, a real book, full of thoroughly original char- 
acteristic impressions characteristically expressed, 
and thus intensely enjoyable to the real reader. 

Mr. W. A. Paton's " Picturesque Sicily " is a 
general and popular account of scenery, antiquities, 
and modern life, in that sonny isle. In the course 
of a three months' sojourn he visited the principal 
cities — Palermo, Catania, Messina, and Syracuse ; 
and also Segesta, Selinus, Girgenti, and other 
places of antiquarian interest, all of which are de- 
scribed in an enthusiastic and pleasant vein. He is 
surprised at finding in Sicily more ruins of Greek 
temples than in all Greece, and he gives large space 
to hiB observations on these ruins. The Sicily of 
to-day he finds to be in the main poverty-stricken 
and begfgar-ridden. He is harried from the most 
charming views by crowds of loathsome beggars. 
The Middle Ages still linger in Sicily, as is shown 
by the prevalence of saint-worship and superstition, 
and the lawlessness of secret associations like the 
Mafia. At Cefalu he happens on a true descend- 
ant of the medisDval minstrel who recited from the 
^Chronicles of the Crusaders." 

<< Daring his recitations he stood as if wrapped in 
thought, bareheaded, forgetful of the weather, and, 
seemingly, of oar presence. The performance was not 
a mere repetition of lines by rote, for, although there 
was very little variation in accent or tone, he seemed to 
speak as if his mind was fixed on the ideas he was ex- 
pressing. The tale of the Crusade finished, we gave 
him whatever it may have been, and again requested 
oar guide to ask him to recite other numbers of his 
repertoire. Informing us that he would give us the 
stoiy of the * Landing of Ruggiero and the building of 
the Cathedral at Cefalu,' he began in a louder and more 
inspiring tone, and repeated the lines more vigorously 
and with finer expression, using certain modest gestures. 
The tale of King Roger was longer than either of the 
other two recitations, and, when he finished it, the old 
man, pointing eagerly in the direction of the town, told 
oor guide to say to the strangers that < There, — there, — 
was the very city King Ruggiero had visited, there the 
cathedral he had built in honor of the Christ.' How 
were the mighty fallen ! From the shoulders of the 
disciples of Ciullio d'Alcamo, the favorites of the kings, 
the pets of fortune, the mantle of minstrelsy had fallen 
oo ^ne bowed shoulders of this starved and woe-begone 
old man whom we found on a bitter Sicilian winter day 
cowering ander the ruins of an ancient Norman keep." 

Books on Sicily are indeed few, but when Mr. 
Paton says that << the Norman conquest of Sicily 
has not found its historian," he forgets Gaily 
Knight's and Bazancourt's books on t^is subject. 
The author's views are of the impressionist type, 
and there is much second-hand material. As a whole, 
the work is diffuse and journalistic. But while it 
has not the vital inevitable quality of a book of the 
first class, it will be found in general readable and 
useful. The appendices are of particular value, but 
the book has neither map nor index. The illustra- 
tions, though often interesting, are hackneyed in 
subject, and sometimes poorly done. 

*' G^ing to War in Greece," by Mr. Frederick 
Palmer, is a New York reporter's account of the 
recent one-sided little fray — a month from start to 
finish — between those two ancient enemies, Greek 
and Turk. Most of the book is taken up with the 
looking and waiting for the war to begin ; and of the 
actual war there is little description of operations. 
The childish unmilitary character of the Greek 
*< Army of the Caf^ " is brought out in so strong a 
light that we suspect caricature. The book is writ- 
ten in jaunty style, and contains numerous rather 
indifferent Ulustrations, but has no map. 

Commander B. H. Bacon's book with the strik- 
ing but not unjustifiable title, << Benin, the City of 
Blood," is a straightforward military account of the 
British expedition, in 1897, to Benin City, West 
Africa, to avenge the massacre of the English mis- 
sion. As a narrative of one of England's innum- 
erable little wars, and as throwing light on African 
savagery and bush - fighting, it has considerable 
interest. Benin was deserted at the approach of 
the British, and was found steeped in human blood, 
** smeared over bronzes, ivory, and even the walls." 
The evidence of crucifixions and human sacrifices 
was found everywhere. " Every person who was 
able, I should say, indulged in a human sacrifice, 
and left the remains in front of his house." Com- 
mander Bacon's account shows clearly that the most 
pernicious element in savagery is a cruel religion. 
The book contains also some interesting details on 
the method by which the British fought their way 
along the narrow paths in the dense forest. In ad- 
vancing along these paths where savages might lurk 
unseen within a few feet, << precautionary volleys " 
from rifles and Maxims were fired on all sides every 
few minutes. Sometimes rockets were used to intim- 
idate the natives. " The most weird feature of the 
whole fighting is the rarity with which the enemy is 
seen. Shots are fired, yells, whoops, and shouts are 
heard, men fall wounded and killed, yet not a sign 
of the enemy himself, except just the shiver of a 
moving bush and the half doubtful view of a dusky 
figure." The book is furnished with a rather inade- 
quate map and a few fair illustrations. 

Dr. J. H. Barrows's '« A World Pilgrimage " is 
a collection of letters of travel which originally 
appeared in the " Chicago Record " and in << The 
Interior." Herein Dr. Barrows discourses, in his 

THE DIAL [Marohie, 




[March 16, 

we fear his stay at Chicago was marred by a glimpse 
of the alleged statue of Colambus recently removed 
oat of deference to a growing sentiment of public 
disapproval that threatened in time to lead to a pop- 
ular outbreak. European travellers as a rule, after 
having damned with faint praise the << evidences of 
our material prosperity " of which we are so justly 
proud, are apt to grow rhapsodic on the theme of 
American women. Not so Mr. Morris. Even here 
he is, as Mr. Arnold said of his French critic on 
Groethe, *' candid and cool, perhaps a little cold." 
He grants the American woman a certain smatter- 
ing superiority in point of attainments over her 
busy dollar^getting husband ; but he finds her some- 
what shrill, noisy, lacking in feminine charm. He 
agrees with Mr. Henry James that ^' one feels her 
presence too much as a sound " — a vox et prceterea 
nihili we suppose, like Wordsworth's cuckoo, or the 
classic nightingale. It need not be inferred from 
our citations tiiat Mr. Morris found here nothing 
to admire and praise. He has a good many kind 
and cordial words for us, which are the more grate- 
ful in that they are evidently sincere and well- 
weighed. He does not deal in what is known in 
popular parlance as " taffy," and he is one of those 
useful friends who tell us of our faults. There are 
three essays — '' At Sea," " On Traits in General," 
and << American Traits " — together with a << Fore- 
word" and an *<Aftword." Two of the papers 
were written originally for the " Nineteenth Cen- 
tury " and the << New Review," and they now ap- 
pear in a considerably enlarged form. 

A " confession," as the word is com- 
^^uLuet, ^oniy used, is an avowal of matters 

somewhat prejudicial to one's char- 
acter and reputation. A collector, then, rightly 
uses the word " confession " for a statement of his 
deeds qud collector. We do not, however, consider 
Mr. Carew Hazlitt's '* Confessions of a Collector " 
(Dodd) to be more than verbally prejudicial to the 
author's reputation. It is true that it is a literary, 
an artistic sin to love books as a collector loves them ; 
but there may be extenuating circumstances. Some 
men cannot help being drawn toward collecting. 
Mr. Hazlitt was one of these. He is, of course, by 
no means unknown to the general reader, and these 
bibliographical memoirs will be opened by many 
with a good deal of pleasant anticipation, which will 
not be in vain. We have been greatly pleased at 
them, recalling no other such book that is so good, 
— always with a reservation in favor of Burton's 
« Bookhunter," which we have not read for years 
and so may prize too highly. Strictly speaking, 
however, Mr. Hazlitt was not a book-collector : that 
is to say, his chief dealing with books was not col- 
lecting for himself ; to use his own words, he was 
not a pure amateur but a commercial speculator in 
books. He began with the idea of a collection for 
himself, but later in life he was chiefly occupied as 
informal agent for others. The turning-point in 
his career was, we should say, when he sold Mr. 

Huth a little seventeenth-century tract for five shil- 
lings, and discovered that cheapness was no recom- 
mendation with that gentleman. After this discov- 
ery, Mr. Hazlitt assisted very largely in the increase 
and completion of the Huth Library, much to the 
benefit of all concerned. We regard a commercial 
speculator in books as a superior person to a book- 
collector. Mr. Hazlitt was destined by nature to 
have dealings in books : his bibliographical knowl- 
edge and feeling made him a very exceptional 
purchasing-agent ; we will own to a feeling of respect 
for him at never becoming a mere book-collector. 
It must be confessed, however, that while his deal- 
ings with books were of a very proper character, he 
was unable to withstand the passion for collecting 
something. At one time he collected postage-stamps ; 
he speaks of the matter with some regret : *^ a new 
weakness," " a foolish passion," he rightly calls it 
More seriously did he devote himself to the collec- 
tion of coins, and we think he makes out a fairly 
good case in favor of the coin-collector. And yet, 
curious at first, though on consideration natural, his 
very intelligent views on coin-collecting caused him 
to be regarded by the esoteric as a presumptuous 
layman. In fact, we cannot reg^ard Mr. Hazlitt as 
a true collector. He was a student, an antiquarian, 
in letters and in other directions too, as everyone 
knows ; but we cannot think that he was a true col- 
lector. He had really too broad views, too wide 
interests, too keen feelings, to be satisfied with col- 
lecting. Indeed, had he been a collector in the strict 
sense of the word, he could hardly have written so 
entertaining a book as the present one. 

Mr. F. Anstey is already well known 
Mr, Jabberjee, B.A, in scholarly circles for his skill in 

logical development from a funda- 
mental hypothesis. He is a most successful follower 
of the great originator of formal logic, who held 
that fiction was more philosophical than history on 
account of its aiming at general rather than partic- 
ular truth. Minor matters of fact have no great 
import to the reason : hence the positive value to 
the human race of the thorough plausibilities of 
"Vice Versa" or "The Talking Horse." Mr. 
Anstey appears now, however, to have abandoned 
(temporarily we hope) the field of log^c to exhibit 
his mastery in the domain of the linguist. " Baboo 
Hurry Bungsho Jabberjee, B.A." (Appleton) is a 
work of many excellences, but its chief value ap- 
pears to us to lie in its being written in the care- 
fully studied lingo of a " highly educated Indian 
university man " who has for some time lived in 
London. Even a person who has never seen one 
of the species can see that the language must be 
good. Mr. Jabberjee has learned something of the 
literary language at the university, and has learned 
much modern slang in London. He incorporates 
in his conversation all the incongruities possible to 
one who knows our inconsistent language but par- 
tially. His speech will repay the closest study, for 
every strand of the variegated thread is natural, 




eren neeessaiy, to one under his circumstances. 
Columbus showed how easy it is to do a thing when 
jou know how : many users of the English language 
wiU here learn how difficult a thing they do every 
day without knowing anything about it. This work 
will find a place beside the famous "English as 
She is Spoke." Useful, then, in a great degree to 
the linguistic student, the book will not be more 
wearisome than others of Mr. Anstey's books to the 
more general reader. Mr. Jabberjee is of the opin- 
ion (not unknown in this country) that the letter- 
press of ^ Punch *' is not such as can be read with 
pleasure by a cultivated person. He offers his serv- 
ices to raise the general tone, and contributes ac- 
counts of his adventures. These are at first some- 
what disconnected, but as they proceed they knit 
into a narrative that finally comes to a gpreat cli- 
max in the breach of promise suit of Mankletow V8, 
Jabberjee. Mr. Anstey's labors are recommended 
ind elucidated by the work of his illustrator, whose 
presentations of the learned barrister are most deli- 
cate suggestions of nationality and character. 

cimHt SufttiPt ^'' ^* Clark Russell contributes his 
witmM^the mite to the now subsiding Nelson 

BHtuh Navy. revival, in the shape of a volume of 
<<Pietares from the Life of Nelson " (Dodd). The 
articles appeared originally in the " English Illus- 
trated Magazine," and the author has added to 
them, out of quantitative considerations mainly, as 
we judge, a lengthy and somewhat rambling preface, 
together with some twenty-six pages of remotely 
relevant supplementary matter touching Mr. Bus- 
sell's old grievance, the elimination of Englishmen 
from the merchant service and the consequent dry- 
ing up of the fount whence the Royal Navy has 
always drawn its seamen of the storied national and 
traditional type. The competition of the foreigner 
and what Mr. Russell evidently thinks the quasi- 
tnutorous greed of the ship-owners are fast draining 
British forecastles of British sailors. The breed 
will become extinct; and then, Mr. Russell asks, 
what is going to become of the Navy ? Now, we are 
inclined to think that *< cheapness " is not the sole 
ground on which the Dutchman, the Scandinavian, 
or even the '^ Dago " is preferred to the Englishman 
in English shipping offices. Besides being << cheaper," 
the foreigner is nine times out of ten thriftier, so- 
berer, trustier, and (above all) more tractable than 
his British competitor. Would Mr. Russell, in the 
light of his own experience in the Merchant Ser- 
▼iee, deny that? Mr. RusseU babbles a good deal 
o! the virtues of <' poor Jack " — his " characteristic 
nxDplicity," his '< childlike nature," and so on. But 
how many *' Jacks " of this legendary and conven- 
tional sort has Mr. Russell ever actually met in the 
fleih, afloat or ashore ? The hard fact is that << Jack," 
ud especially British *< Jack," is in general much 
what his calling naturally tends to make him, a 
pretty tough customer, who gives his tutelary 
*'eherub that sits up aloft" and^< looks out" for 
him no end of unnecessary trouble in getting him 

not to be 

out of scrapes of his own making. Mr. Russell 
naturally looks to the legislature (everybody looks 
to the legislature for everything nowadays) to mend 
his grievance. He cites approvingly the old Navi- 
gation Laws, under which the shipping of foreign 
seamen in British ships was narrowly restricted; 
and seems to want something of the kind enacted 
now. Mr. Rassell's Nelsonian pictures are graphic 
and spirited, and contrast favorably in this regard 
with Professor Laughton's recent rather tame, if 
accurate and severely critical, " Life." The bulk of 
the narrative is devoted to the famous sea fights ; 
but there are readable chapters on Nelson's boy- 
hood, his rather numerous erotic experiences, his 
characteristics, etc. The exasperating Lady Hamil- 
ton episode is given no more than its due share of 
prominence. The book is neatly made and contains 
several full-page plates, portraits and battle-pieces, 
of excellent quality. 

The recollection of earlier essays led 
us to turn to Mr. F. P. Stearns's 
« Modem English Prose Writers " 
(Putnam) with pleasant anticipation. There is op- 
portunity for a good book on this subject, and we 
hoped to get it. We regret to say that we are much 
disappointed. The essays composing the book are 
written in a supercilious tone on superficial knowl- 
edge, and that is a pretty bad combination. If Mr. 
Steams knew his subject thoroughly one need not 
mind his manner, or if he wrote less ex cathedra 
one would not mind a few errors. As it is, however, 
one cannot help noticing both. We do not know 
which are the most foolish, his brutal and untrae 
remark that Rnskin's father ^< fortunately died in 
time to g^ve his more gifted son an opportunity for 
the work he was destined by temperament and 
inclination to perform," his idea that ^< Modern 
Painters " was written at a <^ tender age," his igno- 
rance that << Aratra Pentelici " was one of Ruskin's 
Oxford lecture courses ; or his fancies that Arthur 
in <<a book . . . called < Schooldays at Rugby'" 
represented Matthew Arnold, that Arnold was Pro- 
fessor of Poetry for nearly twenty years, laboring 
all the time throughout *' the whole academic year," 
that " very few of the external facts of Matthew 
Arnold's life have been made public "; or his opin- 
ions that all European languages are the progeny of 
the parent Lido-European, that Max MuUer is the 
most distinguished scholar living, and that "the 
grand results of comparative philology " were " de- 
termined by Oriental Societies." A few minor 
errors like these do not necessarily amount to much. 
But we read this book till we had endured thirty or 
forty of them, and, as in that time we had not come 
upon any criticism of value, we then gave it up. It 
is remarkable that a man should write such a book. 
Mr. Stearns says, rather contemptuously, of Ruskin 
that " he never learned that a writer should confine 
himself to those subjects with which he is best ac- 
quainted." He implies that Macaulay was enabled 
by means of the " handle to his name " to " obtain 

THE DIAL [Marohie, 





Holmes givee the best groand-plan so far presented, 
with a strikiiig panorama. Much remains to be 
done at this interesting site. The latter part of 
Professor Holmes's work describes a namber of 
fine speeimens recently secured by the Columbian 
Mosenm from the Mexican area. The Museum is 
to be congratulated upon so creditable a beginning 
in anthropological publication ; and commiserated 
upon losing at this time the services of Professor 
Holmesy who has been a most competent official. 

It is related of Neander, the Church 
historian, that, being ordered to Carls- 
bad for rest under his physician's 
sxpress injunction to take no books with him, he 
pleaded so earnestly for some mitigation of his sen- 
tence that he was at last grudgingly allowed one 
woric wherewith to soothe the tedium of exile. The 
Fh>f essor accordingly selected the Fathers^ a cart- 
load of whom were found at his door by the dis- 
mayed doctor the next morning. In a case gener- 
slly similar to the foregoing one, Professor Max 
MlUler seems to have recently had some notion of 
carrying the '^Rig Veda" with him to a dull water- 
ing-place to which he had been banished, by way of 
arming himself with a little congenial light reading 
sgainst the enwui of enforced idleness. Other coun- 
aels prevailed, however, and in lieu of books he con- 
tented himself with a plentiful supply of pens, ink, 
end paper. The outcome of this expedient is a 
pleasant little volume of memories of '^ Auld Lang 
Syne" — a *< small portion," as the author says, <'of 
the panorama of life which has passed before his 
eyes." The text is divided into " Musical Recollec- 
tions,*' ^ Literary Recollections," " Recollections of 
Royalties," etc, and the narrative begins with a 
retrospect of the writer's childhood in that nest of 
musicians, Dessau, wherefrom we learn, by-the-bye, 
that the distinguished philologist was himself then 
regarded as an << infant prodigy" in the musical 
way, and that in this character he used to be hoisted 
spon a table to warble Handel's *' SehneU vrie des 
Blitzet Strahly* and other trying arias. Among 
Professor Mtlller's musicians are Hiller, Mme. Sonn- 
t^^, Mendelssohn, Weber, Jenny Lind, Liszt, Schu- 
mann, and others. His list of literati is a long one, 
eomprising such names as Heine, Rttekert, Tenny- 
Mm, Arnold, Froude, Rnskin, Browning, Carlyle, 
Emerson, Holmes, Lowell, Macanlay, Darwin, Hux- 
ley, Faraday, etc. With royalty. Professor Muller 
bis come in frequent and agreeable contact, and he 
managed to survive the ordeal even of a meeting 
with tiie Consecrated Person of Grermany himself. 
One of his most cherished memories is that he once 
won a sixpence from the Prince of Wales at whist. 
Professor Muller assures us that on this occasion, a 
disputed point of play arising, <<I held my own, and 
tetoally appealed to Greneral Bruce ! " This was 
tme courage. The Professor has the sixpence yet. 
We may say in passing that we forgot to include 
Thsekeray in the list of the author's literary peo- 
ple. Of Heine the Professor had but a fleeting 

glimpse. It was at Paris in 1846, and the poet 
was then nearing his final state of hopeless physieal 
collapse. Says the writer: <^One afternoon as I 
and my friend were sitting on the Boulevard, sip- 
ping a cup of coffee, *Look here,' he said, < there 
comes Heine!' I jumped up to see, my friend 
stopped him, and told him who I was. It was a 
sad sight He was bent down, and dragged himp 
self slowly along, his spare greyish hair was hang- 
ing round his emaciated face, there was no light in 
his eyes. He lifted one of his paralysed eyelids 
with his hand and looked at me. For a time, like 
the blue sky breaking from behind grey October 
clouds, there passed a friendly expression across his 
face, as if he thought of days long gone by. Then 
he moved on, mumbling a line from Gk>ethe, in a 
deep, broken, and yet clear voice, as if appealing 
for sympathy: — ^I>as MwuUhier sueht im NeM 
seinen Weg.' " A moving picture ! Professor Mfll« 
ler's book (Scribner) is an entertaining pot-pourri 
compounded of pen-pictures of eminent people and 
the club-comer chat of a man of the world and of 
letters. The frontispiece portrait of the author is 
well-made — but why should this venerable Oxford 
professor have thought fit to pose before the cam- 
era in a gala costume that seems about midway be- 
tween a full-dress naval uniform and the toggery of 
a marshal of an Orange parade? 


The '^ Heroes of the Nations " series 
(Putnam) is supposed to present 
studies of men and of national con- 
ditions, written in a style both scholarly and popular. 
The latest addition, «The Cid," by Mr. H. Butier 
Clarke, is without doubt a scholarly work, but it will 
be read with difficulty by persons not familiar with 
the period of Spanish history under consideration. 
The stories of batties, single combats, guerrilla expe- 
ditions, and trials by battie, in which the Cid or his 
companions engaged, while told in a way that leaves 
no doubt of the writer's familiarity with his author- 
ities, do not form any connected whole, and become 
wearisome by the repetition of the details of petty 
fights. The Cid, a soldier of fortune, while prefer- 
ring to use his abilities in the employ of his native 
prince, served all masters as opportunity offered, 
and was equally at home in the camp of the Spaniard 
or the Saracen. The best portion of the book is 
that relating to the service rendered by the Cid to 
Mohammedan rulers, and is a clear statement of 
conditions existing in the various Saracen King- 
doms, and of the relations between a ruling Moham- 
medan and a subject Christian population. 

8p<mUh King, 

Under the tiUe << The Sacrifice of a 
Throne" (Bonnell, Silver & Co.) 
Mr. H. Remsen Waterhouse has 
written a book which purports to narrate the events 
leading to the brief occupancy of the Spanish tiirone 
by Amadens, second son of Victor Emanuel L, King 
of Italy. Events there are in plenty, accurately 
stated in painstaking detail, yet leaving the reader 

THE DIAL [Muroli 16, 


THE DIAXi [March 16, 


THK T> TAT. [M«ohl6, 

X»»».] THE DIAIi 

THE DIAL [March 16, 




ago — tbe ereation by CoDgreu of a eommiasion to oyer- 
baiil the whole nuuM of our postal Uws and rulings, and 
lepori a UU whieh shall eoTer the subject completely, 
and not partially, as did the Loud bill. Abuses, injus-^ 
tiiooe, and needless inconsistency and confusion, exist in^ 
Ofor poetal service; but the evils are of too long stand- 
ing, and too intricate, to be treated by the 'prentice 
hand of any Congressman, however zealous and well- 
meaning, lliey must be handled by experts, and the 
beet experts obtainable. 

The dean of English poets died with Frederick Ten- 
nyson on the twenty-seyenth of last month. Bom in 
1807, two years before the most famous of his brothers, 
he had liyed to the ripe age of ninety years, and done 
good serrioe to £nglidi letters. His poems haye neyer 
been appreeiated at their full yalue, for the aif ections 
of the reading public seem to haye had room for but 
one poet of l£e name, and the considerable achieye- 
ments of Frederick Tennyson suffered partial eclipse his 
whole life long. From the famous " Poems by Two 
Brothers,** which his own contributions really made 
"Poems by Three Brothers," to the publication of 
•* Poems of the Day and Tear" in 1895, he put forth at 
intenrals collections of yerse distinguished for their 
grace, melody, and classical mould. Perhaps the best 
known of his work is contained in the ** Day and Hours " 
of 1854, the <« Isles of Greece" of 1890, and the 
« Daphne and Other Poems " of 1891. Unlike the late 
Lord Tennyson, he liyed many years away from £n- 
glsnd with his Italian wife in Florence and Pisa, and 
for a long time in the Island of Jersey, although he 
made frequent yisits to his natiye country. 

The Caxton Club of Chicago has hit upon a happy 
seleetion for the latest of its Publications, ** Some Let- 
ten of Edgar Allan Poe to E. H. N. Patterson, of 
Oqnawka, Illinois, with Comments by Eugene Field." 
Hm Poe letters are four in number; the first is dated 
April 1849, and the last August 7 of the same year — 
lost two months before Foe's death. They haye not 
Wore (says a foot-note) been printed in book form; 
tiiey are highly interesting and characteristic, and relate 
to a singular literary project — that of establishing a 
pretentions national magazine at Oquawka, to be edited 
Dj Poe and published by Mr. Patterson, an enterprising 
lad edoeated young man Hying in that remote Missis- 
appi riyer town. The project seems so grotesque, 
though treated in the letters with such apparent serions- 
sass, that we might almost think the whole thing one of 
Eogene Field's Uterary pranks. But the letters from 
Poe seem real enough, and they are giyen in a maryel- 
loosly executed facsimile which is one of the most nota- 
Ue features of the book. There is a facsimile, also, of 
Poe's drawing for the title-page of his projected maga- 
one, M The Stylus." The yolume is a thin quarto, beau- 
tifully printed, and is highly creditable to the Caxton 
Clab and to its printers, Messrs. B. R. Donnelley & 
SoDf. With so much to praise, we* may be allowed two 
eritieisms. The first is on a typographical detail — the 
uiiDgement of the title-page with an unsightly diyision 
of Poe's name, <* Edgar Allan " appearing in one line 
lad ''Poe " in another: a whimsy of typography which 
Mem particularly out of place in a work of such seyere 
ttd elassie elegance. The other matter is more serious 
—the statement in a foot-note that James Russell 
Lowell « played a trick " on Chicago in 1887. The note, 
1^ i> presumed, is Field's; but the club might well haye 
Bvppressed a note so mislasken in fact and so little cred- 
its to the writer of it. 



The Present Number of THB DIAL. 




BAirOS ft CO 906 

A. B. BARNES ft OO 906 

BOORUM ft FEASE 00 907 

BRERTAirO*8 907 

T. T. OROWELL ft 00 168 

DODD, MEAD ft 00. 166 



F. E. GRANT 207 






LONGMANS, GREEN, ft 00 169 










HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN ft OO. . . . 161 



L.C. BONAME 170, 207 

J. B. UPPINCOTT CO 164, 166 











W. G. JERREMS 206 


LAIRD ft LEE 171 

A. 0. McCLURG ft CO 167 




RAND, MoNALLY ft CO 168, 169 





A. J. CRAWFORD, St Loala, Mo. 207 

G. ft C. MERRIAM CO., Springfield, Mms 207 


SUSACUAC WEAVING Ca, Bitklilmi, PA. 206 



[March 16, 

New and Forthcoming Books. 


By Charlotte Perkins Stetson. With a PhotogniTiire Portnut. 16mo, oloth, ornamental, $1.25. 

"ibt. Stetson's reise, which Mr. Howells has called the best eiyic satire nnoe the ** Biglow Papers,*' is known to the 
pnhlio only through the papeiHSorered editions whioh have appeared on the Coast.^ This new Tolnme, reyised and g r eatly 
enlarged, may be expected to bring her work, for the first time, into general notice. Certainly the yigor, the Terre, the 
deep moral earnestness, the deHghtfnl hnmor and extraordinary talent for satire displayed in these poems haye hardly 
been surpassed* ... 


By Charlotte Perkins Stetson. 12mo, oloth, 91.50. 

In writing this book it has been Mrs. Stetson's purpose to point ont, explain, and justify the changes whioh are now 
gomf on in the relations of women to society. In brief, the position taken is that women naye for oentories been eco> 
nomicallv dependent upon men ; that as a result ther have become more and more feminine and less and leas normal mem- 
bers of the human race. The argument is extendea to eyery branch of social activity with remarkable originality, and in 
a manner to stimulate the interest of eyery one. It may safely be said that hardlj' any book of recent years has treated a 
confused subject with so much real intelligence and in an attitude so singularly fair and high-minded. 


A Romantic Drama by Richard Hoyet. 16mo, vellnm back, design in gold, and paper board sides, $1.50. 

The latest of Mr. Hoyey's notable series, entitled ^^Launoelot and Gueneyere" — a poem^ in dramas (masques and 
plays^ dealing with the central story of Arthurian legendry, and intended to haye a oertam unity as a whole without do- 
stioymg the unity of each yolume as a separate work. 

Ths Publishers also announce new editions, in uniform binding, of Mr. ffovey^s 


A Masque. Bound uniform with The Birth of Chda- 
hatf. 12mo, 81.25. 

** Indisputable talent and indisputable metrical faculty." 

By WiijJAM Carman Roberts, Theodore Rob- 
erts, and Elizabeth Roberts MagDonald. Se- 
lected and arranged by Charles O, D, Roberts. With 
a Prologue by Charles -Q, D. Roberts and an Epilogue 
by BKss Carman, Bound in rough green cloth, gilt 
edges, with a panel design in blind by Bertram Gros- 
yenor Goodhue. Small 4to, $1.50. 


A Tragedy. Bound uniform with The Birth ofOatO' 

had. 12mo, $1.50. 

**The yolume shows powers of a yery unusual qual- 
ity .. . capacity of seeing, and by a few happy touches, 
making us see." — The Nineteenth Centwrp. 


By Marcel Schwob. Translated by Henry Copley 
Oreene. The edition is limited to five hundred copies, 
from type, printed on Italian hand-made paper, with 
a symbolistic cover-design in green, purple, and gray, 
by Tom B. Meteyard. 16mo, $1.00 net. 




Of the new ** Leayes of Grass " the New York Tribune says : *' It is a just and grenerous tribute to a writer who has 
deseryed more than he has receiyed at the hands of the book-makeis." 



Edited, with an introduction, by Oscar LoveU Triggs, Ph.D., of the Uniyersity of Chicago. With a frontia- 

piece portrait. Crown 8yo, cloth, $1.26. 

An adequate selection of Whitman's writings has long been called for, and it is here furnished. Dr. Trig|;B has sno- 
cessfully attempted to make a book which should be representatiye of the many-sidedness of Whitman's gemus, and at 
the same time attractiye to the general reader. Both as a book of selections, pure and simple, and as an introductioo to the 
study of Whitman, it should meet with a welcome from all those interested in the growing fame of the Poet of Democracy. 


A series of letters written from the hospitals in Washington during the War of the Rebellion by Walt 

Whitman. Edited by Richard Maurice Bucket M.D. With two Portraits. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

Without doubt the most intimate and yiyid account of the hospital life of the Giyil War eyer put in print. Aooording 
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They form, says the Brooklyn Eagle^ '*a tale that is unioue in character and without precedent in literature"; white the 
Literary World speaks of *' their profound sympathy with the suffering and dying, their minnteneas of detail, so that by 
their light you see the cot and the operating^table, and the sunken cheek and the glazing eye, their reproduction of the 
yery colors of the tragic moyement of which Washington was the centre from 1861 to 1865." 





Estes & Lauriat's Spring Announcements. 


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Twenty-six (26) copies with lettered title-page will be 
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The publishers reserve the right to at any time advance 
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A New Volume in the Captain January Series, 


A sequel to «< Melody " and «« Marie." By Laura £. 
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VbaamaiSe wlie^liATt vead tlia aiitlior*s exqniilta cUnlaa, 
1 be glad to Imtb more of tae _ 
«U HoIfiUek who floored ao promimently in the former Mory, end 

Malodj ** end •• Merle.** wOl be 


chermiBf Merie of the letter. 

16moy cloth back and paper sides, 50 cents. 


By Nathak Haskrll Dole. A monograph on Joseph 
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Mr. JeffereoB being reeogniaed ae the leading Amerioan aotor, the 
■nnee of thia email Tolnme will be Tery intereating, and throwing 
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Ideaa oonoeming hie home lue, it aorely ahoold receive a warm 

Thin octavo, gilt top, $1.50. 


And Other Poems. By Llotd Mifflin. Illustrated 

with 10 full-page illustrations by T. Morak, N.A., 

and others, and a portrait of the author. 

Mr. MUBIn ia diatinotiTely the poet of hla own fielda and hilla, and 

to thoae who know him onlj throng hia renuurkable aonneta, ** At the 

aaa of Bong,** thia new Tolome wiU be a rerelation. It wiU aettle the 

taatfon oftni aaked, whether a aonnet-writer of diatinotion can alao 

I aJ^jriaL The book la very intereating alao aa ahedding more licht 

the poet*a inner life and character, and will be aore to bring Mr. 

In many newreadera. The t<me of the book ia high ; the workman- 

Afo iHmt flucht be expected from one who haa prored himaelf amaater 
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Tall 16mo, handsome cover design, deckle-edge paper, 
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By Will Allem Dromooole, author of <«The Heart 

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nUa Tolome ia an excellent norel of Tenneaaee life ; the ehanwteni 
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like all Miaa l>romgoole*a writlnga, it ia aii^^olarly tme to life, and 
reTeala that intlmaile knowledge of the bonea, amintlQna, f ean, and 
doubta of the human heart nAeh ia one of the *""****a«'*»»«'*g points 
bet w een a writer of tme afalUty and amedioere atoiy-teUer. 

12mo, handsome cover design, deckle-edge paper, gilt 

top, $1.25. 


By James Bilet, author of « The Transmitted Word," 

ThiaTolnme ia a odlectloa of dialect poema, ahowlng athorough and 
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ivtueeof the two reoea, the Baxon and the Oelt, ee they met in the 
peat, and are meeting now, each day, in the oommon, hmiely waya of 
real life in America. 

Tall 16mo, handsome cover design, deckle-edge paper, 

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By Laura £. Bichardb, author of •< Captain January." 
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A charming atory of one of the pleaaant ialanda that dot the rugged 
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Tall 16mo, unique cover design on linen deckle-edge 

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Books for both sexes and youth of all ages, from eight 
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This series will consist of new copyright volumes, and 
choice selections from standard works of appropriate 

Each volume thin 12mo, special cover design, 50 cts. 

Among the early issues will be 


By Will Allew Dromooole, author of *< The Heart 
of Old Hickory." 

A aplendid atoiy of a atrange frlandahlp f onned between a UfdUy 
eenaitiTe and liero4oTing eripple boy and a ragged old miner, unia- 


By Willis Botd Allen, author of <«The Oold 
Hunters of Alaska," etc. Illustrated by Alice Bar- 
ber Stephens. 

A capital atory, foil of interest and healthy excitement. 



By Mart B. Sheldon. Illustrated by L. J. Bridg- 


An excellent hiatorical atory of how Waahington'a raned army 
croaaed tlie Delaware, Chriatmaa Ere, and ciqytiired a thonaand Heaaiana 
in the midat of their f eeUritiea. 

Other Volumes in Press, 

ESTES & LAURIAT, Publisliers, Boston. 



[March 16, 

New Publications of the Clarendon Press. 


BRIEF LIVESf Chiefly of Contemporaries, set down 
by John Aubrey, between the years 1669 and 1696. 
Edited from the Author's MSB. by Andrew Clark. 
With facsimile. 2 yols., 8yo, oloth. 


JESUS : Their Methods and Their Meanings. Being 
the Charlotte Wood Slooum Lectnres in the Uniyer- 
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WnxiAM Croswell Doane, D.D., Bishop of Albany. 
16mo, cloth extra, 75 cts. 

iCTOLI A : Its (reography. Topography, and Antiqui- 
ties. By William J. Woodhouse, M.A., F.R.6.S. 
Royal 8vo, linen, $7.00. 

duction to Greometry for Toung Learners. By George 
M. MiNCHiN, M. A., F.R.S. 16mo, paper boards, 40c. 

THE ODES OF KEATS. With Notes and Anal- 
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Recognovit Breyique Annotatione Critica Instruxit. 
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RUSK IN. Selected by permission of the Author, 
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** Tbere is no mil^eot on whiob RoaUn wzites bettor than on ttM 

to. Acoordingly, tho TC^nmo ihovild proTO weloome, 
■todontt of RoaUn, and Moondly, to •tndentt of tbe Biblo and 
on.**— iSooteMoiH Jan. 81, 1806. 




Partis QnintiB. Fasciculus Quartus. Yin Munificentis- 
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Quarts Partem Alteram (Libros SC. Miscellaneos 
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By the Abb^ J. A. Dubois. Translated from the 
author's later French MS. and edited with Notes, 
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F. Max Muller, and a Portrait. 2 yols., 8yo, 
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OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS (American Branch), 91 & 93 Fifth Avenue, New York. 

John Lane's Announcements. 


THE ROMANCE OF ZION CHAPEL. By Richard Le Gallibkke. With a coyer design by 
Will Bradley. Crown 8yo, oyer 300 pages, 81.50. 
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POEMS BY STEPHEN PHILLIPS. Crown Syo, boards, $1.50. 

To Mr. Stephen FhllUpt bM been AWBrded by th0 proprleton of rA«ilMdemy(London),aprendiimof oiiebi]]idi«dgninee«.in»ooordanoe 
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The London Timet my%: "Mr. FhilUpaiaapoe^Ofieof the half -^oaen men of the yoonger generation whoeewritinfa contain the indeA^ 
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The London Aeademy aaya : ** How could language expreaa more. It baa an almoat phyaical eftoot upon the reader, in the oprnttag of the 
eyea and the dilation of the heart." 

The London Doily Chronide aaya : "Almoat the whole of tUa book ia concerned with life and death largely and liberally contemplated. 
It la predaely that kind of contemplation which our recent poetry lacka. . . . We praiae Mr. Fhlllipa for many eiceellencea, but chiefly for the 
great air and ardor of hia poetry, ita peraiatent loftineaa.** 

THE KINO WITH TWO FACES. By M. E. Coleridge. Crown Svo, $1.60. 

Tbte London Timet oKf% I "laoneof the very rare novela which yield ao much pleaaure that it almoat atifleaoritldam. The anthor*a quality 
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THB HEART OP MIRANDA, nnd Other Storlet . By H. B. 

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By Btbltbt Shakp. 
A NoreL By E. A. Bbnnstt. 

Crown 8to, $1.60. 


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ADMIRALS ALL, and Other Poems. By Hbhrt Nbwbolt. 
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A BISHOP'S DILEMMA. By Blla D*Abot. Crown Sro, H.OO. 

CARPET COURTSHIP. By Thokab Cobb. Crown 8to, $1.00. 

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Interesting Announcements. 


John Gilbert, Yeoman. 

87 R. G. SoAJTB. With Frontispieoe by LAiroxu>T Spbkd. 

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%« This stirrins biatorical story U hdd in Cromwell*! days, when 
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Th§ SMitmaUf the o|rfnioos of which in literary matters are held in 
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In Quest of Sheba's Treasure. 

ATdeof AdTentiiiebyR.S.WALKST. ^th 18 IlliistnitioDs 
by GsoBOB HuTOHiiraoN. Small ■qaare 8to, obth, with a 



History, Blazonry and Associations 
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By the Author t(f " Swish1$ie and Haar ** and ** Robert Urquhart.** 

Qeorge Malcolm. 

By Gabbisl Sbtouk. 12mo, doth, $1.25. 
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** A prose edition in detail of Bunis*s Holy Wniie.**— 7%« Athenoum, 

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•<Tlie unpleasant uncle is the strong character in the book. Itisworth 
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The Stolen Fiddle. 

By W. H. Matson. 12mo, cloth, $1.25. 
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By the Author of ** The Shuttle 0/ FtUe," ** The Dueheu Lou,** etc 

The World's Coarse Thumb. 

By Cabolinb Mastxbs. With illnstrations by Lancblot 

Spbbd. 12mo, doth, $1.25. 

*«* Ihis is a rigorously UAd story of a youth who, holding his fMher 
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Send for our Complete Caialoffue, The above eon be obtained through any BookeeUer, or free by mailt on receipt ef priee, from the PubHehort. 

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FREE TO SERVE. A Tale of Colonial New York. 

By E. RAYNER. Price, $1.50. 

CLINTON ROSS says in The Chap Book: "The proof of a long book is in the reading of it. . . . The author, an artist, nsTcr once ob- 
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BOlahls boak~ao much better than * Hugh Wynne * that if the publishers* claim for that book be true— this novel is greater —it is certainly one 
«( the American novels of the year. And l>utch America has no better presentation than B. Rayner*s in *Free to Serve.* ** 

THE BOSTON TRANSCRIPT says : " The book is not the work of a novice ; it Is fascinating, strong, and of the highest moral tone. . . . 
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THE PHILADELPHIA CALL says : **It does for the life and fashions of old New York what Weir MitcheU*s *Hugh Wynne * did for 
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ofhaaisn interest. Few will pick up the tale without feeling the charm of its style and the subtle fasclnaHon of its subject matter.** 



By CHARLES MACOMB FLANDRAU, *95. Crimson aoth. Octavo. Price, $1.25. 

la this book Ifr. Flandrau has departed widely from the usual college story. He has, in a series of short, vivid sketches, drawn the modem 
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Bj BKDI ALD H. HOWE, Jr. With colored frontispieoe and 
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A book of verse in praise of tobooco and smoking. By WILLIAM 
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Abook of verse. By LILLA CABOT PERRT. OcUvo . . . $1.25 


And Other Stories. By MARY TRACT XARLB. Cloth, ooUvo f 1.26> 


A Tale of Mediseval France. Translated by ISABEL BUTLER. 

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And Other Poems. By DUNCAN CAMPBELL SCOTT. Cloth, 

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[Maieh 16, 

A. S. BARNES & CO., 

Publishers, - - - - New York. 



A CHRISTMAS ACCIDENT, and Other Stories. 

By Akkib Eliot Tbumbull. 1 vol., 12mo« oloth. Price, 


** Her bMidlipg of the peraoiu of her Imaglnatfon Is ezqalelte.**— 
Hofiford Post, 

** The reeder wiU be itmck most with her upoaaUaultj and with » oer- 
tain quality of unpretentioiu humor.*' — Morning Chroniels (Chicago). 

" The reader will enjoy the wit, the delicate aatire, the happy bite of 
nature deeoription.*'— 19. 8, Times, 

"Thisj are New Enffland storiee and exhibit a delicate oomprehen- 
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By Rkv. Walton W. Battjomhatji, D.D. 1 vol., 12mo, 

oloth. Prioe, $1.50. 

" The lermonB are unique in their freehneaa, their fearleoneoa, their 
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"Twenty sermons— every one of which is brief, pdnted, and in the 
true sense dogmatic**— TAs Chwreh 8tandard. 

** All show spiritual insight, ardor of oonTiotlon, and nnoommon lit- 
erary gifts.**— The OutloeJL 

** Admirable in form, expressed with gr e at f error and sincerity, 
while abounding in many rhetoric beauties. **— Soeten Olobe, 

** If short sermons generallv had as much clear condensed thought 
as is hers presented in a f ordble and cultiTated style, there would be 
good reason for the current prejudice in faror of sermonic breTity."— 



By Julia M. Ck>LTON. 1 toI., 12mo, oloth. Dliis. PHoe,$1.26. 
"The book is a charming one ud is written in a most interesting and 
happy style. It is handsomely illustrated with maps of cities and 
mountain scenery, and no one can take it up without being thoroughly 
deUghted.**- J%e CMetian Work, 



By H. A. QusBBKB. 1 tqI., 12mo, oloth. Bliis. %\JM net, 
**nie magicians and maidens, the knights and sprites, and all the 
many members of the myriad unseen community with which the imsff- 
inatfon of the poets of all ages has peopled the stream, hare their 
doings reoonntea hers in a very charming way.**— The N, T, Sun, 



A Short History. By Sophia Y. BoMPiAm. 1 toI., 12nio, 

oloth. Ulna. Prioe, $1.00. 

** The book as a whole is extremely interesting to all students of his- 
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** Msdame Bompiani teUs the stonr of incredible suffering and en- 
durance with great enthusiasm.** — Pkttadelphia Ledger, 

**The Waldenses must always runain an attraotiTe people, not 
merely to students of history but to the popular mind. Their heroism, 
martyrdom, and struggle for freedom serre to give their stoiy more 
than the dry details H history. ... A most intersstfaig book.**— Jito 
Christian Index, 



By Mrs. Burton Harbison. 1 toI., small quarto, oloth. 

nins. Prioe, $8.00 net. 

** A very interesting rolume marked by the thoroughness, accuracy, 
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son*s pen.**— M F. 8un. 

** Mrs. Harrison accepts the New York of to-day as possessed of 
what must for long be the final aspects of Amerioa*s chief city, which 
not only remains the centre of the nation*s commerce and finance, but 
has become also the centre of its art and notably its architecture.** — 
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For sale hy all book dealers, or sent, postpaid, upon reeeipt of priee, 
bV the Publishers, ^ ^ , j^ ^ ^ , 

A. S. BARNES & CO., 156 Fifth Ave.* New York. 





Tbe Man fVbo Outlived Himself. 

By Albion W. Touroxs, author of " A Fool's Errand, by 
One of the Fools.*' An entirely new departure for this ingen> 
ious and powerful writer of fiction. 

l6nio, 216 pp., cloth, decorated, gilt top, 75 cents. 

Tbe New Puritanism. 

Papers by Ltman Abbott, Amort H. Bradford, 
Charlbs a. Bxrrt, Gborob A. Gordon, Wabhinoton 
Gladdbn, William J. Tuokbr; with an Introduotion by 
Rossitbr W. Raymond. 

Extra Cloth, gilt top, ancnt edges, $1 .25. 

Discussing the great changes in reUgioos thought during the psst 
hslf-century, with recon^tructiTe hints and f orslooUngs. 
** A rery significant rsTiew.**- Philadelphia Telegraph. 
** Exceptionally interesting and trainable. **— CongregaHonaUsL 

Tennyson's In Memoriam. 

A new edition of this poem of Immortality. Blostrated by 

Harrt Fbnn ; oritioal preface by Dr. Hrnrt Van Dtkx. 

Silk binding, grllt top, boxed, $3.50. 

"Both in spirit and in form, an exquisite prodnotioo.**— PJMode^ 

" A classic of consolation. . . . For one who seeks a sift for a friend 
in wonow, nothing could be more beautifnl and appropriate.'* — Ckwxh 

"Will bring deep satiafsotion to a very wide puUle.**— iVew York 




Nos. 91 and 93 Fifth Avenue* New York, 

March 259 

Mr. George Alexander Ballantine's Library 

A yery oniiBaal and yalnable ooUection of Teohnioal, 
lUnstratedy and Periodical Works on Arohiteotnre, tbe 
greater part by French Authors and Pablishen, all in 
good condition and substantially bound in half morocco. 
Also a large number of beautiful photographs, exhibit- 
ing the details of many of the famous public and pri- 
vate buildings of Europe, a collection of both interest 
and usefulness to students and practical architects. 
CcUaloguee can he obtained firom the AMCtUmmtM, 

In Going to St. Paul and Minneapolis 

The wise trayeller selects the Chioago, Milwaukee 

A St. Paul Railway. 


It is the best road between Chioago and the Twin 


It has the moat perfect track. 

Its equiinneBt is the finest. 

Its sleeping oars are palaoes. 

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It ii the most popular road west of Chioago. 

For further Information, 

Apply to the nearest tioket sffeni, or address 
F. A. Miller, Asristant General Paaaenger Acent, 
315 Marqoette BaiUUi^, Chicago, HI. 






PrtM. Eliot of Harvard^ fays: ** The International is a wonderfolly oompaot storehoose of aooarate information.'' 

The International is Scientific 
and Practical. 

Words are easilj found. Pronunciation is easily aseer- 
tained. Meanings are easily learned. The growth of 
words Is easily learned, and ezoellenoe of quality rather 
than Boperfluity of quantity characterizes its eyezy de- 

It is the School-Teacher of 
the Republic. 

The International and its abridgments are in general 
use in the colleges and public and priyate schools of the 
country. Shovdd you not giye the students access to 
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[March 16, 1898. 


A Norwegian 


and Reader 

With Notes and 

By Julius £. Olson, Pro- 
fessor of SoaadinaTian 
Languages and Litera- 
ture in the Universitj of 

An inoreastDff interest in 
Norwegian litemtore has been 
manif est in recent 7oarB, on 
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faitersst, fiom distinguished Norwegian writers. 

aoth. Price, $1.50 net. 

Principles of 


Mental Technique, 

and Literary 


By W. B. CHAXBXBLAiir, A.M. 
of Chicsgo Theological Sem- 
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Ph.D., of UniT. of Chicsgo. 
** Tbe bMt t0st book for tMolMn 
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'*ATaliiabl6 oontrlbatloiiitotha litaraturaooBtoentloiL It will 
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rifr-r-lr n^wla ByC.H.andS.B.HARDINO, 

Qreek QOdS, '^, j^^^ Umyemity. 

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Outlines of 



By William H. Burdick. 

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The Metrical 


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Twenty-Four Progressive 
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Dante's Vision 


A Critical Analysis 

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Mrs. Sherman in her 
alysis shows with marvellous 
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CHICAGO, APRIL 1, 1898. 

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[April 1, 

New and Forthcominq Books 


nEUTiMd BditioD.) Bdited by J. B. Qbbknouoh, Pro- 
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Thomas Nelson & Sons, New York. 





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No. 98S. APRIL 1, 1898. Vd, XXIV. 




SATTH THB STAR. (Poem.) Walter F, Kenrick .216 

IN REGARD TO POETRY. CharleM Leonard Moore . 217 



An Honor Wortluly Bestowed. Qtorge W. Julian. 
** The Plight of the Bookseller." WilHam 8. Lord. 
The Bookeeller as an Bdaoator. Ckarlei M. Boe. 
Romnnee m Ameriean History. Katharine Coman. 



T. Morton 226 




The Palatines in America. — Leisare hours in aoad- 
emio oloistors. — Some good words abont style. — ** For 
Greeks a blush." — Pictures of 18th century Dnblin 
life. — The campaign of Sedan.— The story of a mn* 
sioian's life. 






Oar attention was called not long ago to a 
programme outlined for an afternoon session 
of a woman's clab in a certain Western city. 
It was evident that this organization was 
mspired with a praiseworthy ambition to assim- 
ilate the whole of coltnre within as brief a 
period as possible, and to demonstrate that art, 
in spite of the ancient dictum, was not so very 
long after all. ^* A Besum6 of Greece " was 
to be the general subject of the afternoon's en- 
tertainment, and the special subjects of Greek 
politics, literature, philosophy, and art were to 

be considered in essays extensive enough, pre- 
sumably, to occupy ten or fifteen minutes each in 
the reading. Two songs and a recitation were to 
relieve the strain of a too protracted concentra- 
tion of thought upon themes so serious, and the 
audience was to depart in edified mood, cheer- 
fully prepared to make similar resumes of Bome 
and France and England in the near future. 

Such attempts to compass culture without 
any real effort are being made all over this 
country by thousands of literary clubs, and 
Chautauqua circles, and other organizations of 
earnest people banded together for purposes of 
self-improvement. The illustration of this sort 
of intellectual stir which we have given above is 
doubtless an extreme one, but it serves us all 
the better for that, since it brings into a clearer 
light the typical features of a tendency which 
is well advised in its aims, if hardly in its 
methods, and which, if but wisely directed, 
might do much for the advancement of our 
intellectual life. It is well to acquire a little 
knowledge of even the largest subject, if only 
the acquisition be made in a properly humble 
spirit, and without self-delusion. One's own 
horizon must not be taken for the boundary of 
thought, but rather as a narrow circumscription 
marked out from the infinite, to be widened with 
every addition to one's own intellectual elevation. 
A little learning is not a dangerous thing unless 
it create a mood of smug self-sufficiency, thereby 
deadening the life that it ought rather to stim- 
ulate to a larger growth. 

The varied extensions of intellectual activity 
so characteristic of our age have made short 
cuts to knowledge an absolute necessity even 
for scholars of the most serious purpose. No 
earlier period can show anything comparable 
to the present-day production of manuals, and 
compendiums, and condensed surveys, and ele- 
mentary monogpraphs in series. These books, 
which both in numbers and in quality outdo 
everything of the sort produced in earlier peri- 
ods, are the outcome of a genuine need, and 
offer the older ideal of culture its only possible 
defence against the swelling flood of specializa- 
tion. The day has long passed when a man 
could hope to take all knowledge for his prov- 
ince, and the scholars of towering intellectual 
steture who, from Bacon to Humboldt, domin- 
ated the thought of their respective epochs, 



[April 1, 

belong to a hopelessly vanished raoe. Mr. Her- 
bert Spenoer probably oomes as near as anyone 
now living to that old-time ideal, bat the weak 
places in his intelleetnal armor are made evi- 
dent enough when tested by the searching schol- 
arship of the modem specialized type. Yet 
men are loth to give up altogether the wide 
prospect of an earlier time, and our books of 
condensed science make it possible for a scholar 
of to-day to learn all that a Humboldt could 
have known, and more, with a far greater econ- 
omy of effort in the acquisition. 

We have, then, no quarrel with the book 
which deals upon a small scale with a great 
subject, provided its writer have the authority 
and the literary art needful for the perform- 
ance of his task. Professor Freeman used to 
say that the only way to write a small book was 
to write a big one first and then condense it : 
a procedure which he applied with great success 
to the history of the Norman Conquest. Mr. 
Stopford Brooke's small manual of English 
literature will occur to many minds as an ad- 
mirable example of the proper treatment of a 
great theme within narrow limits. The litera- 
ture of the essay affords excellent illustrations 
oE the same sort of achievement. There are 
essays by such men as Walter Pater, Mr. John 
Morley, and Mr. Frederick Myers, which are 
entirely adequate to their subjects, and produce 
the impression of exhaustive treatment although 
the number of their pages is small. This does 
not mean that they say all that there is to say, 
but rather that, given their limits, they say the 
modi important things in the most felicitous 
way possible. To introduce a metaphor, we may 
remark that a narrow stream will suffice to 
carry a great volume of water to the sea if only 
the channel be well embanked, and the current 
restrained from spreading aimlessly abroad. 

The thesis may indeed be maintained that it 
is theoretically possible to treat fittingly of any 
subject within any limits, however contracted, 
provided one has a proper sense of the perspec- 
tive of ideas, and does not bring into a brief 
discussion such matters of detail as would be 
out of place in anything less than a whole his- 
tory. This is not a plea for the ingenuous 
amateur who attempts to write about *^ Nature " 
or "History" or "The Aim of Life" in a 
thousand words, or the innocent college grad- 
uate who, during the few minutes allotted to 
the delivery of his commencement part, dis- 
courses upon the destinies of nations or the 
enlightening mission of genius. But it does 
justify the master of a subject in the work pf 

selection and arrangement whereby the ripest 
fruits of his enormous intellectual toil are 
brought within the compass of an essay or a 
book of pocketeble dimensions. When the 
really great writers devote only a few pages or 
even words to the consideration of some vast 
theme we do not complain that their treatment 
is inadequate, but accept thankfully their gifto. 
In fact, the most hopelessly inadequate books 
are apt to be the big ones, the so-called monu- 
ments of scholarship and literary industry, thus 
styled, perhaps, because their weight has 
crushed all the life out of their subjects. But 
an Emerson can write adequately of " History " 
or " Art " or " Civilization " within the space 
of a single brief paper, and we do not feel that 
the discussion is defective. A Lowell may ask 
" Will it do to say anything more about Shake- 
speare ? " and prove that it wiU do, for a Lowell, 
to discuss " Shakespeare Once More," even 
with the limitations of the essayist upon him. 
Or, to take a still greater exemplar, did not 
Shakespeare himself, upon hundreds of occa- 
sions, give entirely adequate expression to vast 
ranges of thought in as many pithy and preg- 
nant and divine flashes of his all-comprehending 
intellect ? Is there not a whole philosophy of 
love in the lines, 

** Yet in these thoughts myself ahnost de^tisiiiff. 
Haply I think on thee, and then my state, 
Like to the lark at hreak of day arising 
From sollen earth, sings hymns at heayen's gate,*' 

a whole philosophy of life in the words, 

** Men must endore 
Their gmng henoe eyen as their eoming hither ; 
Ripeness is all"? 


*< Heart that orayes another heart, 
Weary of this life apart 

From all kindred," saith the star; 
*< Be thyself thine own best plaee, 
Learn of me, ensphered in space, 
Solitary and afar. 

** In my loneness I am free 
To explore infinity. 

All the calm and silent night. 
Heart aflame with wild desire. 
Look to me, quench fire with fire^ 

Flange within my liquid light. 

** Had I sought some alien sphere. 
Loth to shine sequestered here," 
Saith the star reproachfully; 
M I had left, like stars of old. 
To one fleeting track of gold 
All my crystal purity." 

Walter Framois 





The eritie who to-day lifts ap his Yoice for poetry 
is a good deal like Bolaiid sounding his trampet to 
eall Charlemagne back to Boncesvaox. Charle- 
magne may eome — he will eome, — bat he is like 
to find the eritieal Roland dead npon the battle- 
field. The Moses are certainly temporarily in exile ; 
and the poets — those yotaries who by their intro- 
doetion got admittance into the company of the 
god% and so knew the secrets of things which they 
eommnnicated to nninspired mortals, *' mingling 
ineorraptible rirers of fire '* with the blood of men, 
— these Yates, Seers, Makers, are oat of employment, 
glad of any odd job. They even write criticism. 
At the best, they cat ap the old forms of art, as 
Medea dismembered her father, and plange them 
into the caoldron of the NotoI — some day, it is to 
be hoped, to emerge fresh and yigoroas and in their 
early bloom. 

I make no coont of lyric poetry in my diagnosis or 
prognosis. This has always been most plentif nl in the 
most barren periods of Uteratare. It is the brash- 
wood that springs ap when the giant pines are felled. 
The ages of ^ Anthologists, the Troabadoars, 
the Minnedngers, the Meistersingers, the ballad- 
writers of Spain, were ages when the poetic energies 
of the races were either spent or were gathering for 
s concentrated effort We haye been, of late, pass- 
ing throogh a period of lyrical activity ; yet Uiere 
ire not wanting signs to show that it is nearly 
ended. The little leaTCs of song do not flatter so 
plentif ally from the aatamnal boaghs of the maga- 
sinee, and nothing is more certain than the indiffer- 
ence of the pablic to collections of them — herba- 
riams of pressed emotions. It is yet possible that 
the great goddess Design may rear her head again 
and reyive the works of men. 

Modem thoaght is anqaestionably hostile to great 
poetry. In religion, it has withdrawn men from 
ideas of the Creator to rest in the creation ; in phil- 
osophy, it has descended from the whole to the parts ; 
in science, it has rejected abstract ideas for prac- 
tical inrentions ; in sociology, it has sabstitated an 
eqaalized democracy for great central figares. All 
this means that the spontaneous, the particular, and 
the immediate have absorbed the attention of man- 
kind ; and the lyric is the expression of the spon- 
taneous, the particular, and the immediate. 

However true or necessary all this specialized 
business is, it is not going to permanenUy satisfy 
men's souls. There is implanted in us an idea of 
the whole as well as of the parts. We experience 
only the imperfect and transitory ; but we know 
that the perfect and eternal exist. We bruise our 
shins against the real ; but the ideal beckons us on, 
and on we go. The innate ideas of goodness, splen- 
dor, happiness, live in us, like the Sleeping Beauty 
and her court behind the o'ergrown hedge, and only 
the kiss of Experience is needed to make them rise 
and ring with life. 

At bottom, literature is an intoxicant. It trans- 

forms as, takes us out of ourselves. Life is toler- 
ably dull, and it adds little to our liveliness to be 
told that argon is a most powerful centre of f oioe, 
or that everything in nature has its ratio of vibrio 
tion. If the flying-machine is perfected, the globe- 
wanderer will be as bored on his tenth voyage as he 
is to-day. If we reach Mars, we will find we have 
not escaped our own personalities. Science on the 
whole has not made life any better, nobler, more 
delightful, or more amusing. But man is eternally 
interested in his own traditions, his own deeds, liis 
own fate. The talk about books is the one profes- 
sional talk which is not *< shop," because it is a talk 
about life itself. How instinctively we feel that the 
best society the world has known has been in those 
circles of men of intellect whose interest was in the 
humanities — the Mermaid group, Johnson's club, 
the circle about Moli^re. The mass of men read 
little enough, but they have an equivalent for Uter- 
atare in gossip and Uie swapping of stories. Con- 
versation is a continual, though for the most part 
decent, Decameron. 

If all this is true, it may be urged that the novel 
can satisfy all our intellectaal needs, as, indeed, for 
the present it seems to do. There is no actual rei^ 
son why a novel may not be a great work of art, 
except that the extent of the average story makes it 
difficult to take it all in at once. Our sssthetic vision 
is not f ocussed to survey such near-lying and prodi- 
giously extended masses. We are l&e Gulliver 
making love to the fair Brobdignagian, and can only 
get acquainted with her nose or her hand at one 
time. Tet in spite of this defect, << Don Quixote *' 
and << Tristram Shandy " and << Wilhekn Meister '' 
rank with the gpreat poems and dramas of the world. 
The real weakness of novels is their enormous dila- 
tion, the detail and commonplace by which they 
seek to mirror life instead of interpreting it (as \i 
they could, even with the vision of Asmodeus and 
the pen of the Recording Angel, give all the facts 
of existence), and the ease with which they seem to 
be done. If there were only two or three or a doseii 
novels, we might prize them as rare birds. But in 
their interminable multitude they are as the plague 
of locusts. I am inclined to think that the whole 
vast novel literature of the world will some day be 
as obsolete as the tomes of the Fathers and School- 
men. It is not that there is not magnificent read- 
ing in St Augustine or Thomas Aquinas, but they 
and the multitude of their rivals and scholars picked 
the bones of dogma dry ; and, similarly, our novel- 
ists have worn human nature, in its ordinary mani- 
festations, threadbare. Besides, all great wit is dif- 
ficult — difficult to do, and difficult to appreciate. 

And this leads me to one advantage of verse. 
Being hard to get at — of course I mean good verse 
— ^by both author and reader, it achieves a concen- 
tration that fastens on the memory. Its symmetry 
and numeric recurrence of sound and motion help 
it to a permanence which the looser members of 
prose can hardly hope to attain. It is discipline 
against the mob. Besides, this verse is a device. 





There is a pessimbtio wail heard lately, from ooe or 
two of our magazines and weekly joomals, intended to 
elicit onr sympathy on behalf of the novelist who has, 
to use the meaning expression, « written himself oat.** 
A writer in this week's *< Speaker," commenting npon 
an article in the ** National Reyiew," speaks of this con- 
dition, so terribly pictured by Mr. George Gissing in 
** New Grab Street," as a condition which is *< beyond the 
pale of common humanity." *< To be without money, 
food, or a decent coat, is an affliction intelligible to aU; 
but a literary man in want of ideas cannot be taken 
seriously even by the most tender-hearted." Well, with 
all pity for such a literary man, is it not, after all, a 
happy play of the fates that a novelist cannot go on for- 
ever ? How could we ever hope to cope with the enor- 
mous output, if things were otherwise? Surely, we should 
require to begin to read with the insucking of our 
mother's milk ! And, in all seriousness, the child of 
to-day is precocious enough. The trouble, perhaps, is 
not in the writer's losing his ideas, but in his over- 
anziety to make money as quickly as he can, giving no 
regard for the art he is expressing, and no Uiought for 
the dignity of his work. It is the inevitable consequence 
of a literature which is in the hands of a ** profession." 

Sir Walter Besant also, on a kindred matter, delivers 
himself, in ** The Author," of a belief in the decay of 
aothority in literary criticism. ** It is," he says, •* im- 
possible — perfectly impossible— by any conceivable rate 
of pay, to get a reviewer to read a book which he has 
to discuss in a dozen or twenty lines. The result is often 
a weak stream of generalities, with a word of fault- 
finding, a thing quite easy for any book ever written, 
whether it be read or not — and only vague words of 
praise, because praise if it is sincere must be based on 
actual reading." And yet how much praise there is to 
be found in our critiques I £ven if Sir Walter be right, 
— and there is not a little to prove him in the wrong, — 
on whom is the blame for this decay ? Is it not to be 
found in the large number of books written and pub- 
lished? If the founder of the Author's Society be really 
anxious for the preservation of authority in criticism, 
would he not convince us of his sincerity, to some pur- 
pose, were he to preach to his fellow-members the wis- 
dom of writing less and writing better, and not from 
the text of the *< literary profession " ? Let a truly fine 
piece of literary work come up for valuation, and, ten 
chances to one, it will not miss appreciation. There never 
was a better time for the aspirant to literary fame, and 
he has never had more opportunities, than he has now. 
Otherwise, one cannot expUin the evil of the age — the 
success of mediocrity. And Sir Walter Besant knows this. 

To turn from discussion, which,'be it never so charm- 
ing, is yet of less importance than facts, I have to inform 
yon that there are still a few items which have escaped 
the ** Notes " editor of <* Literature." One is, that Mr. 
Grant Richards is busy preparing a handsome library 
edition of the novels of Jane Austen. For the present, 
this edition will consist of ten large crown octavo vol- 
umes, printed in the same type and on similar paper as 
were lavished on the << Edinburgh " edition of Steven- 
son's works. Each novel will occupy two volumes; and 
there are but five volumes ** out of copyright." The 
other two, which are owned by Messrs. Bentley, must 
wait. — Mrs. W. K. Clifford has nearly finished a long 
novel to be published by our newest publishing house, 
Messrs. Gerald Duckworth & Co., in the summer. — The 
itory which Mr. Theodore Watts-D union has had in 
type for so many years, and about which Mr. Coulson 

Kemahan has been writing lately, is at last to be issued 
to the public. I cannot say when, bnt it may be ex- 
pected in the autumn. — The new edition of Thackeray's 
works, which Messrs. Smith, Elder & Co. have had in 
preparation for many months past, is to make its appear- 
ance shortly with ** Vanity Fair," in one volume, with 
illustrations, and with an introduction by Mrs. Anne 
Thackeray Ritchie. — ** John Oliver Hobbes " has finished 
another novel, to be issued serially in ** Harper's Maga- 
zine." It is said to be an historical romance founded 
on the story of ** Locrine and Gwendoline." — Seven trans- 
lations and sublimations of Omar Khayykm are going 
about begging, from publisher to publisher. — Mr. Jer- 
ome K. Jerome is passing through the press a volume of 
essays after the style of his ** Idle Thoughts of an Idle 
Fellow. " We are hoping that the years of industry through 
which he has passed since the publication of that book will 
not have touched the ** new humorist " to grosser influ- 
ences. — M. Alphonse Daudet's last story, ** The Hope of 
the Family," is to be published in its English translation 
by Messrs. C. A. Pearson. — An author, unknown to 
fame, is writing a pamphlet with the following title: 
« A Proposal Humbly offered to the Ch-nc-lUr of the 
Exch^-r, For the better regulation of the Publication 
of Books, and for bringing within modest bounds the 
pride and vanity of authors, as well as the arrogance of 
publishers." He has taken his text from Horace: 

** Inaani sanas nomen ferat, SBqnas iniqoi. 
Ultra quam satis est, virtutem si petat ipsam." 

I cannot tell you whether the tract will ever be pub- 
lished or not — A new publishing house is to startle the 
world, in the autumn; it has been feeling its way, lately, 
with a magazine called « The Dome." But *< The Uni- 
com Press" is coming on, all the same. — The "New 
Vagabonds Club " is not dead yet; out of nearly three 
hundred members who forgot to pay their subscriptions, 
more than half sent their postal orders, and the Club is 
now flourishing. The rumor to the contrary was circu- 
lated by some evil-minded member, and an influential 
committee is now " sitting on " him. — Fifteen hundred 
and forty-nine lady novelists have ready for the press 
three thousand and ninety-eight long stories. A well- 
known financier is busy establishing a syndicate for their 
publication, in the late autumn. Should the libraries 
refuse to subscribe, it is within the powers of the syndi- 
cate, as laid down in the articles of association, to open 
one thousand shops, in London and the provinces, for 
the sale of these novels. — Our art critics are busy buy- 
ing new steel pens, to be ready for use when the Royal 
Academy opens its exhibition this spring. They have 
been busy with other matters lately, and only found time 
to abuse old masters. — Since the publication of ** Liter- 
ature " there has been issued but one other periodical 
devoted to books, the '* Journal " of the Bootle Free 
Public Library. If you cannot find Bootle on the map, 
I can only say your map is out of date. For your bet- 
ter guidance, I may tell you that it now has a Town 
Hall of its own, and the mayor is not borrowed from 

Liverpool Mr. Stanley Lane-Poole has written an 

introduction to the new copyright edition of Sir Richard 
Burton's ** Pilgrimage to Meccah," to be published by 
Messrs. Greorge Bell & Sons. — Mr. H. G. Wells is too 
busy anent the new university for London; but he will 
not fail to have a new novel ready later in the year. — 
Mr. Copinger, the late President of the English Biblio- 
graphical Society, has just issued the second volume of 
his supplement to Hain's "Repertorium." It is not 
stated that the Government will present him with an 



[April 1, 

illmninated address; but if ever a bibliographer deserved 
eanonizatioDy Mr. Copinger is that bibliographer. — The 
Clarendon Press is still busy publishing books that every- 
one wants and nobody buys. — The Cambridge Press is 
busy doing likewise, except that it has issued, in thirteen 
mighty quarto volumes, the papers of the late Dr. Cay ley, 
a work, of course, which nobody could buy, try as he 
would. — We have had a little talk about « The Ballad 
of Reading Gaol," by « C. 33," and it is likely to lead 
to some sort of prison reform. A g^at many of us 
think it good poetry; a great many others say it is not 
art; the rest have not read it. — I hear strange rumors 
about the poet laureate being engaged on an ode on the 
new bacon and tea company, <* Liptons." There may be 
something in it; for Mr. T. P. O'Connor, in « The 
Weekly Sun," says that ** Liptons " is the one topic of 
conversation in the best drawing-rooms of the West End : 
and he ought to know. — The celebration, this year, of 
the '98 movement in Ireland is to be a mighty fine affair, 
and we are to have reprints and new books galore on 
the subject. The committee of management in Dublin 
is busy arranging and organizing and disagreeing on the 
details and with each other, most delightfully; but you 
can be sure of this: that the visitors here, from your 
side of the water, will have a g^d time next May. — 
There is to be a fine and handsome collected edition of 
the novels of Sheridan LeFanu, a writer who deserves 
more than he ever got The publishers are to be Downey 
& Co., the firm which is issuing the illustrated edition 
of Lever's novels and the American translation of Bal- 
zac's ** La Com^die Humaine." — Mr. Sidney Lee's ad- 
mirable biography of Shakespeare as printed in the 
<* Dictionary of National Biography " is to be reissued in 
separate form, as was Mr. Henley's essay on Burns. — 
Mr. Max Beerbohm is going out to the Caucasus Moun- 
tains to rescue Prometheus. He has been reading the 
matter up very carefully lately, and he has told us all 
about it in this week's " Saturday Review." I do not 
know who is to publish the account of his journey; prob- 
ably the Royal Geographical Society. In any case, here 
is a good chance for an enterprising publisher. 

Templb Scott. 


(To the Editor of Thb Dial.) 
In compliance with an Act of the Legislature of 
Kansas, an admirable likeness in marble of Ex-Governor 
Robinson has lately been completed and placed in the 
college chapel of the State University at Lawrence. In 
thus honoring her first governor and the hero of the 
forces of freedom in " the times that tried men's souls," 
the State of Kansas has greatly honored herself. The 
struggle of the slave-masters for the spread of slavery 
over Kansas and the vast regions involved in the issue, 
was their last and desperate attempt at national su- 
premacy. It was their Armageddon, and they so under- 
stood it. James Buchanan was President, and Jefferson 
Davis was his Secretary of War. As the leader of the 
Free State party. Governor Robinson had to face the 
whole power of the national administration. He had to 
hold at bay the organized hordes of border ruffians 
from Missouri and other States. And the difficulties of 
his situation were still further aggravated by factional 
divisions in the Free State ranks, and the menace of rash I 

and reckless leaders whose action would have invited 
destruction. But he was equal to the emergency. He 
was the Samuel Adams of the Free State cause. He 
had coolness, caution, and diplomacy, joined to perfect 
courage and an inflexible steadfastness of purpose. 
Having the great cause at heart, and loving his country 
better than he loved himself, he sought to subordinate 
all minor considerations and compose all differences of 
opinion and of policy. He had the rarest patience and 
forbearance, and the wise moderation which is bom of 
self-controL He held extreme measures in check, and 
deprecated any act of folly which might place his cause 
in antagonism to the Constitution and the laws. With- 
out these qualities which he so happily combined in 
himself, it is difficult to believe that success would have 
been possible; and with them he was able to lead the 
way safely through the labyrinth of lawlessness and dis- 
order to the final triumph of liberty and peace. Not 
Kansas only, but the nation itself, should cherish his 
memory; for his work paved the way for the overthrow 
of slavery in the United States and its abolition through- 
out the civilized world. 

The bust of Governor Robinson is the work of Mr. 
Lorado Taft, the Chicago sculptor, and it was fitly 
placed in the chapel of the State University. Governor 
Robinson was one of the founders of this institution. 
He was its devoted friend and liberal helper while he 
lived, and he bequeathed to it the bulk of his large for- 
tune. He has been aptly called " the father of the Uni- 
versity," and I cannot better conclude this brief notice 
than by quoting the words of one of its regents in ac- 
cepting the bust: 

** So long: as there remains on the map of the earth a spot 
called Kansas, and so Ion? as there remains even the dimmest 
tradition that there was a longr, heroic, and finally snooeasfnl 
Btmggle there for freedom, and so long: as there remains one 
stone npon another of the stately walls of this University, which 
was the apple of his eye, so long will live the name and the 
fragrant memory of Charles Robinson.*' 

George W. Juuan. 
Irvingtony Ind,^ March 26^ 1898, 

(To the Editor of Thb Diai..) 

In your article on ** The Plight of the Bookseller," in 
your issue of March 16, you say, <• The statement was 
recently made that one of these [department] stores 
. . . could afford to retail an invoice of books * for the 
net cost of the bill and still leave a profit.' " Such a 
statement, if made in good faith, must have been made 
by one of the multitude who patronize the department 
stores, rather than by one familiar with their manage- 
ment. The book department conducted by these estab- 
lishments is run to make money, as much as any other 
department, and must meet its share of the expenses. 
When it is understood that an average profit of twenty- 
five per cent is required to cover the cost of doing bus- 
iness, such a statement as that quoted in your article 
will be seen in its absurdity. 

A good book man, in charge of a book department, 
with the backing of a large capital, has many advantages 
over the ordinary bookseller. The marvel is that the 
result is so insignificant. The only argument urged in 
behalf of the ** book department " by the bookbuyer is 
the one of « cut prices," which you are right in saying 
**are not (with an occasional exception) out so very 
much after all." Illiteracy and ignorance is the rule 
behind the counters, and only less frequently is it found 

18»8.] THE DIAIi 



[April 1, 

Cbe ptto $00ks. 

Francs : the Study of a Nation.* 

Mr. Bodley's '^ France " is the most import- 
ant and suggestive work of its class that has 
appeared since the publication of Mr. Bryce's 
** American Commonwealth." In it the author 
essays to do for the student of political France 
what Mr. Bryce did for the student of political 
America ; and of his pronounced success in the 
essential part of this needed undertaking there 
can be no question. He has enriched political 
literature with an admirable specimen of insti- 
tutional exposition — a scholarly product of un- 
stinted labor and thorough execution that must 
command the respect even of those least inclined 
to sympathize with certain fundamental predi- 
lections of its author. Mr. Bodley's treatment 
of his subject is a mean between the contrary 
methods of his famous predecessors, Arthur 
Young and De Tocqueville, whose respective 
masterpieces serve to exhibit the fundamental 
diversity of the aptitudes and tendencies of the 
Anglo-Saxon and the Gallic mind. Of the turn 
for generalization, for detecting the latent 
strand of connecting principle between facts 
seemingly disparate, so eminently displayed by 
the philosophic Frenchman, Mr. Bodley's pages 
evince no inconsiderable share ; while they are 
also lit and vivified at intervals by pictures of 
men and manners such as form the staple of 
the English traveller's immortal roving diary. 
The keen-eyed and practical *' Suffolk Squire " 
might himself have written the following pass- 
age, for instance, illustrative of the prevailing 
indifference of the French nation to politics 
and politicians — an indifference, be it said, 
that not infrequently borders on contempt, and 
finds its counterpart in most democratically 
governed countries of to-day. 

" It was the home and workshop of a wood-carver, 
whose skill, famed through the region, had long dis- 
pensed him the need for manoal toil, which he loved 
with the zeal of a craftsman of old. This simple pro- 
vincial family composed a characteristic French group, 
the head of it grown grey in intelligent labor; his wife 
vigorous and orderly, keeping the books as well as the 
house; his daughter, comely as was her mother before 
the War, lately married to a young cultivator of the 
neighborhood, also present, who had completed his mil- 
itary service. This room full of contented people con- 
tained the materials that promote the prosperity and 
real glory of France — industry, thrift, family sentiment, 
artistic instinct, cultivation of the soil, cheerful per- 
formance of patriotic duty, and collaboration of women 

*Fbaiiok. By John Edward Coortenmy Bodley. In two 
volnmM. New York : The MsomiUan Co. 

in the plan of life, — all impregnated with an air of the 
old Latin civilisation, of tener manifest in humble spheres 
than in the class which ought longest to have preserved 
it. Wishing to learn something of the political tenden- 
cies of the district, I asked about the rumored retire- 
ment of the deputy; but my inquiry only elicited the 
phrase, often and often repeated to me since then, * Je 
ne m*occupe pa$ de politique^ Momiew* When the old 
man said this, there was no anger nor scorn in his tone, 
such as a reference to the Government of France called 
forth from th^ occupants of the neighboring chateau 
which I had left that morning. The members of this 
worthy family had no ill-will for the Republic, nor 
indeed for any regime which allowed them to pursue 
their callings tranquilly; but politics were not to them 
an occupation for steady and industrious people."* 

Mr. Bodley's book is the fruit of a seven 
years' sojourn in France, the whole of which 
period was spent in preparation. Though not 
free from occasional Gallicisms and perhaps 
hardly avoidable adaptations from current con- 
tinental political writing, the style is in general 
no less admirable than the matter. One gets, 
too, an impression of a certain studied elegance 
that recalls by contrast the almost colloquial 
plainness of Mr. Bryce, who with an abund- 
ance of political philosophy never affects the 
political philosopher. But Mr. Bodley's mean- 
ing is always clear. In fact, we think it would 
be difficult to name a half-dozen political studies 
of its class and importance that can be read 
through so easily and continuously, we may add 
so pleasurably, as this one. 

Mr. Bodley indulges pretty freely in politico- 
historical reflections (at times rather question- 
able ones, as it seems to us), and his opening 
volume is largely an inquiry into the relations 
of modem France with the Revolution. The 
lengthy Introduction is mainly devoted to a 
general consideration of this topic, after which 
the writer proceeds to appraise and define the 
Revolution, and to exhibit the fate in France 
to-day of the ground ideas and fundamental 
maxims which the apostles of that movement 
proclaimed amid such unbounded hope and 
enthusiasm. What, for instance, is the stand- 
ing under the Third Republic of the grandiose 
motto of the first one: ** Liberty, Equality, 
Fraternity"? Is the Frenchman under M. 
F^Iix Faure free — comparatively uninterf ered 
with by his government, and does he prize his 
freedom? Is he contentedly **as good as," 
and no better than, his neighbor ? Is he, in 
any considerable humanly attainable degree, 
his neighbor's brother ? To this triple inquiry 

* The idea meant to be oonTeyed by the abore 
tersely expressed in the Anembly, in 1875, by M. Lsbonlaye : 
" We present the spectacle of a tnmqoil people with agitated 




Mr. Bodley devotes three searching and rather 
ironical chapters, with the last of which Book I. 
doses. In Book II., which concludes the open- 
ing Tolnme, the author begins the more directly 
descriptive portion of his work, under the 
chapter-headings *«The Constitution," *^The 
Chief of the State." Volume II. is devoted to 
" The Parliamentary System," including " The 
Upper Chamber," ^^ The Chamber of Deputies 
and the Electoral System," «^ The Composition 
of the Chamber of Deputies," " Parliamentary 
Procedure and Practice," *^ Ministers, Minis- 
tries, and the Parliamentary System," ^' Cor- 
ruption under the Republic," and to ^^ Political 
Parties," including "The Group System," 
" The Royalists," " The Plebiscitary Element," 
«The Rallies," " The Left Centre," " The Op- 
portunists," " The Radicals," " The Socialist 
Group." Incidentally the author touches briefly 
upon a variety of topics germane to the main 
inquiry, such as political indifference, the de- 
cadence of parliament, corrupt practices, min- 
isterial instability. Republican morals, the 
army, the Panama scandals, and so on. 

Mr. Bodley's tone, we may say at once, is 
somewhat reactionary throughout, and indicates 
aiiything but an abiding faith in the endurance 
of the parliamentary system established by the 
Constitution of 1875. It is in the union of 
this later system with the older Napoleonic 
fabric of close-knit centralization that he sees 
the potent cause of the pessimism of French 
political writers. Infected himself, perhaps, by 
this pessimism, Mr. Bodley is of the discour- 
aging opinion that the only hope of an improved 
state of things for France lies in the prospect 
of the voice of the nation delegating its powers 
to an authoritative hand instead of to parlia- 
mentary government — a prospect which, one 
would think, the memory of Sedan must serve 
to render somewhat less seductive to the French 
imagination. The proneness of Frenchmen to 
the saving course indicated by Mr. Bodley is 
amply attested by history, and there is perhaps 
in the Celtic nature an inveterate yearning for 
a leader ; but we cannot but think that every 
additional year of the life of the Third Republic 
adds to its chances of permanency, and lessens 
the likelihood that the French, captivated anew 
by some strong or showy personality, or yield- 
mg again to the spell of a name, will once more 
vote away their hard-won privilege of having, 
when they choose to exercise it, the controlling 
Toice in the management of their own concerns. 
Indifference to politics, of which Mr. Bodley 
makes so much, is by no means (as we know in 

this country) necessarily a sign of indifference 
to liberty and latent preference for authorita- 
tive rule. It is the sense of freedom, the knowl- 
edge that one can have one's say when one 
chooses, that counts for most with most men ; 
and the outwardly apathetic citizen who does 
not take the trouble to cast his vote twice in a 
decade may nevertheless willingly face death in 
defence of his right to cast it, if that right be 
seriously threatened. Unless French humanity 
is radically different from humanity in general, 
each generation that grows up in France under 
the Republican rSgifne is on the whole less 
likely than its predecessor to relapse willingly 
into a sheep-like submission to an autocrat — 
even though he prove to be the bon tyran of 
Renan's optimistic dreams. The possibility of 
a despotism resting on a plebiscite grows re- 
moter, as the French character loses by degrees 
the impress of the mould of centuries of arbi- 
trary local and central rule. French republi- 
canism may perhaps again suffer a partial 
eclipse ; but it is our conviction that it will 
emerge from the shadow undimmed as before, 
and that the class represented by Mr. Bodley's 
indifferent wood-carver (whose incivisme might 
well have cost him his head in the fiery days of 
'98) will become in time as proof as its Amer- 
ican counterpart against the snares and seduc- 
tions of a Louis Napoleon or a Boulanger. 

With Mr. Bodley's view of the French Revo- 
lution we do not, in the main, find ourselves in 
sympathy. Accepting almost unqualifiedly 
Taine's view of that movement, he quotes with 
implied approval these strangely uncharacter- 
istic words of Renan : 

** If we tiirn away from the g^randiose fatality of the 
RevolutioD, all that is left is odious and horrible : a 
nameless orgie, a monstrous fray into which madmen, 
incapables, and miscreants rush, told by their instinct 
that their opportunity is come, and that victory is for 
the most repulsive of mankind. Every crime and every 
insanity seem to hare united to produce the success of 
the Days of Revolution.*' 

Those who condemn the Revolution are in 
general given to " turning away " in their ap- 
praisals of it from all but its bloody episodes 
and wild sectaries, much as writers hostile to 
the Reformation incline to '^ turn away " from 
Luther and fix their eyes firmly on John of 
Leyden and the Munster Anabaptists. It is to 
be regretted that Mr. Bodley has steeped his 
mind in Taine, to the exclusion of such modi- 
fying influences as the sane and judicial Mig- 
net, or, better still, the clear and literal narra- 
tive of the latest considerable historian of the 
French Revolution, Professor Morse Stephens. 

THE DIAIi [April 1, 




great moTement that lightened the burdens and 
confirmed the civic manhood of two-thirds of 
his countrymen. The French Bevolution was 
assuredly not made, as Danton said, *'with 
rosewater." Those who extol it most deplore 
its follies and excesses. But had the good it 
wrought been confined to its sweeping away of 
fiscal inequalities alone, it would not be with- 
out a fair title to the respect of posterity. 

To the faint-hearted believer in representa- 
tive democracy, Mr. Bodley's view of the pres- 
ent attitude of the French towards the terms 
of the republican device, '^ Liberty, Equality, 
and Fraternity," will prove somewhat discour- 
aging — almost as much so as Mr. Lecky's recent 
lugubrious reflections on the decline of parlia- 
mentarism in general. Whatever may be its 
faults, we do not see how anything but parlia- 
mentarism is possible now for that portion of 
the world that has grown up to it. It is hardly 
conceivable that any intelligent people that has 
for long exercised the adult privilege of vot- 
ing its own taxes, speaking its own mind, and 
generally controlling its own business, could, 
under normal conditions and in the absence of 
national decay, suddenly develop a ta